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Chapter11

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  • Fig 11.1
  • Table 11.1
  • Fig 11.2
  • Fig 11.2
  • Fig 11.3
  • Fig 11.4
  • Fig 11.5
  • Fig 11.5
  • Fig 11.6
  • Fig 11.7
  • Fig 11.8
  • Fig 11.9
  • Fig 11.10
  • Fig 11.11
  • Fig 11.12
  • Fig 11.13
  • Table 11.2
  • Fig 11.14a
  • Fig 11.14b
  • Fig 11.14c
  • Fig 11.15
  • Fig 11.16
  • Fig 11.17
  • Fig 11.18a
  • Fig 11.18b
  • Table 11.3
  • Fig 11.19
  • Fig 11.20

Chapter11 Chapter11 Presentation Transcript

  • World Regional Geography Chapter 11: A Geographic Profile of the United States and Canada
    • Canada is only slightly larger in area than the U.S.
    • Canada and the U.S. share the longest international border in the world, at 5,527 miles
    • Population
      • United States 302 Million (2007) Pop Density = 81/mi 2
      • Canada 33 Million (2007) Pop Density = 9/mi 2
      • Together, the countries have 5% of the world’s population on 13% of its land surface
    • 90% of Canadians live within 100 miles of U.S. border
    • Canadians and Americans are overwhelmingly urban
      • 79% of Canadians and Americans are city dwellers
      • Megalopolis (“Boswash”) is home to 1 out of 7 Americans
        • 500-mile-long narrow, urban belt from Boston to Washington
        • Includes 7 metropolitan areas
    11.1 Area & Population
  • Principal Features of the U.S. and Canada
  •  
  • Population Distribution of the U.S. & Canada
  • Population Cartogram of the U.S. & Canada
    • Nations of Immigrants
      • Due to immigration, the U.S. is the only MDC in the world that is experiencing significant population growth
      • Each year, more than a million immigrants arrive in the U.S. and over 200,000 arrive in Canada
      • 40,000 Guest Workers enter the U.S. Annually
      • Illegal Aliens / Undocumented Workers
        • Estimated 12 million illegal immigrants live in the U.S.
    • Controversy of Illegal Immigration in U.S.
      • Fear of immigrants taking jobs and bleeding social services
      • Others argue low-wage immigrants are vital for the American economy, taking jobs shunned by most Americans, while contributing to the economy through their purchases
      • Measures to Handle Illegal Immigration
        • Secure Fence Act of 2006
        • Secure Border Initiative and the Virtual Fence
    11.1.1 Migration into North America
  • Migration Flows into the U.S. & Canada
    • Remarkably diverse natural environments
      • They include some of the most spectacular wild landscapes on the planet
      • Present people with a vast array of opportunities for land use and settlement
    • It is important to consider how these landforms have promoted or hindered human uses and how climates have also done the same
    11.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    • Major Landforms
      • Greenland
      • Canadian Shield
      • Appalachian Mountains
      • Piedmont
      • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains
      • Great Plains
      • Rocky Mountains
      • Columbia Plateau
      • Great Basin
      • Pacific Mountain Ranges
      • Arctic Coastal Plain
    11.2.1 Landforms and Land Uses
  • Physical Geography of the U.S. & Canada
  • Climates of the U.S. & Canada
  • Biomes of the U.S. & Canada
  • Land Use in the U.S. & Canada
    • The U.S. has more climatic types than any other country in the world, and even Canada is quite varied
      • Tundra (Canada and Alaska)
      • Subarctic (Canada and Alaska)
      • Humid Continental (Midwest)
      • Humid Subtropical (U.S. Southeast)
      • Tropical Savanna (Southern Florida)
      • Tropical Rain Forest (Hawaii)
      • Marine West Coast (Coastal Pacific Northwest)
      • Mediterranean (Central and Southern California)
      • Semiarid / Steppe (Interior West)
      • Desert (U.S. Southwest)
      • Undifferentiated Highland (Rockies, Sierra Nevada)
    11.2.2 Climates and Land Uses
    • Migrations of Native Americans into the Region
      • Began their migrations as Asians
      • Started crossing what was then a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia at least 12,500 (possibly as early as 33,000) years ago
      • Migration persisted until about 3,000 years ago
    11.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    • Similarities to Indigenous Cultures of Latin America
      • Some developed civilizations, the rather complex, agriculture-based ways of life associated with permanent or semipermanent settlements and stratified societies
    • Dominant Native American Civilizations
      • Mogollon (300 B.C.E. – 1400 C.E.)
