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Chapter5
 

Chapter5

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  • Table 5.1
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Chapter5 Chapter5 Presentation Transcript

  • World Regional Geography Chapter 5: A Geographic Profile of Russia & The Near Abroad
    • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
      • Cold War versus Western bloc led by the U.S.
      • Split in 1991 into 15 independent nations
        • Russian Federation
        • 14 other countries comprising “The Near Abroad”
    • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
      • Economic Association
      • Russia and 11 of the former Soviet states
      • Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania joined the EU in 2004
    • Fluidity in Delineating Region
    • Trends Toward Political Fragmentation and Decentralization
    Introduction to the Region
  •  
    • Largest World Region
      • Area of 8.5 Million Square Miles
      • Region Spans 11 Time Zones
    • Regional Population of 278 Million (2007)
      • Russia 142.0 Million
      • Ukraine 46.5 Million
      • Uzbekistan 26.5 Million
    • Vast Region but Sparsely Populated
      • Average Population Density of 32 per square mile
    • Rates of Population Change
      • 1.5% growth among Central Asian countries
      • 0.5% loss in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
    5.1 Area & Population
  • Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Population Distribution of Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Population Cartogram of Russia and the Near Abroad
    • Factors affecting this immense region
      • Cold Temperatures
      • Infertile Soils
      • Marshy Terrain
      • Aridity
      • Ruggedness
    5.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    • Extreme Continental Climate
      • Severe winter cold but warm/hot summers
      • Lowest official temperature ever recorded in Northern Hemisphere at Siberian settlement of Verkhoyansk (-90 degrees F)
      • Short Growing Seasons (average 150-day frost-free season)
      • Aridity and Drought (less than 20 inches avg annual precipitation)
    • Permafrost
      • Frozen ground that makes construction difficult
      • Buildings and Pipelines must be elevated and insulated
    • Land Use / Agriculture
      • Russian taiga is the largest continuous area of forest on earth
      • Wheat, Sugar Beets, Sunflowers, Livestock in the steppes
      • Cotton in Irrigated Areas of Central Asia
    5.2.1 Roles of Climates and Vegetation
  • Comparison in Latitude and Area with North America 80% of this region’s area is farther north than any point in the conterminous United States
  • Climates of Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Biomes of Russia and the Near Abroad
  • High Arctic Building Erected on Pilings
  • Land Use in Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Milled Conifers from the Russian Taiga
  • Grazier on the Southern Russian Steppe
    • Rivers formed natural passageways
      • Used for Trade, Conquest, and Colonization
      • Helped Russians advance from the Urals to the Pacific in less than a century
      • Rivers drain into numerous oceans and seas
    • Volga-Don Canal (Opened in 1952)
      • Major link in the inland waterway system
      • Connected the White Sea & Baltic Sea in the north with the Black Sea & Caspian Sea in the south
      • Series of 13 Locks
    5.2.2 Role of Rivers
  • Physical Geography of Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Lock in the Volga-Don Canal
    • Plains typify the region west of the Yenisey River
    • Ural Mountains
      • Low, Narrow Range separating Europe from Asia
      • Average Elevation of Less Than 2,000 Feet
    • West Siberian Plain
      • One of the flattest areas on earth
      • Waterlogged country underlain by permafrost
      • Tremendous flooding
    • Central Siberian Uplands
      • Between Yenisey and Lena Rivers (1,000 to 1,500 ft)
    • Mountainous Southern Rim of Region
      • Cacucasus, Pamir, Tien Shan, and Altai Mountains
    5.2.3 Role of Topography
    • Complex cultural and linguistic mosaic
      • 30 Major Ethnic Groups
      • More than 100 Languages Spoken
    • Main Language Families
      • Indo-European
        • Slavic Russian, Belarusian & Ukrainian
        • Romance Moldovan (Romanian)
        • Armenian
      • Altaic ( Turkic) Kazakh, Kyrghyz, Turkmenian, Uzbek
      • Caucasian (Kartvelian)
      • Uralic ( Finno-Ugric)
      • Proto-Asiatic (Chukotko-Kamchatkan)
    5.3.1 A Babel of Languages
  • Ethnolinguistic Distributions
    • Vikings
      • Slavic tribes came under the influence of Viking adventurers known as Rus or Varangians
      • Rise of Kiev in 9th Century
    • Byzantines
      • Kievan Russia had close contact with Constantinople
        • Accepted Christian faith from Byzantines
        • Orthodox Christianity became a fixture of Russian life
        • Moscow becomes the “Third Rome”
    • Tatars
      • In 1237, Batu Khan brought all Russian principalities except Novgorod under Tatar rule
      • Decline of Tatar power in the 15 th century
    5.3.2 Vikings, Byzantines, and Tatars
  • Religions of Russia and the Near Abroad Today, Russia has 4 official religions: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism
  • Russian Orthodox Church in Vyborg
    • The Russian Empire
      • Lasted from the 15 th Century until the 20 th Century
      • Immense land empire built around the core of Moscow
    • Expansion under the Tsars
      • Ivan the Great (reigned 1462-1505)
        • Northward thrust; Annexed Novgorod
      • Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
        • Eastward conquest giving Russia control over the Volga
      • Peter the Great (1682-1725)
