Fellmann11e ch3


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Fellmann11e ch3

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior Insert figure 3.1 Photo by Mark Bjelland
  3. 3. Bases for Interaction <ul><li>A Summarizing Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervening Opportunity </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  4. 4. Bases for Interaction <ul><li>A Summarizing Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 3.3
  5. 5. Bases for Interaction <ul><li>A Summarizing Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable costs of an exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the product </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Bases for Interaction <ul><li>A Summarizing Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervening Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  7. 7. Bases for Interaction (cont.) <ul><li>Measuring Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gravity Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement Biases </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. Bases for Interaction (cont.) <ul><li>Measuring Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction of Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Bases for Interaction (cont.) <ul><li>Measuring Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gravity Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable flows making some centers more attractive to merchants and customers </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Human Spatial Behavior <ul><li>Mobility vs. Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Activity Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Tyranny of Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space-Time Prism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance and Human Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial Interaction and the Accumulation of Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Flows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information and Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of Natural Hazards </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Migration <ul><li>Principal Migration Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercontinental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reflection of massive intercontinental flows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracontinental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movements between countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interregional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movements within countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-to-Urban </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. Migration <ul><li>Principal Migration Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-to-Urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Types of Migration <ul><li>Forced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves were forcibly transferred to the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convicts transported to other continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communist relocations (USSR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants expelled (Uganda) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced repatriation of foreign nationals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reluctant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than fully voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive governmental relocation campaigns (Indonesia) </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 3.25
  14. 14. Types of Migration <ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The great majority of migratory movements are voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrants believe that their opportunities and life circumstances will be better at their destination than they are at their present location. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  15. 15. Controls on Migration <ul><li>Push & Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location: safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. Controls on Migration <ul><li>Place Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The measure of an individual’s satisfaction with a given residential location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural to central city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of less extreme locational changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From farm to small town to suburb, and finally to the major central city itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chain Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An advance group of migrants is followed by second and subsequent migrations originating in the same home district and frequently united by kinship or friendship ties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counter Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all immigrants stay permanently at their first destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return migration </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  17. 17. Controls on Migration <ul><li>Channelized Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas that are in some way tied to one another by past migrations, by economic trade considerations, or some other affinity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most migrants go only a short distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer-distance migration favors big cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most migration proceeds step-by-step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most migration is rural to urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most migrants are adults and males </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Insert figure 3.29 </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  19. 19. Globalization <ul><li>Economic Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Political Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Patterns </li></ul>Human Geography 11e