Fellmann11e ch2
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Fellmann11e ch2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • 2. Human Geography Chapter2 Roots & Meaning of Culture Insert figure 2.19b Photo credit: © Getty RF
  • 3. Components of Culture
    • Culture Traits
    • Culture Complex
    • Culture System
    • Culture Region
    • Culture Realm
    • Globalization
    Human Geography 11e Photo credit: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Barry Barker, photographer
  • 4. Components of Culture
    • Culture Traits
      • Units of learned behavior
      • Tools
      • Languages
      • Objects
      • Techniques or beliefs
      • Elementary expressions of culture
    • Culture Complex
      • Traits that are functionally interrelated
      • The assemblage of traits
    Human Geography 11e
  • 5. Components of Culture
    • Traits and complexes have areal extent and they can be plotted on maps
    • Culture System
      • A broader generalization than a cultural complex
      • Refers to the collection of interacting cultural traits and cultural complexes that are shared by a group within a particular territory
    Human Geography 11e
  • 6. Components of Culture
    • Culture Region
      • A portion of the earth’s surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
    • Culture Realm
      • A set of culture regions grouped whenever they show related cultural complexes and landscapes
    • Globalization
      • Homogenization of cultures as economies are integrated and uniform consumer demands are satisfied by standardized commodities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 7. People and Environment
    • Environments as Controls
      • Environmental Determinism
        • The belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts
      • Possibilism
        • A reaction against environmental determinism; people are dynamic forces of development (the environment is not as dynamic like human beings)
    • Human Impacts
      • Cultural Landscape
    Human Geography 11e
  • 8. Roots of Culture
    • Hunter-Gatherers
      • Pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure
      • Rudimentary stone tools and weapons
      • Hunters and gatherers required considerable territory to support a relatively small number of individuals
    Human Geography 11e
  • 9. Seeds of Change
    • Cultural Divergence
    • Carrying Capacity
    Human Geography 11e
  • 10. Agricultural Origins and Spread
    • Domestication of Animals and Plants
      • Farming
      • Plant Domestication
        • Food crops cultivated
        • Raising crops
      • Animal Domestication
        • The successful breeding of species that are dependent on human beings
    Human Geography 11e
  • 11. Neolithic Innovations
    • “New Stone” Age
    Human Geography 11e
  • 12. Culture Hearth
    • The place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape.
    Human Geography 11e
  • 13.
    • Multilinear Evolution
      • The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
      • Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas
      • Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques
        • Significant time and space differences
    Human Geography 11e
  • 14.
    • Diffusionism
      • Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites
    • Cultural Convergence
      • Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization
      • Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems
    Human Geography 11e
  • 15. The Structure of Culture
    • Ideological Subsystem
      • Mentifacts
    • Technological Subsystem
      • Artifacts
    • Sociological Subsystem
      • Sociofacts
    • Cultural Integration
    Human Geography 11e
  • 16. Culture Change
    • Innovation
      • Cultural Lag
        • Resistance to change
    • Diffusion
      • The process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space
    Human Geography 11e
  • 17.
      • Expansion Diffusion
        • Contagious diffusion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from the source region
        • Hierarchical Diffusion involves processes of transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people, and later to smaller or less important points or people
        • During stimulus diffusion, a fundamental idea, not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior
          • Spread of the concept but not the specific system
    Human Geography 11e
  • 18. Culture Change
      • Relocation Diffusion
        • The idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals
      • Acculturation
        • A culture is modified
        • Adoption of traits of another dominant group
        • Immigrant populations take on the values, attitudes, customs, and speech of the receiving society, which itself undergoes change from absorption of the arriving group.
    Human Geography 11e
  • 19. Contact between Regions
    • Diffusion Barriers
      • Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation
    • Syncretism
      • The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change
    Human Geography 11e