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Fellmann11e ch6
 

Fellmann11e ch6

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    Fellmann11e ch6 Fellmann11e ch6 Presentation Transcript

    • Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
    • Human Geography Chapter 6 Ethnic Geography: Threads of Diversity Insert figure CO6 © Jenny Matthews/Panos Pictures
    • Ethnic Geography
      • The study of the multiple movements, diffusion, migrations, and mixings of people of different origins
      • The study of spatial distributions and interactions of ethnic groups
      Human Geography 11e
      • Cultural characteristics of ethnic groups and the influences underlying them
      • How the built environment reflects the imprint of various ethnic groups
    • Ethnic Diversity and Separatism
      • Ethnicity
        • A derived from the Greek word ethnos, meaning a “people” or “nation”
        • The summary term of identification assigned to a large group of people recognized as sharing the traits of a distinctive common culture
      Human Geography 11e - Always based on a firm understanding by members of a group that they are in some fundamental ways different from others who do not share their cultural heritage
    • Ethnic Diversity and Separatism
      • Ethnocentrism
        • The feeling the one’s ethnic group is superior
        • Can divide multiethnic societies by establishing rivalries
      Human Geography 11e
      • Ethnic Cleansing
        • Efforts to make ethnically homogeneous geographic regions through the forcible displacement of individuals belonging to particular ethnic groups.
    • Ethnic Diversity
      • Race
        • Humans are all one species and biologists have rejected race as a meaningful way to describe human variation
        • Persists as an idea and basis for group identity and differentiation
      Human Geography 11e
      • Racism
        • Prejudice and discrimination based on racial categories
        • Is very much alive
    • Immigration Streams
      • United States’ Immigrant Waves:
        • Followed much earlier Amerindian arrivals
        • First wave – lasting from pioneer settlement to about 1870; made up of two different groups:
          • Western and Northern Europeans
          • Africans brought involuntarily to America
      Human Geography 11e
    • Immigration Streams
        • Second wave – from 1870 to 1914, was heavily weighted in favor of eastern and southern Europeans
        • Third wave – from 1960s until present; the product of more liberal immigrant regulations; acceptance of newcomers from Latin America, Asia, and Africa
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 6.3 © Comstock Images RF
    • Acculturation and Assimilation
      • Amalgamation Theory
        • The traditional “melting pot” concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream
        • Has more recently been rejected by many as unrealistic in light of current widespread social and cultural tensions
      • Acculturation
        • Adoption by the immigrants of the values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and speech of the receiving society
      Human Geography 11e
    • Assimilation
      • Assimilation
        • When integration is complete
        • Behavioral (or cultural) assimilation implies integration into a common cultural life through shared experience, language, intermarriage, and sense of history
      Human Geography 11e
        • Structural assimilation refers to the fusion of immigrant ethnics with the groups, social systems, and occupations of the host society
          • Adoption of common attitudes and values of the host society
    • Areal Expressions of Ethnicity
      • Charter Cultures
      • Ethnic Clusters
      • Black Dispersions
      • Hispanic Concentrations
      • Asian Contrasts
      • Immigrant Gateways and Clusters
      • French Uniformity
      Human Geography 11e
    • Areal Expressions of Ethnicity
      • Ethnic islands are dispersed areas of ethnic concentration in the countryside
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 6.8
    • Areal Expressions of Ethnicity
      • Cluster migration:
        • Groups of immigrants acting in concert
        • Placed enduring marks in the landscape
      • Chain migration:
        • Assemblage in one area of the relatives, friends, and compatriots of the first arrivals
      Human Geography 11e
      • Ethnic Provinces
              • Larger than the distinctive ethnic islands
        • The African American Southeast
        • Native American Oklahoma and the Northern Great Plains
        • Extensive regional units
    • Urban Ethnic Diversity and Segregation
      • External Controls
      • Internal Controls
      • Shifting Ethnic Concentrations
      • Typologies and Spatial Results
      • Native-Born Dispersals
      Human Geography 11e
    • Urban Ethnic Diversity and Segregation
      • Ghetto
        • When the ethnic cluster is perpetuated by external constraints and discriminatory actions
        • An involuntary community
      • Ethnic Enclave
        • A voluntary neighborhood
        • Occupants choose to preserve the ethnic cluster
        • Internal cohesiveness of the group
        • Desire to maintain an enduring ethnic neighborhood
      Human Geography 11e
    • Cultural Transfer
      • Interacting Influences
      • Culture Rebound
      Human Geography 11e
    • The Ethnic Landscape
      • Land Survey
      • Settlement Patterns
      • Ethnic Regionalism
      Human Geography 11e