        • Defeated the Swedes to gain a foothold on the Baltic Sea
        • St. Petersburg established as Russia’s “Window on the West”
      • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
        • Secured a frontage on the Black Sea
    5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians
    • Eastward Expansion of Russian Empire
      • Cossack expeditions reached the Pacific in 1639
      • Continued down west coast of North America to Fort Ross in California (1812-1841)
      • Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. in 1867 for 2 cents per acre and withdrew from North America
      • During the 19 th and early 20 th Centuries, Russian tsars annexed the Amur region, the Caucasus, and Turkestan
    • Soviet Policy of Russificiation
      • Effort to implant Russian culture in non-Russian regions and to make non-Russians more like Russians
      • Policy was generally a failure because of strong nationalist sentiments throughout the Soviet Union
    5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians (contd.)
    • Russian Triumphs over Powerful Invaders
      • King Charles XII of Sweden – 1709
      • Napoleon I of France – 1812
      • Adolf Hitler – WWII
    • Keys to Success
      • Environmental rigors that invaders faced
      • Overwhelming distances
      • Defenders’ love of their homeland
      • Willing to lose great numbers of soldiers in combat
      • “ Scorched Earth” strategy to protect the motherland
    5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    • Russian Revolution of 1917
      • Protest against sacrifice of Russian forces during WWI
      • Overthrew Nicholas II, last of the Romanov tsars
    • Bolshevik Revolution
      • Led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924)
      • Bolshevik faction of Communist Party seized control
      • Establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922
    • World War II
      • USSR allied with France and Britain vs. Germany
      • Relocation of Soviet industries eastward
      • 20 million Soviet lives lost, considerable damage
    5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    • Marxism
      • Soviet economic system was an application of the economic and social ideas of the German philosopher Karl Marx
    • Command Economy
      • Series of five-year economic plans under Stalin
      • Gosplan (Committee for State Planning) in Moscow
    • Soviet Enterprises in Agriculture & Industry
      • Virgin and Idle Lands (increase the production of grain)
      • Hero Projects (construction of dams, railways, plants, etc)
    5.4.1 The Communist Economic System
  • Soviet Agricultural Expansion (1954-1957)
    • Reform Policies of Gorbachev
      • Glasnost (openness)
      • Perestroika (restructuring)
    • Second Russian Revolution
      • Demands for new freedoms and greater autonomy
      • Rise of Boris Yeltsin, champion of reformers’ cause
      • Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991
      • Soviet Union was voted out of existence the next day and replaced by 15 independent countries
    5.4.2 Economic Roots of the 2 nd Russian Revolution
  • Freedom of Expression in St. Petersburg
    • Russia classified as a “Misdeveloped Country”
    • Economic Shock Therapy
      • Rapid transition from command economy to capitalism
      • Widening gap between rich and poor
      • Organized crime and an Underground Economy emerged
      • Agricultural and industrial production fell dramatically
    • Economic Renewal
      • High oil prices improved Russia’s economic outlook
      • Average incomes grew 10% / yr between 2000-2007
      • Overdependence on a single commodity is risky
    5.4.3 Russia’s Period of Misdevelopment
  • Rolex Advertisement in Russia
  • Poverty in Post-Soviet Russia
    • “ The Greatest Geopolitical Catastrophe of the Century”
      • Russian President Vladamir Putin, 2005 Speech
    • 3 Concentric Spheres of Geopolitical Concern
      • Within the Russian Federation
      • Russia and its Near Abroad
      • Russia and the Rest of the World
    5.5 Geopolitical Issues
    • Complex Political Categories
      • 48 Oblasts (Regions)
      • 7 Krais (Territories)
      • 21 Republics (Varying Levels of Autonomy)
      • 4 Okrugs (Ethnic Subdivisions of Oblasts / Krais)
      • 2 Federal Cities
      • 1 Autonomous Oblast
    • Chechnya and Tatarstan pushing for independence
    • Geopolitical significance has to do with resources
      • Oil and Gas Tatarstan and Bashkhortostan
      • Coal Deposits Komi Republic
      • Diamonds Sakha
    5.5.1 Within Russia
  • Political Units of the Russian Federation
    • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
    • Energy Shortages and Supplies
      • Russia using fossil fuel as a political weapon
    • Geopolitical Issues
      • Desires of Russians living outside of Russia to achieve their own rights and territories
      • Control of the Crimean Peninsula and Kerch Strait
      • GUAM (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova)
        • Orientation toward Europe and away from Russia
    • Stationing of Russian Troops outside of Russia
      • Peacekeepers or Conquerors?
    5.5.2 Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Paul McCartney is “Back in the USSR”
  • The Caucasus
  • Russian Soldiers: Peacekeepers or Conquerors?
    • International Relations
      • Peaceful succession to the Cold War
      • Warsaw Pact has been dissolved
      • Russia became a member of the Group of Eight (G-8) in 1997
    • Concerns about the fate of Soviet-era nuclear materials
      • Reduction of nuclear arsenals
      • Threat of “Loose Nukes”
    • With whom will oil-rich Central Asia align?
      • Russia, Turkey, or Iran?
      • Turkey’s dream of Pan-Turkism
    • Combating narcotics and terrorism
    5.5.3 The Far Abroad