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Transcript

  • 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 10: A Geographic Profile of Latin America
  • 2.
    • Extent of Latin America
      • From Mexico south to Argentina and Chile, together with the islands of the Caribbean Sea
      • Comprised of 38 countries
      • Spans more than 85 ° of latitude and 82 ° of longitude
    • Subregions
      • Middle America
      • South America
    • Population of 569 million people (2007)
      • Distributed mainly across “rimland” and “highland”
      • Region is 76% urban
    10.1 Area & Population
  • 3. Principal Features of Latin America
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Comparison of Size and Latitude Latin America vs. Conterminous U.S.
  • 7. Population Distribution of Latin America
  • 8. Population Cartogram of Latin America
  • 9.
    • Climates and Vegetation
    • Elevation and Land Use
    • Natural Hazards in Latin America
    10.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
  • 10. Physical Geography of Latin America
  • 11.
    • Extraordinary climatic and biotic diversity
      • Tropical Rain Forest
      • Tropical Savanna
      • Humid Subtropical
      • Prairie
      • Mediterranean
      • Desert
      • Steppe
    10.2.1 Climates and Vegetation
  • 12. Climates of Latin America
  • 13. Biomes of Latin America
  • 14.
    • Altitudinal Zonation
      • Terra caliente (Hot Country)
      • Tierra templada (Cool Country)
      • Tierra fr í a (Cold Country)
      • Tierra helada (Frost Country)
    • Zonation results from the fact that air temperature decreases with elevation at a normal rate of approximately 3.6 °F per 1,000 feet
    10.2.2 Elevation and Land Use
  • 15. Altitudinal Zonation
  • 16. Land Use in Latin America
  • 17. Coffee Crop in Tierra Templada of Mexico
  • 18. Tierra Fria in Andean South America
  • 19. Paramo at 12,000 Feet in Colombian Andes
  • 20.
    • Latin America is beset by natural hazards
      • Adjoins a large section of the Pacific Ring of Fire
        • Violent history of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
      • It fronts two seasonal hurricane regions
    10.2.3 Natural Hazards in Latin America
  • 21.
    • Unfortunate that this region came to be known as Latin America, as there were no “Latins” among its inhabitants before the end of the 15 th century
    • When the first Europeans arrived in 1492, the region was home to an estimated 50-100 million Native Americans
    10.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
  • 22. Native American Groups and Civilizations
  • 23.
    • Maya
    • Teotihuacános
    • Aztecs
    • Tarascan
    • Inca
    • Nazca
    • Chibcha
    10.3.1 Civilizations Predating European Arrival
  • 24. Maya Civilization in Tikal
  • 25. Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun
  • 26. Inca’s Machu Picchu in Peru
  • 27.
    • Indigenous Language Families (Mexico and Central America)
      • Hokan-Siouan
      • Aztec-Tanoan
      • Oto-Manguean
      • Totonac
      • Penutian
      • Mayan
    • (South America)
      • Quechu-Aymaran
    • European Languages
      • Spanish is most prevalent European language in region
      • Portuguese in Brazil
      • Some French, Dutch, and English in Caribbean
    10.3.2 Languages in Latin America
  • 28. Languages of Latin America
  • 29.
    • The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked the beginning of profound changes in almost every aspect of life in what would become Latin America, including:
      • Death (Both deliberate and unintended)
      • European settlement patterns and development of ports
      • Development of agricultural districts
      • Increased volume of trade products shipped overseas
      • European-introduced horses, cattle, sheep, donkeys, wheat, sugarcane, coffee, and bananas
      • Labor provided by the arrival of slave ships
      • Discovery of gold and silver by Europeans led to opening or reopening of mines
      • Introduction of Catholicism
    10.3.3 The European Conquest
  • 30. Corn in Oaxaca, Mexico
  • 31.  
  • 32. Zocalo of Mexico City
  • 33. Cave Offering of Q’eqchi’ Maya in Guatemala
  • 34.
