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Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
Fellmann11e ch11
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Fellmann11e ch11


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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • 2. Human Geography Chapter 11 Urban Systems & Urban Structures Hong Kong Photo Copyright 2003 by Jon C Malinowski Insert figure CO11 © PhotoLink/Getty RF
  • 3. An Urbanizing World
    • Megacities
      • Conurbation
        • When metropolitan complexes eventually meet and bind together at their outer margins
        • Extensive metropolitan regions
    Human Geography 11e
    • Merging Metropolises
      • Megalopolis
        • Regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers that have come together at their edges
        • A nearly continuous urban string that stretches from Boston to southern Virginia
  • 4. Settlement Roots
    • Brief Histories
      • People are gregarious and cooperative
      • Sense of community for protection and cooperative effort
    • Rural Settlements
      • Communal dwelling became the near-universal rule with the advent of sedentary agriculture
    Human Geography 11e
  • 5. Origins and Evolution of Cities
    • The Nature of Cities
      • Cities are among the oldest marks of civilization
      • The words “city” and “civilization” have the same Latin root, civis
      • Cities originated in – or diffused from – the culture hearths that first developed sedentary agriculture
      • Hinterlands are the productive areas surrounding a population center
      • Those individuals who were not involved in farming were free to specialize in other activities – metal working, pottery making, cloth weaving, perhaps – producing goods for other urbanites
    Human Geography 11e
  • 6. The Nature of Cities
      • All cities perform functions
      • Cities generate income necessary to support themselves
      • Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.9 © Pixtal/age fotostock RF
  • 7. Origins and Evolution of Cities
    • The Location of Urban Settlements
      • Site Characteristics: Break-of-Bulk, Head-of-Navigation, Railhead, Defensive Elements
      • Situational Characteristics: Raw Materials, Markets, Agriculture
    Human Geography 11e
  • 8. The Location of Urban Settlements
      • In order to adequately perform the tasks that support it, the cities must be efficiently located:
        • Centrality
        • Physical characteristics of the site - water transportation was an important localizing factor when the major American cities were established
        • Before the advent of railroads in the middle of the 19th century, all major American cities were associated with waterways
    Human Geography 11e
  • 9. Origins and Evolution
    • The Economic Base
      • Basic Sector
        • Export activities
        • Money flowing into the community is the result
      • Non Basic Sector
        • Producing goods for residents of the urban unit itself
        • Do not generate new money
        • Responsible for the internal functioning of the urban unit
    Human Geography 11e
  • 10. Origins and Evolution, (cont.)
    • The Economic Base
      • Base Ratios
      • Multiplier Effects
        • As a settlement increases in size, the number of non-basic personnel grows faster than the number of new basic workers
    • Functional Classification
      • Transportation Centers
      • Special-function Cities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 11. Central Places
      • Walter Christaller
        • Develop a framework for understanding urban interdependence
        • Developed his theory in rather idealized circumstances:
        • A plain
        • Farm population would be dispersed in an even pattern
        • People would be uniform; that is, they would possess similar tastes, demands, and incomes
    Human Geography 11e
  • 12. Central Places
      • Walter Christaller
        • Results
          • A series of hexagonal market areas that cover the entire plain will emerge
          • There will be a central place at the center of each of the hexagonal market areas.
          • The largest central places will supply all of the goods and services the consumers in that area demand and can afford
          • The size of the market area of a central place will be proportional to the number of goods and services offered from that central place
    Human Geography 11e
  • 13. Systems of Cities
    • Urban Hierarchy
    • World Cities
      • Urban centers that are control points for international production and marketing, and for international finance
    • Rank-Size and Primacy
    • Urban Influence Zones
    • Network Cities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 14. Inside the City
    • Defining the City Today
      • Suburb
      • Central City
      • Urbanized Area
      • Metropolitan Area
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.19 Photo by Mark Bjelland
  • 15. Inside the City
    • Patterns of Urban Land Use
      • The Central Business District
        • A single point at which the maximum possible interchange could be achieved
      • Outside the Central Business District
    • Models of Urban Form
      • Concentric Zone
      • Sector Model
      • Multiple-Nuclei Model
      • Peripheral Models
    Human Geography 11e
  • 16. Social Areas of Cities
    • Social Status
    • Family Status
    • Ethnicity
    • Institutional Controls
    Human Geography 11e
  • 17. Changes in Urban Form
    • Suburbanization
      • Metropolitan Growth
      • Ethnoburbs
      • Edge Cities
      • Exurbs and Sprawl
    • Decline of the Central City
      • Population Shift
      • Abandonment by Commerce and Industry
      • Different Experience in Western U.S.
    • Central City Renewal and Gentrification
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.32 Photo by Lynn Betts, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • 18. World Urban Diversity
    • Western Europe
    • Eastern Europe
    • Rapidly Growing Non-Western Cities
      • Colonial and Non-Colonial Antecedents
      • Urban Primacy and Rapid Growth
      • Squatter Settlements
      • Planned Cities
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.34 © Digital Vision/PunchStock RF