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  • Fig 4.1
  • Table 4.1
  • Table 4.1 con’t
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  • Transcript

    • 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 4: A Geographic Profile of Europe
    • 2.
      • Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass
        • Actually an appendage or a subcontinent of Eurasia
      • Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova
      • The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is drawn from the Ural Mountains down to the Caucasus, which technically places the majority of the above-mentioned countries within Europe
      4 Delineating Europe
    • 3. Political Geography of Europe
    • 4.
      • Subregions of Europe
        • European Core
        • Northern Europe
        • Southern Europe
        • Eastern Europe
      4.1.1 Europe’s Subregions
    • 5.  
    • 6.  
    • 7.
      • Area of Europe is half that of conterminous U.S.
      • Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population
        • Population of 532 million (2007)
        • 1 out of every 12 people in the world is a European
        • Population density varies widely
          • 1,020 persons per square mile in the Netherlands
          • Only 7 persons per square mile in Iceland
      4.1.2 The Europeans
    • 8. Population Distribution of Europe
    • 9. Population Cartogram of Europe
    • 10.
      • Greatest population densities found in 2 belts of industrialization and urbanization near historical sources of coal and hydroelectric power
        • From the United Kingdom to Italy
        • Britain to southern Poland and out into Ukraine
      • These belts contain large cities and generate greater value of industrial output than rest of Europe combined
      • Europe’s overall population is 74% urban
      4.1.3 Industrialization & Development
    • 11.
      • Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates
      • Population of Europe peaked in 1997
      • “ Birth Dearth”
        • Low Birth Rates
          • Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children
        • Fertility rate below population replacement level
        • No European country maintaining its population through births
        • Europe’s population aging faster than all other world regions
      • Strategies
        • Cash incentives to parents who have multiple children
        • Offering welfare benefits to immigrants
      4.1.4 Why Is Europe’s Population Declining?
    • 12.
      • Physical Characteristics of Europe
        • Irregular shape
        • High latitude
        • Temperate climate
        • Jagged coastal outline
      • Estuaries and harbors offer protection for shipping
      • Much of Europe’s history has focused on seaborne trade, sea fisheries, and sea power
      • Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous U.S., resulting in long summer days and short winter days
      4.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    • 13. Physical Geography of Europe
    • 14. Comparison of Latitude and Area: Europe vs. North America
    • 15.
      • Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude
        • Warm Ocean Currents
          • Gulf Stream
          • North Atlantic Drift
        • Westerly Winds
          • Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land
          • In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect
          • Winds also bring abundant moisture
            • Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches
      4.2.1 Why Is Europe So Warm?
    • 16.
      • North European Plain
        • Extends from French-Spanish border far into Russia
        • Contains the greater part of Europe’s cultivated land
        • Underlain by deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals important in the region’s industrial development
        • Home to many of the largest European cities
        • Fertile loess soils
      • Glaciation
        • Created favorable sites for hydroelectric installations
        • Glacial deposition left fertile deposits on most of the North European Plain that are productively farmed today
      4.2.2 Human-Environmental Relationship
    • 17. The Swiss Alps from Space
    • 18. Maximum Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
    • 19.
      • Despite its relatively small size, Europe has remarkable climatic and biotic diversity
        • Marine West Coast
        • Humid Continental Short-Summer (Cold)
        • Humid Continental Long-Summer (Warm)
        • Mediterranean
        • Subarctic and Tundra
        • Undifferentiated Highland
      4.2.3 Diversity of Climate & Vegetation
    • 20. Climate Types of Europe
    • 21. Biomes of Europe
    • 22. Land Use in Europe
    • 23. Mediterranean Landscape in Greece
    • 24.
