Fellmann11e ch3
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Fellmann11e ch3 Fellmann11e ch3 Presentation Transcript

  • Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • Human Geography Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior Insert figure 3.1 Photo by Mark Bjelland
  • Bases for Interaction
    • A Summarizing Model
      • Complementarity
      • Transferability
      • Intervening Opportunity
    Human Geography 11e
  • Bases for Interaction
    • A Summarizing Model
      • Complementarity
        • For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure
        • Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 3.3
  • Bases for Interaction
    • A Summarizing Model
      • Transferability
        • Acceptable costs of an exchange
        • An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions:
          • The characteristics of the product
          • The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved
          • The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement
          • If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur.
    Human Geography 11e
  • Bases for Interaction
    • A Summarizing Model
      • Intervening Opportunity
        • Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper
        • Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas
        • For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available
    Human Geography 11e
  • Bases for Interaction (cont.)
    • Measuring Interaction
      • Distance Decay
      • The Gravity Concept
      • Interaction Potential
      • Movement Biases
    Human Geography 11e
  • Bases for Interaction (cont.)
    • Measuring Interaction
      • Friction of Distance
        • Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges
      • Distance Decay
        • The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin
    Human Geography 11e
  • Bases for Interaction (cont.)
    • Measuring Interaction
      • The Gravity Concept
        • The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans
        • A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet
      • Movement Bias
        • Predictable flows making some centers more attractive to merchants and customers
    Human Geography 11e
  • Human Spatial Behavior
    • Mobility vs. Migration
    • Individual Activity Space
      • Territoriality
    • The Tyranny of Time
      • Space-Time Prism
    • Distance and Human Interaction
      • Critical Distance
    • Spatial Interaction and the Accumulation of Information
      • Information Flows
    • Information and Perception
      • Perception of Environment
      • Perception of Natural Hazards
    Human Geography 11e
  • Migration
    • Principal Migration Patterns
      • Intercontinental
        • A reflection of massive intercontinental flows
      • Intracontinental
        • Movements between countries
      • Interregional
        • Movements within countries
      • Rural-to-Urban
    Human Geography 11e
  • Migration
    • Principal Migration Patterns
      • Rural-to-Urban
        • Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution
        • Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside
    Human Geography 11e
  • Types of Migration
    • Forced
      • The relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves
        • Slaves were forcibly transferred to the Americas
        • Convicts transported to other continents
        • Communist relocations (USSR)
        • Immigrants expelled (Uganda)
        • Forced repatriation of foreign nationals
    • Reluctant
      • Less than fully voluntary
        • Aggressive governmental relocation campaigns (Indonesia)
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 3.25
  • Types of Migration
    • Voluntary
      • The great majority of migratory movements are voluntary
      • Migrants believe that their opportunities and life circumstances will be better at their destination than they are at their present location.
    • Involuntary
    Human Geography 11e
  • Controls on Migration
    • Push & Pull Factors
    • Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate
      • They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences
    • Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination
      • All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location: safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth
    Human Geography 11e
  • Controls on Migration
    • Place Utility
      • The measure of an individual’s satisfaction with a given residential location
    • Step Migration
      • Place transition
      • Rural to central city
      • A series of less extreme locational changes
      • From farm to small town to suburb, and finally to the major central city itself
    • Chain Migration
      • The mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination
      • An advance group of migrants is followed by second and subsequent migrations originating in the same home district and frequently united by kinship or friendship ties
    • Counter Migration
      • Not all immigrants stay permanently at their first destination
      • Return migration
    Human Geography 11e
  • Controls on Migration
    • Channelized Migration
      • Areas that are in some way tied to one another by past migrations, by economic trade considerations, or some other affinity
    • Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
      • Most migrants go only a short distance
      • Longer-distance migration favors big cities
      • Most migration proceeds step-by-step
      • Most migration is rural to urban
      • Most migrants are adults and males
    Human Geography 11e
      • Insert figure 3.29
    Human Geography 11e
  • Globalization
    • Economic Patterns
    • Political Patterns
    • Cultural Patterns
    Human Geography 11e