    • Majority of Latin Americans are of mixed heritage
    • In addition to the Native Americans, there are four leading racial types:
      • Europeans
      • Blacks
      • Mestizos
      • Mulattoes
    • Only Argentina, Uruguay & Costa Rica have significant white European ethnic groups
    10.3.4 Ethnicity in Latin America
  • 35. Many Faces of Latin America European Mestizo Black Mulatto
  • 36.
    • Latin America is generally a region of LDCs
      • People do not enjoy a high standard of living
      • One-third of population lives in poverty
    • Large gap between the “Haves” and “Have-Nots”
      • Glitter of Metropolises vs. Shantytowns (Favelas / Barrios)
    • Benefited from global boom in commodities
      • Abundance of raw materials
      • Poverty and unemployment have diminished in recent years
    • Heavy borrowing from international banking community
    • Recent push to move away from raw materials toward manufactured exports
    10.4 Economic Geography
  • 37. Shantytown of Belen in Iquitos, Peru
  • 38.
    • In many countries, more than half of all export revenue is still derived from farm products
    • Overreliance on a narrow range of exports makes these countries economically vulnerable to changes in market conditions
      • “ Banana Republics”
    10.4.1 Commercial Agriculture
  • 39.
    • Farms are classified by size and system of production
      • Latifundia
        • Large estates with strong commercial orientation
        • Also called haciendas and plantations
      • Minifundia
        • Smaller holdings with a strong subsistence component
        • Generally, people who lack the money to purchase large and fertile properties
          • Usually marginal plots, often on sharecropping basis
    10.4.2 Types of Farms
  • 40. Henequen Plants on Plantation in Yucatan
  • 41. Market Scene in Mexico
  • 42.
    • Latin America is a large-scale producer of a small number of key minerals
      • Few nations gain large revenues from exporting these minerals
        • Chile (largest copper producer in the world)
        • Venezuela and Brazil (iron ore)
      • Venezuela was a founding member of OPEC in 1961
      • Some of profit from mineral production has funded significant infrastructure, including roads, power stations, water systems, schools, and hospitals
    10.4.3 Minerals and Mining
  • 43.
    • Many countries have formed or joined free-trade agreements, trying to reduce their dependence on raw materials and boost their exports of value-added manufactured products
    • Free-Trade Agreements (FTAs)
      • Mercosur
        • Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay
      • Andean Community
        • Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
      • Union of South American Nations
        • Modeled after the EU (Mercosur & Andean Community)
      • DR-CAFTA
      • Central American Common Market
      • CARICOM
      • Plans for Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)
    • Maquiladora Program in Mexico
    10.4.4 Free Trade Agreements
  • 44. Economic Associations of Latin America
  • 45. “ Panama Hats” from Ecuador
  • 46.
    • Immigrant Workers
      • Remittances
        • Earned savings sent home by people working abroad, especially in the United States
      • Multi-Latina Companies
        • Some experienced workers return to their home countries to establish companies that invest in the U.S.
        • Aiding the revival of certain down-trodden sectors of U.S. economy, including cement and steel mills
    10.4.5 Sending Money Home
  • 47.
    • Tourism has become a major regional economic asset, generating critical foreign exchange
      • Only oil exports are more valuable
    • Tourism revenues reflect distance-decay relationship
      • Highest tourism receipts flow to Mexico, the nearest neighbor to the wealthy countries
      • Tourism revenues fall off for more distant destinations
    10.4.6 Tourism in Latin America
  • 48. Castaway Cay, An Island Owned by Disney
  • 49.
    • The U.S. has staked its geostrategic claim to the region
      • Monroe Doctrine (1823)
      • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)
      • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
      • Bay of Pigs Invasion
      • Trading with the Enemies Act
      • Plan Patriot
      • Washington Consensus
    • Modern U.S. Interests in Latin America
      • Promoting trade
      • Fighting drug trafficking
      • Guaranteeing secure access to oil
    10.5 Geopolitical Issues
  • 50. Panama Canal Saves Distance, Time & Money