Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,266
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Table 5.1
  • Fig 5.1
  • Fig 5.2
  • Fig 5.2
  • Fig 5.3
  • Fig 5.4
  • Fig 5.4
  • Fig 5.5
  • Fig 5.6
  • Fig 5.7
  • Fig 5.8
  • Fig 5.9
  • Fig 5.10
  • Fig 5.11
  • Fig 5.12
  • Fig 5.13
  • Fig 5.14
  • Fig 5.15
  • Fig 5.16
  • Fig 5.17
  • Fig 5.18
  • Fig 5.19
  • Fig 5.20
  • Fig 5.21
  • Transcript

    • 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 5: A Geographic Profile of Russia & The Near Abroad
    • 2.
      • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
        • Cold War versus Western bloc led by the U.S.
        • Split in 1991 into 15 independent nations
          • Russian Federation
          • 14 other countries comprising “The Near Abroad”
      • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
        • Economic Association
        • Russia and 11 of the former Soviet states
        • Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania joined the EU in 2004
      • Fluidity in Delineating Region
      • Trends Toward Political Fragmentation and Decentralization
      Introduction to the Region
    • 3.  
    • 4.
      • Largest World Region
        • Area of 8.5 Million Square Miles
        • Region Spans 11 Time Zones
      • Regional Population of 278 Million (2007)
        • Russia 142.0 Million
        • Ukraine 46.5 Million
        • Uzbekistan 26.5 Million
      • Vast Region but Sparsely Populated
        • Average Population Density of 32 per square mile
      • Rates of Population Change
        • 1.5% growth among Central Asian countries
        • 0.5% loss in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
      5.1 Area & Population
    • 5. Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 6. Population Distribution of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 7. Population Cartogram of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 8.
      • Factors affecting this immense region
        • Cold Temperatures
        • Infertile Soils
        • Marshy Terrain
        • Aridity
        • Ruggedness
      5.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    • 9.
      • Extreme Continental Climate
        • Severe winter cold but warm/hot summers
        • Lowest official temperature ever recorded in Northern Hemisphere at Siberian settlement of Verkhoyansk (-90 degrees F)
        • Short Growing Seasons (average 150-day frost-free season)
        • Aridity and Drought (less than 20 inches avg annual precipitation)
      • Permafrost
        • Frozen ground that makes construction difficult
        • Buildings and Pipelines must be elevated and insulated
      • Land Use / Agriculture
        • Russian taiga is the largest continuous area of forest on earth
        • Wheat, Sugar Beets, Sunflowers, Livestock in the steppes
        • Cotton in Irrigated Areas of Central Asia
      5.2.1 Roles of Climates and Vegetation
    • 10. Comparison in Latitude and Area with North America 80% of this region’s area is farther north than any point in the conterminous United States
    • 11. Climates of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 12. Biomes of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 13. High Arctic Building Erected on Pilings
    • 14. Land Use in Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 15. Milled Conifers from the Russian Taiga
    • 16. Grazier on the Southern Russian Steppe
    • 17.
      • Rivers formed natural passageways
        • Used for Trade, Conquest, and Colonization
        • Helped Russians advance from the Urals to the Pacific in less than a century
        • Rivers drain into numerous oceans and seas
      • Volga-Don Canal (Opened in 1952)
        • Major link in the inland waterway system
        • Connected the White Sea & Baltic Sea in the north with the Black Sea & Caspian Sea in the south
        • Series of 13 Locks
      5.2.2 Role of Rivers
    • 18. Physical Geography of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 19. Lock in the Volga-Don Canal
    • 20.
      • Plains typify the region west of the Yenisey River
      • Ural Mountains
        • Low, Narrow Range separating Europe from Asia
        • Average Elevation of Less Than 2,000 Feet
      • West Siberian Plain
        • One of the flattest areas on earth
        • Waterlogged country underlain by permafrost
        • Tremendous flooding
      • Central Siberian Uplands
        • Between Yenisey and Lena Rivers (1,000 to 1,500 ft)
      • Mountainous Southern Rim of Region
        • Cacucasus, Pamir, Tien Shan, and Altai Mountains
      5.2.3 Role of Topography
    • 21.
      • Complex cultural and linguistic mosaic
        • 30 Major Ethnic Groups
        • More than 100 Languages Spoken
      • Main Language Families
        • Indo-European
          • Slavic Russian, Belarusian & Ukrainian
          • Romance Moldovan (Romanian)
          • Armenian
        • Altaic ( Turkic) Kazakh, Kyrghyz, Turkmenian, Uzbek
        • Caucasian (Kartvelian)
        • Uralic ( Finno-Ugric)
        • Proto-Asiatic (Chukotko-Kamchatkan)
      5.3.1 A Babel of Languages
    • 22. Ethnolinguistic Distributions
    • 23.
      • Vikings
        • Slavic tribes came under the influence of Viking adventurers known as Rus or Varangians
        • Rise of Kiev in 9th Century
      • Byzantines
        • Kievan Russia had close contact with Constantinople
          • Accepted Christian faith from Byzantines
          • Orthodox Christianity became a fixture of Russian life
          • Moscow becomes the “Third Rome”
      • Tatars
        • In 1237, Batu Khan brought all Russian principalities except Novgorod under Tatar rule
        • Decline of Tatar power in the 15 th century
      5.3.2 Vikings, Byzantines, and Tatars
    • 24. Religions of Russia and the Near Abroad Today, Russia has 4 official religions: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism
    • 25. Russian Orthodox Church in Vyborg
    • 26.
