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  • Fig 4.1
  • Table 4.1
  • Table 4.1 con’t
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Chapter4 Chapter4 Presentation Transcript

  • World Regional Geography Chapter 4: A Geographic Profile of Europe
    • Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass
      • Actually an appendage or a subcontinent of Eurasia
    • Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova
    • The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is drawn from the Ural Mountains down to the Caucasus, which technically places the majority of the above-mentioned countries within Europe
    4 Delineating Europe
  • Political Geography of Europe
    • Subregions of Europe
      • European Core
      • Northern Europe
      • Southern Europe
      • Eastern Europe
    4.1.1 Europe’s Subregions
    • Area of Europe is half that of conterminous U.S.
    • Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population
      • Population of 532 million (2007)
      • 1 out of every 12 people in the world is a European
      • Population density varies widely
        • 1,020 persons per square mile in the Netherlands
        • Only 7 persons per square mile in Iceland
    4.1.2 The Europeans
  • Population Distribution of Europe
  • Population Cartogram of Europe
    • Greatest population densities found in 2 belts of industrialization and urbanization near historical sources of coal and hydroelectric power
      • From the United Kingdom to Italy
      • Britain to southern Poland and out into Ukraine
    • These belts contain large cities and generate greater value of industrial output than rest of Europe combined
    • Europe’s overall population is 74% urban
    4.1.3 Industrialization & Development
    • Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates
    • Population of Europe peaked in 1997
    • “ Birth Dearth”
      • Low Birth Rates
        • Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children
      • Fertility rate below population replacement level
      • No European country maintaining its population through births
      • Europe’s population aging faster than all other world regions
    • Strategies
      • Cash incentives to parents who have multiple children
      • Offering welfare benefits to immigrants
    4.1.4 Why Is Europe’s Population Declining?
    • Physical Characteristics of Europe
      • Irregular shape
      • High latitude
      • Temperate climate
      • Jagged coastal outline
    • Estuaries and harbors offer protection for shipping
    • Much of Europe’s history has focused on seaborne trade, sea fisheries, and sea power
    • Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous U.S., resulting in long summer days and short winter days
    4.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
  • Physical Geography of Europe
  • Comparison of Latitude and Area: Europe vs. North America
    • Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude
      • Warm Ocean Currents
        • Gulf Stream
        • North Atlantic Drift
      • Westerly Winds
        • Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land
        • In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect
        • Winds also bring abundant moisture
          • Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches
    4.2.1 Why Is Europe So Warm?
    • North European Plain
      • Extends from French-Spanish border far into Russia
      • Contains the greater part of Europe’s cultivated land
      • Underlain by deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals important in the region’s industrial development
      • Home to many of the largest European cities
      • Fertile loess soils
    • Glaciation
      • Created favorable sites for hydroelectric installations
      • Glacial deposition left fertile deposits on most of the North European Plain that are productively farmed today
    4.2.2 Human-Environmental Relationship
  • The Swiss Alps from Space
  • Maximum Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
    • Despite its relatively small size, Europe has remarkable climatic and biotic diversity
      • Marine West Coast
      • Humid Continental Short-Summer (Cold)
      • Humid Continental Long-Summer (Warm)
      • Mediterranean
      • Subarctic and Tundra
      • Undifferentiated Highland
    4.2.3 Diversity of Climate & Vegetation
  • Climate Types of Europe
  • Biomes of Europe
  • Land Use in Europe
  • Mediterranean Landscape in Greece
    • Uses of River Systems
      • Transport
      • Water Supply
      • Electricity Generation
      • Recreation
    • Romans used rivers for transport and today, rivers still make it possible to move cargo at low cost
    • Dutch developed the pound lock for canals
    • The Rhine and Danube traverse many countries and are important arteries for the flow of goods
    • Important Seaports
      • London on the Thames
      • Antwerp on the Scheldt
      • Rotterdam in the delta of the Rhine
      • Hamburg on the Elbe
    4.2.4 Rivers and Waterways
  • The Busy Rhine River
    • Europe is a region marked by extraordinary cultural diversity
      • So many countries crowded into a relatively small land area
      • This richness can be experienced through a brief train ride through Europe
    4.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    • Europe emerged from prehistory as the homeland of many different peoples
      • Great expansion of the Greek and Celtic peoples in the first millennium B.C.E.
