World Regional Geography Chapter 10:   A Geographic Profile of   Latin America
<ul><li>Extent of Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Mexico south to Argentina and Chile, together with the islands ...
Principal Features of Latin America
 
 
Comparison of Size and Latitude Latin America vs. Conterminous U.S.
Population Distribution of Latin America
Population Cartogram of Latin America
<ul><li>Climates and Vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation and Land Use </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards in Latin Americ...
Physical Geography of Latin America
<ul><li>Extraordinary climatic and biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Climates of Latin America
Biomes of Latin America
<ul><li>Altitudinal Zonation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terra caliente (Hot Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tierra templada...
Altitudinal Zonation
Land Use in Latin America
Coffee Crop in Tierra Templada of Mexico
Tierra Fria in Andean South America
Paramo at 12,000 Feet in Colombian Andes
<ul><li>Latin America is beset by natural hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjoins a large section of the Pacific Ring of Fir...
<ul><li>Unfortunate that this region came to be known as Latin America, as there were no “Latins” among its inhabitants be...
Native American Groups and Civilizations
<ul><li>Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Teotihuacános </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Tarascan </li></ul><ul><li>Inca </...
Maya Civilization in Tikal
Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun
Inca’s Machu Picchu in Peru
<ul><li>Indigenous Language Families (Mexico and Central America) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hokan-Siouan </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Languages of Latin America
<ul><li>The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked the beginning of profound changes in almost every aspect of lif...
Corn in Oaxaca, Mexico
 
Zocalo of Mexico City
Cave Offering of Q’eqchi’ Maya in Guatemala
<ul><li>Majority of Latin Americans are of mixed heritage </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the Native Americans, there are...
Many Faces of Latin America European Mestizo Black Mulatto
<ul><li>Latin America is generally a region of LDCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People do not enjoy a high standard of living </...
Shantytown of Belen in Iquitos, Peru
<ul><li>In many countries, more than half of all export revenue is still derived from farm products </li></ul><ul><li>Over...
<ul><li>Farms are classified by size and system of production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latifundia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Henequen Plants on Plantation in Yucatan
Market Scene in Mexico
<ul><li>Latin America is a large-scale producer of a small number of key minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few nations gain l...
<ul><li>Many countries have formed or joined free-trade agreements, trying to reduce their dependence on raw materials and...
Economic Associations of Latin America
“ Panama Hats” from Ecuador
<ul><li>Immigrant Workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remittances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earned savings sent home by peo...
<ul><li>Tourism has become a major regional economic asset, generating critical foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onl...
Castaway Cay, An Island Owned by Disney
<ul><li>The U.S. has staked its geostrategic claim to the region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine (1823) </li></ul></...
Panama Canal Saves Distance, Time & Money
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  • Fig 10.1
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  • Chapter10