      • The Russian Empire
        • Lasted from the 15 th Century until the 20 th Century
        • Immense land empire built around the core of Moscow
      • Expansion under the Tsars
        • Ivan the Great (reigned 1462-1505)
          • Northward thrust; Annexed Novgorod
        • Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
          • Eastward conquest giving Russia control over the Volga
        • Peter the Great (1682-1725)
          • Defeated the Swedes to gain a foothold on the Baltic Sea
          • St. Petersburg established as Russia’s “Window on the West”
        • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
          • Secured a frontage on the Black Sea
      5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians
    • 27.
      • Eastward Expansion of Russian Empire
        • Cossack expeditions reached the Pacific in 1639
        • Continued down west coast of North America to Fort Ross in California (1812-1841)
        • Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. in 1867 for 2 cents per acre and withdrew from North America
        • During the 19 th and early 20 th Centuries, Russian tsars annexed the Amur region, the Caucasus, and Turkestan
      • Soviet Policy of Russificiation
        • Effort to implant Russian culture in non-Russian regions and to make non-Russians more like Russians
        • Policy was generally a failure because of strong nationalist sentiments throughout the Soviet Union
      5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians (contd.)
    • 28.
      • Russian Triumphs over Powerful Invaders
        • King Charles XII of Sweden – 1709
        • Napoleon I of France – 1812
        • Adolf Hitler – WWII
      • Keys to Success
        • Environmental rigors that invaders faced
        • Overwhelming distances
        • Defenders’ love of their homeland
        • Willing to lose great numbers of soldiers in combat
        • “ Scorched Earth” strategy to protect the motherland
      5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    • 29.
      • Russian Revolution of 1917
        • Protest against sacrifice of Russian forces during WWI
        • Overthrew Nicholas II, last of the Romanov tsars
      • Bolshevik Revolution
        • Led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924)
        • Bolshevik faction of Communist Party seized control
        • Establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922
      • World War II
        • USSR allied with France and Britain vs. Germany
        • Relocation of Soviet industries eastward
        • 20 million Soviet lives lost, considerable damage
      5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    • 30.
      • Marxism
        • Soviet economic system was an application of the economic and social ideas of the German philosopher Karl Marx
      • Command Economy
        • Series of five-year economic plans under Stalin
        • Gosplan (Committee for State Planning) in Moscow
      • Soviet Enterprises in Agriculture & Industry
        • Virgin and Idle Lands (increase the production of grain)
        • Hero Projects (construction of dams, railways, plants, etc)
      5.4.1 The Communist Economic System
    • 31. Soviet Agricultural Expansion (1954-1957)
    • 32.
      • Reform Policies of Gorbachev
        • Glasnost (openness)
        • Perestroika (restructuring)
      • Second Russian Revolution
        • Demands for new freedoms and greater autonomy
        • Rise of Boris Yeltsin, champion of reformers’ cause
        • Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991
        • Soviet Union was voted out of existence the next day and replaced by 15 independent countries
      5.4.2 Economic Roots of the 2 nd Russian Revolution
    • 33. Freedom of Expression in St. Petersburg
    • 34.
      • Russia classified as a “Misdeveloped Country”
      • Economic Shock Therapy
        • Rapid transition from command economy to capitalism
        • Widening gap between rich and poor
        • Organized crime and an Underground Economy emerged
        • Agricultural and industrial production fell dramatically
      • Economic Renewal
        • High oil prices improved Russia’s economic outlook
        • Average incomes grew 10% / yr between 2000-2007
        • Overdependence on a single commodity is risky
      5.4.3 Russia’s Period of Misdevelopment
    • 35. Rolex Advertisement in Russia
    • 36. Poverty in Post-Soviet Russia
    • 37.
      • “ The Greatest Geopolitical Catastrophe of the Century”
        • Russian President Vladamir Putin, 2005 Speech
      • 3 Concentric Spheres of Geopolitical Concern
        • Within the Russian Federation
        • Russia and its Near Abroad
        • Russia and the Rest of the World
      5.5 Geopolitical Issues
    • 38.
      • Complex Political Categories
        • 48 Oblasts (Regions)
        • 7 Krais (Territories)
        • 21 Republics (Varying Levels of Autonomy)
        • 4 Okrugs (Ethnic Subdivisions of Oblasts / Krais)
        • 2 Federal Cities
        • 1 Autonomous Oblast
      • Chechnya and Tatarstan pushing for independence
      • Geopolitical significance has to do with resources
        • Oil and Gas Tatarstan and Bashkhortostan
        • Coal Deposits Komi Republic
        • Diamonds Sakha
      5.5.1 Within Russia
    • 39. Political Units of the Russian Federation
    • 40.
      • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
      • Energy Shortages and Supplies
        • Russia using fossil fuel as a political weapon
      • Geopolitical Issues
        • Desires of Russians living outside of Russia to achieve their own rights and territories
        • Control of the Crimean Peninsula and Kerch Strait
        • GUAM (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova)
          • Orientation toward Europe and away from Russia
      • Stationing of Russian Troops outside of Russia
        • Peacekeepers or Conquerors?
      5.5.2 Russia and the Near Abroad
    • 41. Paul McCartney is “Back in the USSR”
    • 42. The Caucasus
    • 43. Russian Soldiers: Peacekeepers or Conquerors?
    • 44.
      • International Relations
        • Peaceful succession to the Cold War
        • Warsaw Pact has been dissolved
        • Russia became a member of the Group of Eight (G-8) in 1997
      • Concerns about the fate of Soviet-era nuclear materials
        • Reduction of nuclear arsenals
        • Threat of “Loose Nukes”
      • With whom will oil-rich Central Asia align?
        • Russia, Turkey, or Iran?
        • Turkey’s dream of Pan-Turkism
      • Combating narcotics and terrorism
      5.5.3 The Far Abroad

    ×