Fellmann11e ch13
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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • 2. Human Geography Chapter 13 Human Impacts on Natural Systems Insert figure 13.6a Photo by Mark Bjelland
  • 3. Physical Environments and Cultural Impacts
    • Environment
    • Biosphere
      • The thin film of air, water, and earth within which we live, including the atmosphere, surrounding waters, and the upper reaches of the earth’s crust
    Human Geography 11e
  • 4. Climates, Biomes, and Change
    • Biomes
      • A major ecological community, including plants and animals, occupying an extensive earth area
    • Climate Change
      • Change in the earth’s climate system, whether natural or caused by humans
    • Global Warming
    Human Geography 11e
  • 5. Climates, Biomes, and Change
    • Humans have significantly altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere since the advent of the Industrial Revolution around the year 1750
    • The Greenhouse Effect is the result of specific gases partially capturing the long-wave heat energy radiated the earth
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 13.5
  • 6. Climates, Biomes, and Change
    • Acid Rain
      • Pollutants that are created by burning fossil fuels and that change chemically as they are transported through the atmosphere and fall back to earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust
        • Pollutants are chiefly oxides of sulfur and nitrogen
        • The sources of pollution are vehicles, industry, power plants and ore smelting facilities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 7. Climates, Biomes, and Change
    • The Trouble with Ozone
      • Ozone blocks the cancer-causing ultraviolet (UV) light that damages the molecule of heredity and cell control
        • However, the Ozone shield now appears in danger of destruction by chemicals released into the air by humans
    Human Geography 11e
  • 8. Land Use and Land Cover
    • Tropical Deforestation
    • Desertification
    • Soil Erosion
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 13.14 © David Rose/Panos Pictures
  • 9. Land Use and Land Cover
    • Tropical Deforestation
      • The tropical rain forest biome is feeling the pressures of
        • Growing population numbers
        • The need for more agricultural land
        • Expanded demand for fuel and commercial wood
        • Forest destruction for the expansion of grazing land
      • When tropical rainforest is cleared, vegetation will be less effective releasing oxygen in the atmosphere
      • Forest destruction changes surface and air temperatures, moisture content, and reflectivity
    Human Geography 11e
  • 10. Land Use and Land Cover
    • Desertification
      • The spread of desert-like landscapes into arid and semiarid environments
      • Accelerates because of human activity, mainly overgrazing, deforestation for fuel wood, clearing of original vegetation for cultivation, and burning
    • Soil Erosion
      • Accelerated soil erosion quickly removes tropical forest soils from deforested areas
    Human Geography 11e
  • 11. Water Supply & Water Quality
    • Patterns of Availability, and Water Use and Abuse
      • The problem is not with the global amount of water but with its distribution and the variability of precipitation from year to year
      • Regional water sufficiency is also a function of the size of the population using the water and the demands it places on the resource
    Human Geography 11e
  • 12. Garbage Heaps and Toxic Wastes
    • Solid Wastes and Rubbish
      • Landfill Disposal
      • Incineration
      • Ocean Dumping
    • Toxic Wastes
      • Radioactive Wastes
    • Exporting Waste
    Human Geography 11e
  • 13. Prospects and Perspectives
    • Link to Culture and Human Geographic Patterns
    • Diverse Systems of Exploitation of the Environment
    Human Geography 11e