Fellmann11e ch2
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    Fellmann11e ch2 Fellmann11e ch2 Presentation Transcript

    • Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
    • Human Geography Chapter2 Roots & Meaning of Culture Insert figure 2.19b Photo credit: © Getty RF
    • Components of Culture
      • Culture Traits
      • Culture Complex
      • Culture System
      • Culture Region
      • Culture Realm
      • Globalization
      Human Geography 11e Photo credit: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Barry Barker, photographer
    • Components of Culture
      • Culture Traits
        • Units of learned behavior
        • Tools
        • Languages
        • Objects
        • Techniques or beliefs
        • Elementary expressions of culture
      • Culture Complex
        • Traits that are functionally interrelated
        • The assemblage of traits
      Human Geography 11e
    • Components of Culture
      • Traits and complexes have areal extent and they can be plotted on maps
      • Culture System
        • A broader generalization than a cultural complex
        • Refers to the collection of interacting cultural traits and cultural complexes that are shared by a group within a particular territory
      Human Geography 11e
    • Components of Culture
      • Culture Region
        • A portion of the earth’s surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
      • Culture Realm
        • A set of culture regions grouped whenever they show related cultural complexes and landscapes
      • Globalization
        • Homogenization of cultures as economies are integrated and uniform consumer demands are satisfied by standardized commodities
      Human Geography 11e
    • People and Environment
      • Environments as Controls
        • Environmental Determinism
          • The belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts
        • Possibilism
          • A reaction against environmental determinism; people are dynamic forces of development (the environment is not as dynamic like human beings)
      • Human Impacts
        • Cultural Landscape
      Human Geography 11e
    • Roots of Culture
      • Hunter-Gatherers
        • Pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure
        • Rudimentary stone tools and weapons
        • Hunters and gatherers required considerable territory to support a relatively small number of individuals
      Human Geography 11e
    • Seeds of Change
      • Cultural Divergence
      • Carrying Capacity
      Human Geography 11e
    • Agricultural Origins and Spread
      • Domestication of Animals and Plants
        • Farming
        • Plant Domestication
          • Food crops cultivated
          • Raising crops
        • Animal Domestication
          • The successful breeding of species that are dependent on human beings
      Human Geography 11e
    • Neolithic Innovations
      • “New Stone” Age
      Human Geography 11e
    • Culture Hearth
      • The place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape.
      Human Geography 11e
      • Multilinear Evolution
        • The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
        • Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas
        • Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques
          • Significant time and space differences
      Human Geography 11e
      • Diffusionism
        • Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites
      • Cultural Convergence
        • Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization
        • Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems
      Human Geography 11e
    • The Structure of Culture
      • Ideological Subsystem
        • Mentifacts
      • Technological Subsystem
        • Artifacts
      • Sociological Subsystem
        • Sociofacts
      • Cultural Integration
      Human Geography 11e
    • Culture Change
      • Innovation
        • Cultural Lag
          • Resistance to change
      • Diffusion
        • The process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space
      Human Geography 11e
        • Expansion Diffusion
          • Contagious diffusion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from the source region
          • Hierarchical Diffusion involves processes of transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people, and later to smaller or less important points or people
          • During stimulus diffusion, a fundamental idea, not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior
            • Spread of the concept but not the specific system
      Human Geography 11e
    • Culture Change
        • Relocation Diffusion
          • The idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals
        • Acculturation
          • A culture is modified
          • Adoption of traits of another dominant group
          • Immigrant populations take on the values, attitudes, customs, and speech of the receiving society, which itself undergoes change from absorption of the arriving group.
      Human Geography 11e
    • Contact between Regions
      • Diffusion Barriers
        • Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation
      • Syncretism
        • The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change
      Human Geography 11e