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  • Fig 6.1
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Chapter6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 6: A Geographic Profile of the Middle East & North Africa
  • 2.
    • Middle East and North Africa
      • “ Middle East” is Eurocentric
      • 21 Countries, Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the disputed Western Sahara
      • Area of 5.9 million square miles
      • Population of 500 million people (2007)
        • Turkey, Iran & Egypt each have more than 70 million people
        • People locate where water is abundant in this arid region
        • Region on the whole is 56% urban
        • High rate of population growth across region
        • Many oil-rich countries of the Gulf region have more foreigners than citizens living in them
    6.1 Area & Population
  • 3. Middle East and North Africa
  • 4.  
  • 5. Comparison in Area & Latitude Middle East & North Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  • 6. Population Distribution
  • 7. Population Cartogram
  • 8.
    • Margins of region are oceans, seas, high mountains, and deserts
      • Atlantic Ocean to the west
      • Sahara to the south
      • Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the north
      • Hindu Kush and Baluchistan Desert to the east
    • Land composed of arid plains and plateaus
      • Large areas of rugged mountains
      • Isolated “seas” of sand
    6.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
  • 9. Physical Geography
  • 10.
    • Climate
      • Aridity
        • 75 percent of region receives < 10” of annual precipitation
        • Higher precipitation around Mediterranean or up at elevation
        • Strategies of drought avoidance and drought endurance
      • Temperature
        • Large daily and seasonal ranges
        • Very hot days and surprisingly cool nights
      • Summer relocation of government in Saudi Arabia
    • Tectonic Processes
      • Collision zones have resulted in mountain building
      • Frequent earthquakes for places like Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan
    6.2.1 Region of Stark Geographic Contrasts
  • 11. Climate Types
  • 12. Biome Types
  • 13. Great Sand Sea in Egypt
  • 14. Land Use
  • 15. The Treasury
  • 16. Pontic Mountains in Turkey
  • 17. The West Bank and The Dead Sea
  • 18. Taurus Mountains of Turkey
  • 19. Solar Boat of King Cheops
  • 20.
    • Middle Eastern Ecological Trilogy
      • Villagers
        • Subsistence farmers of rural areas where dry farming or irrigation is possible
      • Pastoral Nomads
        • Desert peoples who migrate through arid lands with livestock, following rainfall and vegetation patterns
      • Urbanites
        • Inhabitants of large towns and cities, generally located near bountiful water sources
    6.2.2 Villager, Pastoral Nomad, Urbanite
  • 21. The Ecological Trilogy
  • 22.
    • Historically, agricultural villagers represented the majority populations in the region
      • Villages located near reliable water sources with cultivable lands nearby
      • Production and consumption focus on a staple grain
      • Reliance on nomads for pastoral produce
    • Effects of exposure to outside influence
      • Introduction of cash crops
      • Improved and expanded irrigation
      • Modern technology
      • Rural-to-Urban Migration
    6.2.3 The Village Way of Life
  • 23.
    • Pastoral Nomadism
      • Emerged as offshoot of village way of life
      • Vertical Migration in mountainous areas
      • Horizontal Migration in flatter expanses
      • Sedentarization is a recent trend
      • Nomads in region number estimated 5 to 13 million
        • Identified by their tribe, not be their nationality
    6.2.4 The Pastoral Nomadic Way of Life
  • 24.
    • The city was the final component to emerge in the ecological trilogy
      • Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.E.
      • Egypt, 3000 B.C.E.
    • Medina (classic Islamic city)
      • High defensive wall
      • Congregational mosque
      • Administrative and educational complex
      • Bazaar or Suq (Commercial Zone)
      • Residential areas based on ethnicity, not income
    • Rural-to-Urban Migration
    • New modern urban development in oil-rich countries
    6.2.5 The Urban Way of Life
  • 25. Model of the Medina
  • 26. Bazaar in Cairo, Egypt
  • 27. Indoor Ski Resort in Dubai, UAE
  • 28.
    • Egypt and Mesopotamia are among the world’s great culture hearths
    • Language Families
      • Afro-Asiatic Family
        • Examples: Semitic (Arabic & Hebrew), Berber, and Bedawi
      • Altaic Family (Turkic)
      • Caucasian Family
      • Indo-European Family (Farsi and Kurdish)
      • Nilo-Saharan Family
    • Religious Hearth
      • Monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity & Islam
    6.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
  • 29. Languages of the Middle East & North Africa
  • 30. Religions of the Middle East & North Africa
  • 31.
