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Chapter9

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  • Fig 9.1
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  • Transcript

    • 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 9: A Geographic Profile of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 2. Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 3.  
    • 4.  
    • 5.
      • Second largest land area of all the major world regions
        • Covers 17.4 million square miles (Twice the size of the U.S.)
      • Population of 749 million (2007)
        • Overpopulated in areas, yet much of region is sparsely populated
        • Average population density is slightly more than that of the U.S.
        • Rate of population increase is 2.5 percent per year
      • Preference for Large Families
        • Extra hands to perform work
        • Ability for parents to be looked after when old or sick
        • In the case of girls, to receive “bride wealth”
        • Large families convey status
      • Birth rates have been dropping in every country in the region over the past past two decades
      9.1 Area & Population
    • 6. Comparison of Area & Latitude: Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
    • 7. Population Distribution
    • 8. Population Cartogram
    • 9. Homes Elevated to Minimize Risk of Flooding
    • 10.
      • Africa has the world’s youngest population
        • 43% of the region’s people are under 15 years of age
      • Malthusian Scenario
        • 1 Percent Gap
          • Population has had growth rate of about 3% since 1960s
          • Food production has grown at only about 2% annually
          • This is the only world region where per capita food production is declining
        • HIV/AIDS
          • Possibly a Malthusian “check” to population growth
      9.1.1 Africa’s Population Prospects
    • 11.
      • The Landscapes of Africa
      • Africa’s Biomes and Climates
      • Living off the Land
      • Africa’s Wildlife
      9.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    • 12.
      • Most of Africa is a vast plateau, or series of plateaus
        • Typical elevation of more than 1,000 feet, though in places elevation rises to 5,000 feet and higher
      • The character of African rivers
        • Rapids and waterfalls block navigation a short distance inland
          • Great potential for hydroelectric energy
        • Africa’s discontinuous inland waterways are interconnected by railroads and highways
      9.2.1 The Landscapes of Africa
    • 13. Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 14.
      • Insert fig 9.6 (of Kilimanjaro)
      Mount Kilimanjaro
    • 15. Mount Kenya
    • 16. Kariba Dam on the Zambezi River
    • 17.
      • Equator bisects Africa, so about two-thirds of the region lies in the low latitudes, having tropical climates
      • Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
        • Tropical Rain Forest
        • Savanna
        • Steppe
        • Desert
        • Mediterranean
        • Humid Subtropical
        • Marine West Coast
      • Precipitation in region is high, but unevenly distributed
      • Drought is a persistent problem
      9.2.2 Africa’s Biomes and Climates
    • 18. Climates of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 19. Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 20.
      • Most productive lands are on river plains, in volcanic regions, and in some grassland areas of tropical steppes
      • To support growing populations, fallow periods have been shortened, and the lands pressed to yield more crops
      • Sub-Saharan Africa’s soils favor subsistence agriculture and pastoralism
        • Half of the region’s population practices these livelihoods
      9.2.3 Living off the Land
    • 21. Land Use in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 22. Mother and Child in Zimbabwe
    • 23. Zebu Cattle in Madagascar
    • 24.
      • Africa has the planet’s most spectacular and numerous populations of large mammals
        • Tropical grasslands and open forests
          • Habitats of large herbivorous animals
            • Elephant, Buffalo, Zebra, Giraffe, and many species of Antelope
          • Carnivorous and scavenging animals
            • Lion, Leopard, and Hyena
        • Tropical rain forests
          • Abundant species of insects, birds, and monkeys
        • Streams and rivers draining the forests and wetter savannas
          • Hippopotamus, crocodile, and a great variety of fish
      • Home to some of the world’s most extraordinary and successfully managed national parks
        • International tourism to these parks is a major source of revenue
      9.2.4 Africa’s Wildlife
    • 25. Daggers as Dress Accessory in Yemen
    • 26.
      • African continent was the original home of humankind
      • After 5000 B.C.E., indigenous people were responsible for agricultural innovation in four culture hearths:
        • Ethiopian Plateau
        • West African Savanna
        • West African Forest
        • Forest-Savanna Boundary of West Central Africa
      • Domestication of important crops
        • Millet, sorghum, yams, cowpeas, okra, watermelons, coffee, and cotton
      9.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    • 27.
      • Peoples of this region speak more than 1,000 languages, which generally belong to one of four broad language groups:
        • Niger-Congo
        • Afro-Asiatic
        • Nilo-Saharan
        • Khoisan
      • The African Union, the continent’s supranational organization, uses 6 official languages
        • English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, and Arabic
      9.3.1 The Languages of Africa
    • 28. Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 29.
      • Spiritualism is extremely strong, but spiritual affiliations and practices are more interwoven and flexible than in most other world regions
        • Not uncommon for family members to follow different faiths, or for an individual to change religious beliefs and practices in the course of a lifetime
