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Fellmann11e ch11
 

Fellmann11e ch11

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    Fellmann11e ch11 Fellmann11e ch11 Presentation Transcript

    • Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
    • Human Geography Chapter 11 Urban Systems & Urban Structures Hong Kong Photo Copyright 2003 by Jon C Malinowski Insert figure CO11 © PhotoLink/Getty RF
    • An Urbanizing World
      • Megacities
        • Conurbation
          • When metropolitan complexes eventually meet and bind together at their outer margins
          • Extensive metropolitan regions
      Human Geography 11e
      • Merging Metropolises
        • Megalopolis
          • Regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers that have come together at their edges
          • A nearly continuous urban string that stretches from Boston to southern Virginia
    • Settlement Roots
      • Brief Histories
        • People are gregarious and cooperative
        • Sense of community for protection and cooperative effort
      • Rural Settlements
        • Communal dwelling became the near-universal rule with the advent of sedentary agriculture
      Human Geography 11e
    • Origins and Evolution of Cities
      • The Nature of Cities
        • Cities are among the oldest marks of civilization
        • The words “city” and “civilization” have the same Latin root, civis
        • Cities originated in – or diffused from – the culture hearths that first developed sedentary agriculture
        • Hinterlands are the productive areas surrounding a population center
        • Those individuals who were not involved in farming were free to specialize in other activities – metal working, pottery making, cloth weaving, perhaps – producing goods for other urbanites
      Human Geography 11e
    • The Nature of Cities
        • All cities perform functions
        • Cities generate income necessary to support themselves
        • Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.9 © Pixtal/age fotostock RF
    • Origins and Evolution of Cities
      • The Location of Urban Settlements
        • Site Characteristics: Break-of-Bulk, Head-of-Navigation, Railhead, Defensive Elements
        • Situational Characteristics: Raw Materials, Markets, Agriculture
      Human Geography 11e
    • The Location of Urban Settlements
        • In order to adequately perform the tasks that support it, the cities must be efficiently located:
          • Centrality
          • Physical characteristics of the site - water transportation was an important localizing factor when the major American cities were established
          • Before the advent of railroads in the middle of the 19th century, all major American cities were associated with waterways
      Human Geography 11e
    • Origins and Evolution
      • The Economic Base
        • Basic Sector
          • Export activities
          • Money flowing into the community is the result
        • Non Basic Sector
          • Producing goods for residents of the urban unit itself
          • Do not generate new money
          • Responsible for the internal functioning of the urban unit
      Human Geography 11e
    • Origins and Evolution, (cont.)
      • The Economic Base
        • Base Ratios
        • Multiplier Effects
          • As a settlement increases in size, the number of non-basic personnel grows faster than the number of new basic workers
      • Functional Classification
        • Transportation Centers
        • Special-function Cities
      Human Geography 11e
    • Central Places
        • Walter Christaller
          • Develop a framework for understanding urban interdependence
          • Developed his theory in rather idealized circumstances:
          • A plain
          • Farm population would be dispersed in an even pattern
          • People would be uniform; that is, they would possess similar tastes, demands, and incomes
      Human Geography 11e
    • Central Places
        • Walter Christaller
          • Results
            • A series of hexagonal market areas that cover the entire plain will emerge
            • There will be a central place at the center of each of the hexagonal market areas.
            • The largest central places will supply all of the goods and services the consumers in that area demand and can afford
            • The size of the market area of a central place will be proportional to the number of goods and services offered from that central place
      Human Geography 11e
    • Systems of Cities
      • Urban Hierarchy
      • World Cities
        • Urban centers that are control points for international production and marketing, and for international finance
      • Rank-Size and Primacy
      • Urban Influence Zones
      • Network Cities
      Human Geography 11e
    • Inside the City
      • Defining the City Today
        • Suburb
        • Central City
        • Urbanized Area
        • Metropolitan Area
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.19 Photo by Mark Bjelland
    • Inside the City
      • Patterns of Urban Land Use
        • The Central Business District
          • A single point at which the maximum possible interchange could be achieved
        • Outside the Central Business District
      • Models of Urban Form
        • Concentric Zone
        • Sector Model
        • Multiple-Nuclei Model
        • Peripheral Models
      Human Geography 11e
    • Social Areas of Cities
      • Social Status
      • Family Status
      • Ethnicity
      • Institutional Controls
      Human Geography 11e
    • Changes in Urban Form
      • Suburbanization
        • Metropolitan Growth
        • Ethnoburbs
        • Edge Cities
        • Exurbs and Sprawl
      • Decline of the Central City
        • Population Shift
        • Abandonment by Commerce and Industry
        • Different Experience in Western U.S.
      • Central City Renewal and Gentrification
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.32 Photo by Lynn Betts, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
    • World Urban Diversity
      • Western Europe
      • Eastern Europe
      • Rapidly Growing Non-Western Cities
        • Colonial and Non-Colonial Antecedents
        • Urban Primacy and Rapid Growth
        • Squatter Settlements
        • Planned Cities
      Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.34 © Digital Vision/PunchStock RF