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  • Table 5.1
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  • Chapter5

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 5: A Geographic Profile of Russia & The Near Abroad
    2. 2. <ul><li>Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War versus Western bloc led by the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split in 1991 into 15 independent nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Federation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 other countries comprising “The Near Abroad” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia and 11 of the former Soviet states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania joined the EU in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluidity in Delineating Region </li></ul><ul><li>Trends Toward Political Fragmentation and Decentralization </li></ul>Introduction to the Region
    3. 4. <ul><li>Largest World Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of 8.5 Million Square Miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region Spans 11 Time Zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Population of 278 Million (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia 142.0 Million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ukraine 46.5 Million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan 26.5 Million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vast Region but Sparsely Populated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Population Density of 32 per square mile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rates of Population Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5% growth among Central Asian countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5% loss in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus </li></ul></ul>5.1 Area & Population
    4. 5. Russia and the Near Abroad
    5. 6. Population Distribution of Russia and the Near Abroad
    6. 7. Population Cartogram of Russia and the Near Abroad
    7. 8. <ul><li>Factors affecting this immense region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infertile Soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshy Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aridity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruggedness </li></ul></ul>5.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    8. 9. <ul><li>Extreme Continental Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe winter cold but warm/hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest official temperature ever recorded in Northern Hemisphere at Siberian settlement of Verkhoyansk (-90 degrees F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Growing Seasons (average 150-day frost-free season) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aridity and Drought (less than 20 inches avg annual precipitation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permafrost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen ground that makes construction difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings and Pipelines must be elevated and insulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Use / Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian taiga is the largest continuous area of forest on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, Sugar Beets, Sunflowers, Livestock in the steppes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton in Irrigated Areas of Central Asia </li></ul></ul>5.2.1 Roles of Climates and Vegetation
    9. 10. Comparison in Latitude and Area with North America 80% of this region’s area is farther north than any point in the conterminous United States
    10. 11. Climates of Russia and the Near Abroad
    11. 12. Biomes of Russia and the Near Abroad
    12. 13. High Arctic Building Erected on Pilings
    13. 14. Land Use in Russia and the Near Abroad
    14. 15. Milled Conifers from the Russian Taiga
    15. 16. Grazier on the Southern Russian Steppe
    16. 17. <ul><li>Rivers formed natural passageways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for Trade, Conquest, and Colonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped Russians advance from the Urals to the Pacific in less than a century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers drain into numerous oceans and seas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volga-Don Canal (Opened in 1952) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major link in the inland waterway system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected the White Sea & Baltic Sea in the north with the Black Sea & Caspian Sea in the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of 13 Locks </li></ul></ul>5.2.2 Role of Rivers
    17. 18. Physical Geography of Russia and the Near Abroad
    18. 19. Lock in the Volga-Don Canal
    19. 20. <ul><li>Plains typify the region west of the Yenisey River </li></ul><ul><li>Ural Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low, Narrow Range separating Europe from Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Elevation of Less Than 2,000 Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Siberian Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the flattest areas on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterlogged country underlain by permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Siberian Uplands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Yenisey and Lena Rivers (1,000 to 1,500 ft) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountainous Southern Rim of Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cacucasus, Pamir, Tien Shan, and Altai Mountains </li></ul></ul>5.2.3 Role of Topography
    20. 21. <ul><li>Complex cultural and linguistic mosaic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 Major Ethnic Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 100 Languages Spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Language Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavic Russian, Belarusian & Ukrainian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romance Moldovan (Romanian) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Armenian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altaic ( Turkic) Kazakh, Kyrghyz, Turkmenian, Uzbek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caucasian (Kartvelian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uralic ( Finno-Ugric) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proto-Asiatic (Chukotko-Kamchatkan) </li></ul></ul>5.3.1 A Babel of Languages
    21. 22. Ethnolinguistic Distributions
    22. 23. <ul><li>Vikings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavic tribes came under the influence of Viking adventurers known as Rus or Varangians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Kiev in 9th Century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byzantines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kievan Russia had close contact with Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted Christian faith from Byzantines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox Christianity became a fixture of Russian life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moscow becomes the “Third Rome” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tatars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1237, Batu Khan brought all Russian principalities except Novgorod under Tatar rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Tatar power in the 15 th century </li></ul></ul>5.3.2 Vikings, Byzantines, and Tatars
    23. 24. Religions of Russia and the Near Abroad Today, Russia has 4 official religions: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism
    24. 25. Russian Orthodox Church in Vyborg
    25. 26. <ul><li>The Russian Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted from the 15 th Century until the 20 th Century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immense land empire built around the core of Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion under the Tsars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan the Great (reigned 1462-1505) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northward thrust; Annexed Novgorod </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastward conquest giving Russia control over the Volga </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter the Great (1682-1725) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated the Swedes to gain a foothold on the Baltic Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>St. Petersburg established as Russia’s “Window on the West” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great (1762-1796) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secured a frontage on the Black Sea </li></ul></ul></ul>5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians
    26. 27. <ul><li>Eastward Expansion of Russian Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cossack expeditions reached the Pacific in 1639 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued down west coast of North America to Fort Ross in California (1812-1841) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. in 1867 for 2 cents per acre and withdrew from North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the 19 th and early 20 th Centuries, Russian tsars annexed the Amur region, the Caucasus, and Turkestan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Policy of Russificiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort to implant Russian culture in non-Russian regions and to make non-Russians more like Russians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy was generally a failure because of strong nationalist sentiments throughout the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul>5.3.3 The Empire of the Russians (contd.)