      • Europe’s Greek and Celtic languages expanded at roughly the same time, but are represented today only by remnants
    • Major Language Families
      • Romance (Evolved from Latin)
        • Examples: Italian, French, Spanish & Portuguese
      • Germanic
        • Examples: German, English, Dutch, Danish & Swedish
      • Slavic
        • Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak & Serbian
    4.3.1 Linguistic & Ethnic Groups of Europe
  • Languages of Europe
    • Dominance of Christianity
      • Embraced by Emperor Constantine in the 4 th Century
      • Roman Catholic Church
        • Europe’s largest religious group (280 million followers)
      • Eastern Orthodox Church
        • Developed in Constantinople during Middle Ages as rival to Rome
      • Sects Emerging from Protestant Reformation (16 th Century)
        • Church of England
        • Calvinism
        • Lutheran Protestantism
    • Europe has become increasingly secularized
    • Islam is fastest growing religion in Europe
    • Only one million Jews in Europe today
    4.3.2 Europeans’ Religious Roots
  • Religions of Europe
    • The Silk Road was an important global trade route, connecting China and Venice
    • The balance of world affairs started shifting to Europe with the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century
    • The process of exploration and discovery began with Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa
    • Explorers were the vanguards of a global European invasion that would bring the missionaries, soldiers, traders, settlers, and administrators
    • The Columbian Exchange
      • Important in reshaping the world’s biogeography
      • The transfer of plants and animals from one place to another following Europe’s conquest of the Americas
    4.3.3 European Colonialism & Consequences
    • Europe had significant material and cultural riches, which the colonial system built on to make it the world’s wealthiest region for centuries
    • Achievements in shipbuilding, navigation, and the manufacture and handling of weapons gave Europe decided advantages
    • Foundations of modern science primarily came out of Europe
    • First world region to evolve from an agricultural to an industrial society
    4.4 Economic Geography
    • By 1900, European cities created about 90% of world’s manufacturing output
    • In 20th century, Europe’s preeminence in world trade and industry diminished to about 25% of the world’s manufacturing output. This happened for several reasons:
      • Warfare
      • Rising nationalism
      • Rising economic and political stature of the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
      • A major shift in global manufacturing patterns
      • Dependence on outside sources of energy
    4.4 Economic Geography con’t
  • Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 1945
    • Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe
      • Trend dates to at least the 1870s, when per capita incomes in the west were twice those in the east
      • After World War II, eastern European countries were in effect colonized by the Soviet Union
        • Served as vassal states that gave up human and material resources to service the motherland
      • Hope for Eastern Europe
        • Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991
        • Admission of eastern European countries to the EU
    4.4.1 An Imbalance of Wealth
    • Europe’s Postindustrial Economy
      • Shift from energy-hungry, labor-costly, and polluting industries toward an economy based on services and production of high-tech goods
      • These industries do not employ as many people as the old manufacturing sector, so there are unemployment problems
    • Many European nations fit model of welfare state
      • Use resources collected through high taxation rates to provide generous social services to citizens
    4.4.2 Postindustrialization
    • Agriculture was the original foundation of Europe’s economy and is still very important
    • Agricultural advances after about 1500:
      • Introduction of new crops, such as the potato
      • New systems of crop rotation
      • Scientific advancements
      • Industrial cities provided growing markets for farmers
      • Farmers protected through tariffs or direct subsidies
    • Fishing an important part of the European food economy
      • Control of fishing grounds as commercial / political objective
      • Overfishing of cod
    4.4.3 Land and Sea
  • Fishing Boats in Harbor of Skagen, Denmark
    • Europe’s geopolitical situation has changed more profoundly and violently in the past 100 years than any other world region
    • Europe experienced two world wars that wrought unprecedented devastation
      • World War I (1914-1918)
      • World War II (1939-1945)
    4.5 Geopolitical Issues
    • European Union
      • Federation of nations similar to the United States
      • Largest post-war European supranational organization
      • Member countries are united beyond the authority of any single national government and are planned and controlled by a group of nations
    4.5.1 Postwar Europe
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
      • Military alliance founded in 1949 between the U.S., Canada, most European countries west of the Iron Curtain & Turkey
      • NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites
      • Cold War ended with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
        • Warsaw Pact was dissolved
        • Nuclear arsenals of the respective alliances were reduced
        • Plans made to turn the path of the Iron Curtain into the European Greenbelt, a mosaic of national parks and other protected areas
      • NATO remains today with a membership of 26
    4.5.2 The Cold War & Its Aftermath
  • European Membership of NATO
    • Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium
    • Most important of Europe’s supranational organizations
    • Began as the European Economic Community, 1957
    • Initially designed to secure the benefits of large-scale production by pooling resources & markets of its members
    • Maastricht Treaty of European Union, 1993
      • Removal of nontariff trade barriers
      • Implementation of the euro, a single EU currency, in 1999
        • European Economic & Monetary Union (EMU)
        • In 2007, the number of official euro-using nations was 13
    4.5.3 The European Union
  • Members of the European Union
    • The “Big Bang” of 2004
      • 10 eastern European nations joined the EU all at once
      • Created a mega-Europe of 450 million people
      • EU economy is valued at almost $10 trillion, nearly as strong as the U.S. economy
    • Schengen Agreement
      • Attempt at integration, allowing free circulation of people among 15 nations that signed the agreement
      • To maintain internal security within this greater Schengenland, member states are supposed to exercise common visa, asylum, and other policies at their external borders
      • Truly open borders probably far in the future
    4.5.4 Size and Diversity of the EU
    • Ongoing issues facing the EU:
      • Many member states retreating to nationalist interests
      • Struggle to craft and ratify a constitution in which all members can agree on matters such as defense and foreign affairs
        • Conflict over distribution of power between big and small states
        • Debate over whether God should be mentioned in preamble
        • French and Dutch voters rejected the constitution in 2005
        • New draft of constitution could be ratified in 2008 or 2009
      • Concerns with how to articulate a defense policy that does not conflict with NATO
    4.5.5 The Future
    • A rift developed between U.S. & Europe over the Iraq War
    • Questions raised on what we do or don’t have in common
      • Many instinctively equate the U.S. with Europe when speaking about global patterns, as we share:
        • Many common cultural roots
        • A great deal of the world’s wealth
        • Many of the same measures of quality of life
    • Differences between Europeans and Americans
      • Concept of Social Justice
      • Provision of and Spending on Public Education
      • Taxes on Gasoline
      • Views on U.S. “Cultural Industries” (e.g., Hollywood films)
      • Allowance of questions of spirituality into political debates
      • Acceptance of Death Penalty (outlawed in EU countries)
      • Differences on the Geopolitical Front
    4.5.6 Comparing Europeans & Americans