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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • 2. Human Geography Chapter 11 Urban Systems & Urban Structures Hong Kong Photo Copyright 2003 by Jon C Malinowski Insert figure CO11 © PhotoLink/Getty RF
  • 3. An Urbanizing World
    • Megacities
      • Conurbation
        • When metropolitan complexes eventually meet and bind together at their outer margins
        • Extensive metropolitan regions
    Human Geography 11e
    • Merging Metropolises
      • Megalopolis
        • Regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers that have come together at their edges
        • A nearly continuous urban string that stretches from Boston to southern Virginia
  • 4. Settlement Roots
    • Brief Histories
      • People are gregarious and cooperative
      • Sense of community for protection and cooperative effort
    • Rural Settlements
      • Communal dwelling became the near-universal rule with the advent of sedentary agriculture
    Human Geography 11e
  • 5. Origins and Evolution of Cities
    • The Nature of Cities
      • Cities are among the oldest marks of civilization
      • The words “city” and “civilization” have the same Latin root, civis
      • Cities originated in – or diffused from – the culture hearths that first developed sedentary agriculture
      • Hinterlands are the productive areas surrounding a population center
      • Those individuals who were not involved in farming were free to specialize in other activities – metal working, pottery making, cloth weaving, perhaps – producing goods for other urbanites
    Human Geography 11e
  • 6. The Nature of Cities
      • All cities perform functions
      • Cities generate income necessary to support themselves
      • Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.9 © Pixtal/age fotostock RF
  • 7. Origins and Evolution of Cities
    • The Location of Urban Settlements
      • Site Characteristics: Break-of-Bulk, Head-of-Navigation, Railhead, Defensive Elements
      • Situational Characteristics: Raw Materials, Markets, Agriculture
    Human Geography 11e
  • 8. The Location of Urban Settlements
      • In order to adequately perform the tasks that support it, the cities must be efficiently located:
        • Centrality
        • Physical characteristics of the site - water transportation was an important localizing factor when the major American cities were established
        • Before the advent of railroads in the middle of the 19th century, all major American cities were associated with waterways
    Human Geography 11e
  • 9. Origins and Evolution
    • The Economic Base
      • Basic Sector
        • Export activities
        • Money flowing into the community is the result
      • Non Basic Sector
        • Producing goods for residents of the urban unit itself
        • Do not generate new money
        • Responsible for the internal functioning of the urban unit
    Human Geography 11e
  • 10. Origins and Evolution, (cont.)
    • The Economic Base
      • Base Ratios
      • Multiplier Effects
        • As a settlement increases in size, the number of non-basic personnel grows faster than the number of new basic workers
    • Functional Classification
      • Transportation Centers
      • Special-function Cities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 11. Central Places
      • Walter Christaller
        • Develop a framework for understanding urban interdependence
        • Developed his theory in rather idealized circumstances:
        • A plain
        • Farm population would be dispersed in an even pattern
        • People would be uniform; that is, they would possess similar tastes, demands, and incomes
    Human Geography 11e
  • 12. Central Places
      • Walter Christaller
        • Results
          • A series of hexagonal market areas that cover the entire plain will emerge
          • There will be a central place at the center of each of the hexagonal market areas.
          • The largest central places will supply all of the goods and services the consumers in that area demand and can afford
          • The size of the market area of a central place will be proportional to the number of goods and services offered from that central place
    Human Geography 11e
  • 13. Systems of Cities
    • Urban Hierarchy
    • World Cities
      • Urban centers that are control points for international production and marketing, and for international finance
    • Rank-Size and Primacy
    • Urban Influence Zones
    • Network Cities
    Human Geography 11e
  • 14. Inside the City
    • Defining the City Today
      • Suburb
      • Central City
      • Urbanized Area
      • Metropolitan Area
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.19 Photo by Mark Bjelland
  • 15. Inside the City
    • Patterns of Urban Land Use
      • The Central Business District
        • A single point at which the maximum possible interchange could be achieved
      • Outside the Central Business District
    • Models of Urban Form
      • Concentric Zone
      • Sector Model
      • Multiple-Nuclei Model
      • Peripheral Models
    Human Geography 11e
  • 16. Social Areas of Cities
    • Social Status
    • Family Status
    • Ethnicity
    • Institutional Controls
    Human Geography 11e
  • 17. Changes in Urban Form
    • Suburbanization
      • Metropolitan Growth
      • Ethnoburbs
      • Edge Cities
      • Exurbs and Sprawl
    • Decline of the Central City
      • Population Shift
      • Abandonment by Commerce and Industry
      • Different Experience in Western U.S.
    • Central City Renewal and Gentrification
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.32 Photo by Lynn Betts, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • 18. World Urban Diversity
    • Western Europe
    • Eastern Europe
    • Rapidly Growing Non-Western Cities
      • Colonial and Non-Colonial Antecedents
      • Urban Primacy and Rapid Growth
      • Squatter Settlements
      • Planned Cities
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.34 © Digital Vision/PunchStock RF