      • Uses of River Systems
        • Transport
        • Water Supply
        • Electricity Generation
        • Recreation
      • Romans used rivers for transport and today, rivers still make it possible to move cargo at low cost
      • Dutch developed the pound lock for canals
      • The Rhine and Danube traverse many countries and are important arteries for the flow of goods
      • Important Seaports
        • London on the Thames
        • Antwerp on the Scheldt
        • Rotterdam in the delta of the Rhine
        • Hamburg on the Elbe
      4.2.4 Rivers and Waterways
    • 25. The Busy Rhine River
    • 26.
      • Europe is a region marked by extraordinary cultural diversity
        • So many countries crowded into a relatively small land area
        • This richness can be experienced through a brief train ride through Europe
      4.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    • 27.
      • Europe emerged from prehistory as the homeland of many different peoples
        • Great expansion of the Greek and Celtic peoples in the first millennium B.C.E.
        • Europe’s Greek and Celtic languages expanded at roughly the same time, but are represented today only by remnants
      • Major Language Families
        • Romance (Evolved from Latin)
          • Examples: Italian, French, Spanish & Portuguese
        • Germanic
          • Examples: German, English, Dutch, Danish & Swedish
        • Slavic
          • Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak & Serbian
      4.3.1 Linguistic & Ethnic Groups of Europe
    • 28. Languages of Europe
    • 29.
      • Dominance of Christianity
        • Embraced by Emperor Constantine in the 4 th Century
        • Roman Catholic Church
          • Europe’s largest religious group (280 million followers)
        • Eastern Orthodox Church
          • Developed in Constantinople during Middle Ages as rival to Rome
        • Sects Emerging from Protestant Reformation (16 th Century)
          • Church of England
          • Calvinism
          • Lutheran Protestantism
      • Europe has become increasingly secularized
      • Islam is fastest growing religion in Europe
      • Only one million Jews in Europe today
      4.3.2 Europeans’ Religious Roots
    • 30. Religions of Europe
    • 31.  
    • 32.
      • The Silk Road was an important global trade route, connecting China and Venice
      • The balance of world affairs started shifting to Europe with the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century
      • The process of exploration and discovery began with Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa
      • Explorers were the vanguards of a global European invasion that would bring the missionaries, soldiers, traders, settlers, and administrators
      • The Columbian Exchange
        • Important in reshaping the world’s biogeography
        • The transfer of plants and animals from one place to another following Europe’s conquest of the Americas
      4.3.3 European Colonialism & Consequences
    • 33.  
    • 34.
      • Europe had significant material and cultural riches, which the colonial system built on to make it the world’s wealthiest region for centuries
      • Achievements in shipbuilding, navigation, and the manufacture and handling of weapons gave Europe decided advantages
      • Foundations of modern science primarily came out of Europe
      • First world region to evolve from an agricultural to an industrial society
      4.4 Economic Geography
    • 35.
      • By 1900, European cities created about 90% of world’s manufacturing output
      • In 20th century, Europe’s preeminence in world trade and industry diminished to about 25% of the world’s manufacturing output. This happened for several reasons:
        • Warfare
        • Rising nationalism
        • Rising economic and political stature of the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
        • A major shift in global manufacturing patterns
        • Dependence on outside sources of energy
      4.4 Economic Geography con’t
    • 36. Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 1945
    • 37.
      • Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe
        • Trend dates to at least the 1870s, when per capita incomes in the west were twice those in the east
        • After World War II, eastern European countries were in effect colonized by the Soviet Union
          • Served as vassal states that gave up human and material resources to service the motherland
        • Hope for Eastern Europe
          • Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991
          • Admission of eastern European countries to the EU
      4.4.1 An Imbalance of Wealth
    • 38.
      • Europe’s Postindustrial Economy
        • Shift from energy-hungry, labor-costly, and polluting industries toward an economy based on services and production of high-tech goods
        • These industries do not employ as many people as the old manufacturing sector, so there are unemployment problems
      • Many European nations fit model of welfare state
        • Use resources collected through high taxation rates to provide generous social services to citizens
      4.4.2 Postindustrialization
    • 39.
