Fellmann11e ch10

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Fellmann11e ch10

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 10 Patterns of Development and Change
  3. 3. Development as a Cultural Variable <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought into full productive use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth, modernization, and improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intra-state Distinctions in Development </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-state Distinctions in Development </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  4. 4. Dividing the Continuum: Definitions of Development <ul><li>The Idea of Development and Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>What Counts as “Advanced”? </li></ul><ul><li>Other Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, Second, Third, and Fourth Worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Brandt Report’s Global North and South </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Dividing the Continuum: Definitions of Development <ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests the desirability of improving material well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Emerging economy” provides a more positive image than underdeveloped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Third World Countries” occasionally applied to the developing countries as a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to be a political designation for nations not formally aligned with a “First World” of industrialized capitalist nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fourth World” is a term for least developed states </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Explanations of Underdevelopment <ul><li>Why are there such great disparities in wealth and wellness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brandt Report’s “Latitudinal” Thesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Poverty? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overpopulation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial Status? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvard Institute for International Development Report </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  7. 7. The Core-Periphery Argument <ul><li>Intra-state Patterns of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast between “Sunbelt” and “Rustbelt” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circular and Cumulative Causation </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Effects </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. The Core-Periphery Argument <ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospering “high-tech” concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth and prosperity of core regions at the expense of exploited peripheral zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periphery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Economic Measures of Development <ul><li>The Diffusion of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>The Complex of Development </li></ul><ul><li>GNI vs. PPP </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Consumption Per Capita </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of the Workforce Engaged in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landlessness </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Economic Measures of Development <ul><li>Gross Domestic Product (GDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually within the borders of a country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross National Income (GNI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to GDP the total foreign income earned by the citizens of a country </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Economic Measures of Development (cont.) <ul><li>Poverty, Calories, & Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Composite Assessment of Economic Development </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. A Model for Economic Development <ul><li>Rostow’s Model for “Inevitable” Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconditions for Takeoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takeoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to Maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of Mass Consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postindustrial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Big Push” </li></ul><ul><li>Human Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Theory </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Noneconomic Measures of Development <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Public Services </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  14. 14. Aggregate Measures of Development <ul><li>Comparative Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and Collective Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development Index (HDI) </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  15. 15. The Role of Women <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of Women in Different Countries </li></ul>Human Geography 11e

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