      • Hohokam (100 B.C.E. – 1500 C.E.)
      • Anasazi ( – 1300 C.E.)
    • Mound Builder Civilizations
      • Poverty Point (2000 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.)
      • Adena (2000 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.)
      • Hopewell ( 200 B.C.E. – 700 C.E.)
      • Mississippian ( 700 C.E. – 1700 C.E.)
    11.3.1 Native American Civilizations
  • Anasazi Pueblo Dwelling in Arizona
    • Seven Native American Language Families (represented by more than 250 languages)
      • Aztec-Tanoan
      • Hokan-Siouan
      • Penutian
      • Mosan
      • Algic
      • Na-Dene
      • Eskimo-Aleut
    • A trait apparently shared by most of the Native American groups was their deep reverence for the natural world
    11.3.2 Indigenous Culture Groups & Lifeways
  • Native American Culture Areas
    • Narratives of what took place in North America following 1492
      • Europeans : Times of settlement, development, taming the frontier, and “civilizing the savages”
      • Native Americans : Times of depopulation and cultural demolition
    • Canada
      • Native American peoples refer to themselves as the First Nations in acknowledgement of their pre-Columbian claims to the land
      • In 1999, Canada ceded ¼ of its total area to the Inuit peoples in creating the territory of Nunavut
    • United States
      • Native American Reservations (“The Res”)
        • Home to 1/3 of Native Americans today
        • Among poorest communities of the country
        • Plagued by high rates of incarceration, alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, broken families, teen suicide, and unemployment
        • Importance of gambling revenues
    11.3.3 European Impacts on Native Cultures
  • Modern Native American Lands
  • Lakota at the Wounded Knee Massacre Site Pine Ridge, South Dakota
  • Native American Casino Laguna Reservation, New Mexico
    • Waves of European Settlement in North America
      • Religious persecution in Europe
      • Colonization of new lands by European powers
      • Expansionist efforts of newly independent Canada and the U.S.
    • Several Territorial Acquisitions of the United States
      • Manifest Destiny (opening of settlement all the way to the Pacific)
    • California Gold Rush (1849) as impetus for settlement
    • Homestead Act (1862)
      • Allowed pioneer family to claim up to 160 acres of land for $10
    • Multiculturalism Act (1988)
      • Recognized Canada as a multicultural society
    11.3.4 European Settlers and Settlements
  • Territorial Acquisitions of the U.S. & Canada
  • Major Ethnic Groups in the U.S. & Canada
  •  
    • Minorities comprise about 1/3 of the U.S. population
      • 14% are Hispanic (42 million)
      • 12% are African Americans (35 million)
      • 4% are Asian Americans
    • By 2050, Non-Hispanic whites will drop below 50% of the U.S. population
    11.3.5 Ethnic Minorities
  • Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S. Black-run Business in Los Angeles, California
  • Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S. Latino Neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois
  • Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S. Chinatown in San Francisco, California
    • Language
      • English and French are Canada’s official languages
      • U.S. does not have an official language (English spoken by 96%)
      • “ Spanglish”
        • Hybrid tongue of Spanish and English
        • From Hispanic neighborhoods into mainstream culture of U.S.
    • Laws guarantee religious freedoms in both nations
      • Both countries predominantly Christian
      • Largest single denomination is Roman Catholicism
        • 43% in Canada / 26% in the United States
      • Other monotheistic faiths in the U.S.
        • 5 million Jews and 1 million Muslims
      • Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the U.S.