    • Judaism
      • First significant monotheistic faith
      • Practiced today by 14 million worldwide
      • Torah is the Jewish holy scripture
      • Unlike Christianity, Jesus not seen as a savior
      • Ethnic, not proselytizing religion
      • Western Wall in Jerusalem
        • The most sacred site in the world accessible to Jews
    6.3.1 The Promised Land of the Jews
  • 32. Holy Places in Jerusalem
  • 33.
    • Christianity
      • Offshoot of Judaism that emerged in Palestine
      • Jesus Christ
        • Born in Bethlehem around 4 B.C.E.
        • His teachings denied validity of many Jewish doctrines and protesters called for his death
        • Jesus was put on trial, was found guilty of being a claimant to Jewish kingship, and was crucified
        • Christians believe Christ was resurrected from the dead two days later and ascended into heaven
      • Seldom has Christianity been majority religion in the land where it was born
      • Crusades (11 th – 14 th centuries)
    6.3.2 Christianity: Death & Resurrection in Jerusalem
  • 34. Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  • 35.
    • Islam
      • Monotheistic faith
      • Dominant religion by far in Middle East & North Africa
      • Prophet was Muhammad, who was from Mecca
      • Qur’an is the holy book of Islam
    • Five Pillars of Islam
      • Profession of the faith
      • Prayer five times daily toward Mecca
      • Almsgiving
      • Fasting during Ramadan
      • Hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islam’s holiest city)
    6.3.3 The Message of Islam
  • 36. Great Mosque in Mecca
  • 37.
    • Oil dominates the region’s economic geography
      • Large reserves
      • Role of OPEC
        • Aim of taking joint action to demand higher profits
    • Other resources include:
      • Remittances
      • Revenues from ship traffic through Suez Canal
      • Exports of cotton, rice, and other commercial crops
    6.4 Economic Geography
  • 38.
    • Historically, region has been a geographic crossroads
    • Geopolitical Interests
      • Narrow Waterways
      • Access to Oil
      • Access to Freshwater
      • Terrorism
    6.5 Geopolitical Issues
  • 39.
    • Chokepoints
      • Strategic narrow passageways on land or sea that may be easily closed off by force or even the threat of force
      • Examples Links:
        • Suez Canal Mediterranean & Red Seas
        • Strait of Tiran Gulf of Aqaba & Red Sea
        • Strait of Hormuz Persian Gulf & Arabian Sea
        • Bab el-Mandeb Red Sea & Indian Ocean
        • Bosporus Mediterranean & Black Seas
        • Dardanelles Mediterranean & Black Seas
        • Strait of Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic Ocean
    6.5.1 Chokepoints
  • 40. Chokepoints
  • 41. History of War in the Suez Canal Zone
  • 42.
    • Region’s oil is marketed primarily in western Europe and Japan
    • American Interest in Oil
      • Support for Israel while courting Israel’s oil-rich enemies
      • Carter Doctrine
        • U.S. would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests (i.e., Maintaining a secure supply of Gulf oil)
      • Gulf War
        • U.S. led coalition of Western and Arab allies against Iraq
      • U.S. Invasion of Iraq in 2003
        • About weapons of mass destruction or control of oil?
    6.5.2 Access to Oil
  • 43.
    • Hydropolitics
      • 90 percent of usable freshwater in the region crosses one or more international borders
      • Role of water in Palestinian-Israeli conflict
      • Water is a critical issue blocking a peace treaty between Israel and Syria
      • Nile Water Agreement
        • Signed by 10 countries in 1926
        • Guaranteed Egyptian access to water
        • Many countries have defied the treaty in recent years
      • Upstream country is usually able to maximize its water use at expense of a downstream country
        • Exception with Israel on the Yarmuk
    6.5.3 Access to Freshwater
  • 44. Water Developments in the Nile Basin
  • 45. Waterfall on Tigris River in Turkey
  • 46.
    • Terrorists pursued by U.S. are Islamist militants
    • Islamist Groups
      • Hizbullah
      • Hamas
      • Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)
      • Al-Qa’ida
    • President Bush’s “Axis of Evil”
      • Iran, Iraq, and North Korea
    • Tiny minority of Muslims have carried out terrorist actions that the great majority of Muslims condemned
    6.5.4 Terrorism
  • 47. Terrorist Attacks Linked to al-Qa’ida, 1998-2007