    27. 28. <ul><li>Russian Triumphs over Powerful Invaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Charles XII of Sweden – 1709 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon I of France – 1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler – WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keys to Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental rigors that invaders faced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelming distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defenders’ love of their homeland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to lose great numbers of soldiers in combat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Scorched Earth” strategy to protect the motherland </li></ul></ul>5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    28. 29. <ul><li>Russian Revolution of 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protest against sacrifice of Russian forces during WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overthrew Nicholas II, last of the Romanov tsars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolshevik faction of Communist Party seized control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR allied with France and Britain vs. Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of Soviet industries eastward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million Soviet lives lost, considerable damage </li></ul></ul>5.3.4 Russia & Soviet Union: Revolution & War
    29. 30. <ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet economic system was an application of the economic and social ideas of the German philosopher Karl Marx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of five-year economic plans under Stalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gosplan (Committee for State Planning) in Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Enterprises in Agriculture & Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin and Idle Lands (increase the production of grain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero Projects (construction of dams, railways, plants, etc) </li></ul></ul>5.4.1 The Communist Economic System
    30. 31. Soviet Agricultural Expansion (1954-1957)
    31. 32. <ul><li>Reform Policies of Gorbachev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasnost (openness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perestroika (restructuring) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands for new freedoms and greater autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Boris Yeltsin, champion of reformers’ cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union was voted out of existence the next day and replaced by 15 independent countries </li></ul></ul>5.4.2 Economic Roots of the 2 nd Russian Revolution
    32. 33. Freedom of Expression in St. Petersburg
    33. 34. <ul><li>Russia classified as a “Misdeveloped Country” </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Shock Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid transition from command economy to capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widening gap between rich and poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized crime and an Underground Economy emerged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural and industrial production fell dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Renewal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High oil prices improved Russia’s economic outlook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average incomes grew 10% / yr between 2000-2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overdependence on a single commodity is risky </li></ul></ul>5.4.3 Russia’s Period of Misdevelopment
    34. 35. Rolex Advertisement in Russia
    35. 36. Poverty in Post-Soviet Russia
    36. 37. <ul><li>“ The Greatest Geopolitical Catastrophe of the Century” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian President Vladamir Putin, 2005 Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Concentric Spheres of Geopolitical Concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia and its Near Abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia and the Rest of the World </li></ul></ul>5.5 Geopolitical Issues
    37. 38. <ul><li>Complex Political Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>48 Oblasts (Regions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Krais (Territories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Republics (Varying Levels of Autonomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Okrugs (Ethnic Subdivisions of Oblasts / Krais) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Federal Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Autonomous Oblast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chechnya and Tatarstan pushing for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Geopolitical significance has to do with resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and Gas Tatarstan and Bashkhortostan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Deposits Komi Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds Sakha </li></ul></ul>5.5.1 Within Russia
    38. 39. Political Units of the Russian Federation
    39. 40. <ul><li>Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Shortages and Supplies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia using fossil fuel as a political weapon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geopolitical Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desires of Russians living outside of Russia to achieve their own rights and territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of the Crimean Peninsula and Kerch Strait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GUAM (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation toward Europe and away from Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stationing of Russian Troops outside of Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peacekeepers or Conquerors? </li></ul></ul>5.5.2 Russia and the Near Abroad
    40. 41. Paul McCartney is “Back in the USSR”
    41. 42. The Caucasus
    42. 43. Russian Soldiers: Peacekeepers or Conquerors?
    43. 44. <ul><li>International Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful succession to the Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact has been dissolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia became a member of the Group of Eight (G-8) in 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerns about the fate of Soviet-era nuclear materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of nuclear arsenals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of “Loose Nukes” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With whom will oil-rich Central Asia align? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia, Turkey, or Iran? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey’s dream of Pan-Turkism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combating narcotics and terrorism </li></ul>5.5.3 The Far Abroad