Fellmann11e ch12

1,718 views
1,467 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,718
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
419
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fellmann11e ch12

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 12 The Political Ordering of Space Insert figure 12.2 © Corbis RF
  3. 3. Political Geography <ul><li>The study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena, including their impact on other spatial components of society and culture </li></ul><ul><li>State and nation are not synonymous </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent political entity holding sovereignty over a territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of people with a common culture and territory </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  4. 4. National Political Systems <ul><li>Nation-States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A state whose territorial extent coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stateless Nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People without a state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Evolution of the Modern State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by European political philosophers in the 18 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept that people owe alliance to a state </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Geographic Characteristics of States <ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can affect the well-being of a state by fostering or hindering effective organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The least efficient shape administratively is represented by the elongated state; part of the country far from the capital are likely to be isolated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation make it harder for the state to impose centralized control over its territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cores and Capitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The core is the original nucleus of a state and is the most developed area </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Boundaries <ul><li>Boundaries: The Limits of the State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of Boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural boundaries are those based on recognizable physiographic feature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric boundaries are frequently delimited as segments of parallels of latitude or meridians of longitude </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 12.13a © PhotoLink/Getty RF
  7. 7. Boundaries Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Boundaries: The Limits of the State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn after the development of the cultural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superimposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced on existing cultural landscapes; can be the product of conquest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relict Boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A former boundary that no longer functions </li></ul></ul></ul>Insert figure 12.13b © Corbis RF
  8. 8. Centripetal Forces: Promoting State Cohesion <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Unifying Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Organization and Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation and Communication </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority <ul><li>Organized Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Autonomous Movements </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 12.20a
  10. 10. The Projection of Power <ul><li>Geopolitical Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mackinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heartland Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1904 Mackinder published an article titled “The Geographical Pivot of History” in the Geographical Journal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He concluded that a land-based power in the heart of Eurasia, not a sea power, has better chances of ruling the world </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. The Projection of Power <ul><li>Geopolitical Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Mahan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas Spykman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rimland Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domino Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. International Political Systems <ul><li>Supranationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations among states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The United Nations and Its Agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An International Law of the Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military and political alliances </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Local and Regional Political Organization <ul><li>The Geography of Representation: The Districting Problem </li></ul><ul><li>The Fragmentation of Political Power </li></ul>Human Geography 11e

×