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 10: A Geographic Profile of Latin America
    2. 2. <ul><li>Extent of Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Mexico south to Argentina and Chile, together with the islands of the Caribbean Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of 38 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spans more than 85 ° of latitude and 82 ° of longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subregions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population of 569 million people (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed mainly across “rimland” and “highland” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region is 76% urban </li></ul></ul>10.1 Area & Population
    3. 3. Principal Features of Latin America
    4. 6. Comparison of Size and Latitude Latin America vs. Conterminous U.S.
    5. 7. Population Distribution of Latin America
    6. 8. Population Cartogram of Latin America
    7. 9. <ul><li>Climates and Vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation and Land Use </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Hazards in Latin America </li></ul>10.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    8. 10. Physical Geography of Latin America
    9. 11. <ul><li>Extraordinary climatic and biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prairie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul></ul>10.2.1 Climates and Vegetation
    10. 12. Climates of Latin America
    11. 13. Biomes of Latin America
    12. 14. <ul><li>Altitudinal Zonation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terra caliente (Hot Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tierra templada (Cool Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tierra fr í a (Cold Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tierra helada (Frost Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zonation results from the fact that air temperature decreases with elevation at a normal rate of approximately 3.6 °F per 1,000 feet </li></ul>10.2.2 Elevation and Land Use
    13. 15. Altitudinal Zonation
    14. 16. Land Use in Latin America
    15. 17. Coffee Crop in Tierra Templada of Mexico
    16. 18. Tierra Fria in Andean South America
    17. 19. Paramo at 12,000 Feet in Colombian Andes
    18. 20. <ul><li>Latin America is beset by natural hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjoins a large section of the Pacific Ring of Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent history of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It fronts two seasonal hurricane regions </li></ul></ul>10.2.3 Natural Hazards in Latin America
    19. 21. <ul><li>Unfortunate that this region came to be known as Latin America, as there were no “Latins” among its inhabitants before the end of the 15 th century </li></ul><ul><li>When the first Europeans arrived in 1492, the region was home to an estimated 50-100 million Native Americans </li></ul>10.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    20. 22. Native American Groups and Civilizations
    21. 23. <ul><li>Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Teotihuacános </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Tarascan </li></ul><ul><li>Inca </li></ul><ul><li>Nazca </li></ul><ul><li>Chibcha </li></ul>10.3.1 Civilizations Predating European Arrival
    22. 24. Maya Civilization in Tikal
    23. 25. Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun
    24. 26. Inca’s Machu Picchu in Peru
    25. 27. <ul><li>Indigenous Language Families (Mexico and Central America) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hokan-Siouan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aztec-Tanoan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oto-Manguean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totonac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penutian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(South America) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quechu-Aymaran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish is most prevalent European language in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese in Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some French, Dutch, and English in Caribbean </li></ul></ul>10.3.2 Languages in Latin America
    26. 28. Languages of Latin America
    27. 29. <ul><li>The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked the beginning of profound changes in almost every aspect of life in what would become Latin America, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death (Both deliberate and unintended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European settlement patterns and development of ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of agricultural districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased volume of trade products shipped overseas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European-introduced horses, cattle, sheep, donkeys, wheat, sugarcane, coffee, and bananas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor provided by the arrival of slave ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of gold and silver by Europeans led to opening or reopening of mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of Catholicism </li></ul></ul>10.3.3 The European Conquest
    28. 30. Corn in Oaxaca, Mexico
    29. 32. Zocalo of Mexico City
    30. 33. Cave Offering of Q’eqchi’ Maya in Guatemala
    31. 34. <ul><li>Majority of Latin Americans are of mixed heritage </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the Native Americans, there are four leading racial types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mestizos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulattoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Argentina, Uruguay & Costa Rica have significant white European ethnic groups </li></ul>10.3.4 Ethnicity in Latin America
    32. 35. Many Faces of Latin America European Mestizo Black Mulatto
    33. 36. <ul><li>Latin America is generally a region of LDCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People do not enjoy a high standard of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-third of population lives in poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large gap between the “Haves” and “Have-Nots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glitter of Metropolises vs. Shantytowns (Favelas / Barrios) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefited from global boom in commodities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and unemployment have diminished in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy borrowing from international banking community </li></ul><ul><li>Recent push to move away from raw materials toward manufactured exports </li></ul>10.4 Economic Geography
    34. 37. Shantytown of Belen in Iquitos, Peru
    35. 38. <ul><li>In many countries, more than half of all export revenue is still derived from farm products </li></ul><ul><li>Overreliance on a narrow range of exports makes these countries economically vulnerable to changes in market conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Banana Republics” </li></ul></ul>10.4.1 Commercial Agriculture
    36. 39. <ul><li>Farms are classified by size and system of production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latifundia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large estates with strong commercial orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called haciendas and plantations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minifundia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller holdings with a strong subsistence component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, people who lack the money to purchase large and fertile properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually marginal plots, often on sharecropping basis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>10.4.2 Types of Farms
    37. 40. Henequen Plants on Plantation in Yucatan
    38. 41. Market Scene in Mexico
    39. 42. <ul><li>Latin America is a large-scale producer of a small number of key minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few nations gain large revenues from exporting these minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chile (largest copper producer in the world) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela and Brazil (iron ore) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela was a founding member of OPEC in 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of profit from mineral production has funded significant infrastructure, including roads, power stations, water systems, schools, and hospitals </li></ul></ul>10.4.3 Minerals and Mining
    40. 43. <ul><li>Many countries have formed or joined free-trade agreements, trying to reduce their dependence on raw materials and boost their exports of value-added manufactured products </li></ul><ul><li>Free-Trade Agreements (FTAs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercosur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andean Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union of South American Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled after the EU (Mercosur & Andean Community) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DR-CAFTA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central American Common Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CARICOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maquiladora Program in Mexico </li></ul>10.4.4 Free Trade Agreements
    41. 44. Economic Associations of Latin America
    42. 45. “ Panama Hats” from Ecuador
    43. 46. <ul><li>Immigrant Workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remittances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earned savings sent home by people working abroad, especially in the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Latina Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some experienced workers return to their home countries to establish companies that invest in the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aiding the revival of certain down-trodden sectors of U.S. economy, including cement and steel mills </li></ul></ul></ul>10.4.5 Sending Money Home
    44. 47. <ul><li>Tourism has become a major regional economic asset, generating critical foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only oil exports are more valuable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism revenues reflect distance-decay relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest tourism receipts flow to Mexico, the nearest neighbor to the wealthy countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism revenues fall off for more distant destinations </li></ul></ul>10.4.6 Tourism in Latin America
    45. 48. Castaway Cay, An Island Owned by Disney
    46. 49. <ul><li>The U.S. has staked its geostrategic claim to the region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine (1823) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs Invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading with the Enemies Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Patriot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern U.S. Interests in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting drug trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteeing secure access to oil </li></ul></ul>10.5 Geopolitical Issues
    47. 50. Panama Canal Saves Distance, Time & Money
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