      • Dominant Religions of Africa
        • Islam
        • Christianity
        • Indigenous African Religions (Animism)
      9.3.2 Africa’s Belief Systems
    • 30. Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 31.
      • Over a period of 12 centuries, as many as 25 million people from sub-Saharan Africa were forced to become slaves, exported as merchandise from their homelands
      • The trade began in the 7th century, with Arab merchants using trans-Saharan camel caravan routes to exchange goods
      • Slave traffic
        • Provided motivation for European commerce along African coasts
        • Largest slave traffic was the European controlled slave trade
        • Transatlantic slave trade peaked between 1700 and 1870
          • 80% of an estimated 10 million slaves made the crossing
          • More than 10 million others probably died
      • Slavery has not yet died out in the region
        • Enslavement of children persists in West Africa
      9.3.3 The Origins and Impacts of Slavery
    • 32. Slave Export Trade Routes
    • 33.
      • European colonialism began to overshadow and inhibit the growth of indigenous African civilizations in 16 th C.
      • Portugal was earliest colonial power to build an African empire
      • Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885
        • European powers carved up Africa
        • Modern national boundaries do not correspond with ethnic boundaries
          • Nigeria as the “Mistake of 1914”
      • European colonization had both positive and negative impacts on the region
      • Most countries still have important links with their former colonial powers
      9.3.4 The Impact of Colonialism
    • 34. Colonial Rule in 1914
    • 35.
      • Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by great poverty
        • 25 of the world’s 30 poorest countries are located there
        • All economies except South Africa’s are underindustrialized
      • Africa’s place in the commercial world is mainly that of a producer of primary products
        • Cash Crops
        • Raw Materials
      • Social and structural problems contribute to the region’s underdevelopment
        • Most African societies lack a substantial middle class and the prospect of upward economic mobility
      9.4 Economic Geography
    • 36. Coffee as Kenya’s Cash Crop
    • 37.
      • Per capita food output in most of Sub-Saharan Africa has declined or remained flat since independence
        • Malnutrition afflicts almost half the region’s children
        • Rapid population growth and drought are responsible
        • Many regimes have invested more in their militaries than in getting food to their citizens
        • Governmental preference for cash crops over subsistence food crops
      • Export Crops
        • Grown on small farms rather than on plantations / estates
        • Most valuable export crops are:
          • Coffee, Cacao, Cotton, Peanuts & Oil Palm Products
        • Secondary Cash Crops
          • Sisal, Pyrethrum, Tea, Tobacco, Rubber, Pineapples, Bananas, Cloves, Vanilla, Cane Sugar & Cashews
      9.4.1 Agriculture
    • 38.
      • Notable Mineral Exports
        • Precious metals and precious stones
        • Iron alloys
        • Copper
        • Phosphate
        • Uranium
        • Petroleum
        • High-grade iron ore
      • Destined principally for Europe, the U.S., and China
      • Mining has attracted far more investment capital to Africa than any other economic activity
      9.4.2 Mineral Resources
    • 39. Minerals, Oil Pipelines and Transportation Links
    • 40.
      • Poor Transportation Hindering Development
        • Few countries can afford to build extensive new road or rail networks, and much of colonial infrastructure has deteriorated
        • Contributes to famine, with the inability to transport crop surpluses to parts with chronic food shortages
        • Contributes to high costs of agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizers)
      • Bridging the Digital Divide
        • Critical shortage of telephone, fax, e-mail, and other communication technologies
        • Internet Cafés
        • Mobile Phones
      9.4.3 Africa’s Fragile Infrastructure
    • 41. Ferries for River Crossings Without Bridges
    • 42.
      • Commodities boom brought annual economic growth rates of about 5% to 16 Sub-Saharan African countries
      • Many countries outside the region have effectively closed their doors to African imports
        • Subsidies, high tariffs, and/or low quotas imposed on agricultural products or manufactured goods
      • Africa’s Debt
        • Forgiveness of $40 billion of debt by G-8
        • China’s engagement with the region
          • Pledge of $20 billion in infrastructure and trade financing
      9.4.4 Africa in World Markets & Economies
    • 43.
      • Failed-State Syndrome
        • Pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away at some African countries
        • Some countries are little more than “shell states”
        • 9 of world’s 15 most corrupt countries are in this region
        • Donor Democracy
          • Leaders make just enough concessions to win outside aid without instituting real reform
      9.4.5 A Legacy of Failed States
    • 44.
      • Sub-Saharan Africa is often judged as marginal in world affairs, but the region deserves and is receiving increased international attention
        • Humanitarian problems
        • Global implications of its public health and environmental situations
        • Problems in the management of Africa’s natural resource wealth, its oil reserves, and concerns over terrorism
        • Terrorism Hot Spots
          • Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Niger, Chad, and Mali
        • HIV/AIDS
          • Link between U.S. and Africa via air traffic routes
          • Potential AIDS-related political instability or civil wars
      9.5 Geopolitical Issues

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