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  • Fig 1.1
  • Fig 1.2
  • Fig 1.4
  • Fig 1.3
  • Table 1.1
  • Fig 1.5
  • Fig 1.6
  • Fig 1.7
  • Fig 1.8
  • Fig 1.9
  • Fig 4.1
  • Fig 3.5
  • Fig 3.15
  • Fig 3.13
  • Fig 1.10
  • Fig 1.12
  • Fig 1.11 and 1.13
  • Table 1.2
  • Table 1.3
  • Chapter1

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 1: Objectives and Tools of World Regional Geography
    2. 2. <ul><li>What is “Geography”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term was first used by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes in the 3rd Century B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally means “Description of the Earth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best summed up as “the study of the earth as the home of humankind” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of the Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Geography </li></ul></ul></ul>1.1 Welcome to World Regional Geography One of the accomplishments of Eratosthenes was that he was able to get in the ballpark in determining the circumference of the Earth
    3. 3. <ul><li>The World In Spatial Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Places and Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Human Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Environment and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of Geography </li></ul>1.1.1. Six Essential Elements of Geography
    4. 4. Subfields of Geography
    5. 5. <ul><li>This text divides the earth into 8 world regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each region starts with a thematic profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, in the modules, each region is examined in greater detail through an investigation of the geographic qualities of its subregions and/or individual countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Regions Used by Geographers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular Region </li></ul></ul>1.1.2. The World Regional Approach Definitions of a vernacular region, the American South
    6. 6. World Regions
    7. 7. Profile of World Regions
    8. 8. <ul><li>To understand important geographic problems and their potential solutions </li></ul><ul><li>To learn to make connections between different kinds of information as a means of understanding the world </li></ul><ul><li>To understand current events </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the ability to interpret places and read landscapes </li></ul>1.1.3. Objectives of This Book
    9. 9. Reading the Landscape Where is this place? What clues on the landscape or in the women’s appearance might tell you where you are?
    10. 10. <ul><li>Maps are essential tools of geographers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help in understanding the spatial context of things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cartography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art and Science of Making Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolization </li></ul></ul>1.2 The Language of Maps
    11. 11. <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The size ratio represented by a map </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative Fraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A map with a scale of 1:10,000 means that 1 linear unit (e.g., inch or cm) on the map represents 10,000 such real-world units on the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Representative Fraction (ex: 1:10,000 or 1:100) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Area Shown in More Detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Representative Fraction (ex: 1:1,000,000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Area Shown in More Generalized Terms </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2.1 Scale
    12. 12. Comparison of Map Scales Small Scale Map Small Representative Fraction Portrays Large Area Large-Scale Map Large Representative Fraction Portrays Small Area
    13. 13. <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Defines a place in relationship to other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Provides a unique address for each place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordinate System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids of horizontal and vertical lines covering the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersections of these lines create the addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude & Longitude most commonly used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Degrees (°), Minutes (’) and Seconds (”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Degree is made up of 60 Minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Minute is made up of 60 Seconds </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2.2 Coordinate Systems
    14. 14. <ul><li>Equator has a latitude of 0° </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The equator and all other latitudinal lines are parallel to each other, which is why they are called parallels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides Northern and Southern Hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important Latitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Pole 90.00° North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic Circle 66.56° North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Cancer 23.44° North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equator 0.00° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Capricorn 23.44° South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic Circle 66.56° South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Pole 90.00° South </li></ul></ul>1.2.2 Coordinate Systems - Latitude
    15. 15. <ul><li>Meridians of Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight lines connecting the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converge at the poles and are farthest apart at equator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prime Meridian has a longitude of 0° </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich, England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides Western and Eastern Hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Date Line has a longitude of 180° </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halfway around the world from the Prime Meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates two consecutive calendar days </li></ul></ul>1.2.2 Coordinate Systems - Longitude
    16. 16. Latitude vs. Longitude Parallels of Latitude Range from 90°N to 90°S Equator at 0° Meridians of Longitude Range from 180°W to 180°E Prime Meridian at 0°
    17. 17. What are the approximate latitude & longitude coordinates for these European cities?
    18. 18. <ul><li>Map Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way of depicting the curved surface of the earth on a flat surface such as a piece of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metric Relationships on the Globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area, Shape, Distance, Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A flat map cannot replicate all of these simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most projections can preserve only one of these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitably, there will be distortion on a flat map </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Map Projection Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Azimuthal Polar Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cylindrical Areas around Equator World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conic Middle Latitudes </li></ul></ul>1.2.3 Projections
    19. 19. Common Map Projections Azimuthal Projection North Pole Azimuthal Equidistant Cylindrical Projection Mercator Conic Projection Albers Equal Area Conic
    20. 20. <ul><li>Maps and Symbolization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No map is a complete record of an area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols used to represent a selection of certain details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with locations of various features of the earth’s surface and their relationships with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thematic Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the distribution of a particular phenomenon </li></ul></ul>1.2.4 Symbolization
    21. 21. Reference Map
    22. 22. Thematic Map Choropleth Map Each country is filled in with a distinguishing color representing its Per Capita GNI PPP.
    23. 23. Thematic Map Isarithmic Map Instead of using political boundaries, shading is applied to areas having similar amounts of the variable being mapped, in this case population density.
    24. 24. Thematic Map Graduated Symbol Map Symbols can be scaled proportionally to the quantity of the data being mapped. In the cartogram above (a specific type of graduated symbol map), the countries have been resized based on relative population.
    25. 25. <ul><li>Mental Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of us has a personal sense of space and place and associations with them </li></ul></ul>1.2.5 Mental Maps
    26. 26. <ul><li>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized system designed to help people analyze, manage, and visualize geographic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial data stored in “Layers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soils, Hydrology, Road Networks, Demographics, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIDAR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Earth </li></ul></ul>1.3 New Geographic Technologies & Careers
    27. 27. Geographic Information Systems at Work
    28. 28. What Do Geographers Do for a Living?
    29. 29. Specialty Groups of the AAG