    11.3.6 Nonindigenous Languages & Faiths
  • Nonindigenous Languages of the U.S. & Canada
  • Religions of the U.S. & Canada
    • The U.S. and Canada are very wealthy nations
      • United States $ 44,260 GNI PPP
      • Canada $ 34,610 GNI PPP
    • Where the United States ranks:
      • World’s largest economy
      • World’s largest producer and consumer of goods / services
      • World’s largest federal foreign debt
      • World’s largest national debt
      • With about 5% of the world’s population, the U.S. has a third of the world’s wealth
    11.4 Economic Geography
    • Keys to Region’s Affluence
      • Large endowments of important natural assets
      • Large population represents pool of labor and talent as well as a market
      • Mechanized economies
      • Peace and stability within and between these countries
      • Overall sense of internal unity and track record of continuity in political, economic, and cultural institutions
    • Imbalance in the Distribution of National Wealth
      • Wealthiest 1% of Americans take in 20% of country’s total income
      • Poorest 10% of Americans take in less than 2% of total income
      • In 2006, 12% of Americans lived below the poverty line, whereas only 5% of Canadians were below its poverty line
      • However, this is a region where most people enjoy the “good life”
    11.4.1 Sources of the Region’s Affluence
    • U.S. and Canada resemble European environments and their potential for production of wheat, cattle, and other products
    • Largest food-exporting region of the world
      • U.S. has more arable land than any other country
      • A much smaller proportion of Canada is arable, but it has more farmable land than many other countries
    • Resource Rich:
      • Forests (Canada is world’s largest exporter of wood)
      • Mineral Resources
      • Energy Resources
      • Oil (Including Tar Sands in Canada)
      • Natural Gas
    11.4.2 An Abundance of Resources
  • Canadian Timber En Route to East Asia
  • Tar Sands Locations in Canada
  • Oil Production at the Athabasca Tar Sands Facility
  •  
    • Transition to Service Sector / Information Technology
      • Although raw materials contribute much to their wealth, the U.S. and Canada have become prosperous because of machines and mechanical energy, complemented by a boom in IT
      • Most Americans and Canadians employed in service sector
        • Finance, Medical Care, Retail Sales, Entertainment, etc.
      • Manufacturing now only accounts for 9% of U.S. economy
        • Rust Belt
      • U.S. profits from a “knowledge economy”
        • Designing products, but not making them
    11.4.3 Mechanization, Services, and I.T.
  • Steel Mill in South Korea, Not Pittsburgh!
    • Vital Trading Partners
      • Canada is much more dependent on the U.S.
      • Canada is the leading country in total trade with the U.S.
      • Main pattern of trade is the exchange of Canadian raw and intermediate materials for American manufactured goods
    • Economic Disputes
      • Wheat War
      • Salmon War
      • Lumber Dumping
    • Despite occasional disagreements, the trend has been toward more cooperation and free trade
    • Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (1988)
    • North American Free Trade Agreement (1994)
    11.4.4 U.S.-Canadian Economic Relations
    • Transcontinental railroads first linked the coasts
    • Interstate Highway System (Late 1950s)
      • Primary network for the trucking of cargo across the U.S.
      • Reflects American love affair with the automobile
    • Public transportation is popular only in cities
      • Gridlock makes it an attractive alternative to driving
    11.4.5 Transportation Infrastructure
  • Highway and Railway Network
    • Historical Relations between the U.S. and Canada
    • The United States’ Place in the World
    11.5 Geopolitical Issues
    • Friction following the American Revolution
      • Northern colonies failed to join the Revolution
        • British used those colonies as bases during the war
      • Many in the north came from Tory stock
        • Wanted to maintain political connections with British government
      • Tensions were high over who would have ultimate control of the central and western reaches of the continent
    • War of 1812 fought largely as U.S. effort to conquer Canada
    • Canada’s emergence as a unified nation came partly as a result of U.S. pressure
      • Hostility between U.S. and Canada did not immediately end with the establishment of an independent Canada, but relations improved gradually
    • Today these countries are strong allies
    11.5.1 Historical Relations
    • U.S. displays its power through military action and trade
    • Isolationism
      • Geographic advantage of being far away from world’s hot spots
      • Entered both world wars late
    • Attacks of September 11, 2001
      • Policy of Preemptive Engagement
    • The U.S. remains the world’s sole superpower
      • Strongest economy
      • Military expenditures larger than those of the next 14 countries combined
      • Dominance of global popular culture
      • World’s best universities
      • Headquarters to many of the world’s leading international organizations
    11.5.2 The United States’ Place in the World