      • Agriculture was the original foundation of Europe’s economy and is still very important
      • Agricultural advances after about 1500:
        • Introduction of new crops, such as the potato
        • New systems of crop rotation
        • Scientific advancements
        • Industrial cities provided growing markets for farmers
        • Farmers protected through tariffs or direct subsidies
      • Fishing an important part of the European food economy
        • Control of fishing grounds as commercial / political objective
        • Overfishing of cod
      4.4.3 Land and Sea
    • 40. Fishing Boats in Harbor of Skagen, Denmark
    • 41.
      • Europe’s geopolitical situation has changed more profoundly and violently in the past 100 years than any other world region
      • Europe experienced two world wars that wrought unprecedented devastation
        • World War I (1914-1918)
        • World War II (1939-1945)
      4.5 Geopolitical Issues
    • 42.
      • European Union
        • Federation of nations similar to the United States
        • Largest post-war European supranational organization
        • Member countries are united beyond the authority of any single national government and are planned and controlled by a group of nations
      4.5.1 Postwar Europe
    • 43.
      • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
        • Military alliance founded in 1949 between the U.S., Canada, most European countries west of the Iron Curtain & Turkey
        • NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites
        • Cold War ended with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
          • Warsaw Pact was dissolved
          • Nuclear arsenals of the respective alliances were reduced
          • Plans made to turn the path of the Iron Curtain into the European Greenbelt, a mosaic of national parks and other protected areas
        • NATO remains today with a membership of 26
      4.5.2 The Cold War & Its Aftermath
    • 44. European Membership of NATO
    • 45.
      • Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium
      • Most important of Europe’s supranational organizations
      • Began as the European Economic Community, 1957
      • Initially designed to secure the benefits of large-scale production by pooling resources & markets of its members
      • Maastricht Treaty of European Union, 1993
        • Removal of nontariff trade barriers
        • Implementation of the euro, a single EU currency, in 1999
          • European Economic & Monetary Union (EMU)
          • In 2007, the number of official euro-using nations was 13
      4.5.3 The European Union
    • 46. Members of the European Union
    • 47.
      • The “Big Bang” of 2004
        • 10 eastern European nations joined the EU all at once
        • Created a mega-Europe of 450 million people
        • EU economy is valued at almost $10 trillion, nearly as strong as the U.S. economy
      • Schengen Agreement
        • Attempt at integration, allowing free circulation of people among 15 nations that signed the agreement
        • To maintain internal security within this greater Schengenland, member states are supposed to exercise common visa, asylum, and other policies at their external borders
        • Truly open borders probably far in the future
      4.5.4 Size and Diversity of the EU
    • 48.
      • Ongoing issues facing the EU:
        • Many member states retreating to nationalist interests
        • Struggle to craft and ratify a constitution in which all members can agree on matters such as defense and foreign affairs
          • Conflict over distribution of power between big and small states
          • Debate over whether God should be mentioned in preamble
          • French and Dutch voters rejected the constitution in 2005
          • New draft of constitution could be ratified in 2008 or 2009
        • Concerns with how to articulate a defense policy that does not conflict with NATO
      4.5.5 The Future
    • 49.
      • A rift developed between U.S. & Europe over the Iraq War
      • Questions raised on what we do or don’t have in common
        • Many instinctively equate the U.S. with Europe when speaking about global patterns, as we share:
          • Many common cultural roots
          • A great deal of the world’s wealth
          • Many of the same measures of quality of life
      • Differences between Europeans and Americans
        • Concept of Social Justice
        • Provision of and Spending on Public Education
        • Taxes on Gasoline
        • Views on U.S. “Cultural Industries” (e.g., Hollywood films)
        • Allowance of questions of spirituality into political debates
        • Acceptance of Death Penalty (outlawed in EU countries)
        • Differences on the Geopolitical Front
      4.5.6 Comparing Europeans & Americans