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  • 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 7: Latin America Robert M. Arthur
  • 2. Latin America
    • Shared Languages
    • Common History
      • European colonialism
      • Religion
      • Independence – 19 th C.
    • Sub-Regions
      • Central America
      • The Southern Cone
      • The Caribbean
  • 3. Setting the Boundaries
    • From the Rio Grande to Tierra del Fuego
    • Most of Central America and South America
    • Shared Colonial History: Iberian Countries
  • 4. Landforms & Landscapes
    • The Andes
      • 5000 miles long
      • Highest point – 22,830 ft.
    • The Amazon River
      • 2.3 million square mile basin
      • 20% of the World’s fresh water
    • The Amazon Rainforest
      • 100,000 + species
    • The Altiplano
    • The Caribbean Basin
  • 5. Latin America
  • 6. Environmental Geography
    • Neotropical Diversity
      • Tropical Ecosystems of the Western Hemisphere
    Southern Venezuela
  • 7. Natural Disasters & Minerals
    • Tectonically Active
      • Volcanoes
        • Montserrat
      • Earthquakes
    • Volcanoes
      • Rich soils
    • Mineral Wealth
      • Silver and gold
      • Lead, zinc, tin and iron
      • Bauxite
    • Energy
      • Oil and natural gas
        • Mexico and Venezuela
      • Coal
  • 8. Climate
    • Intertropical Convergence
      • Equatorial rainforests
    • Tropical Subsidence
      • Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts – Mexico
      • Altacama Desert – Chile
    • Trade Winds
      • Seasonal rainfall
    • Topography
      • Orographic lifting
      • Rainshadow effect
  • 9. Climate Figure 4.14
  • 10. Altitudinal Zonation
    • Classification of environment and land use
      • Changes in climate and vegetation with elevation
      • Lower – warmer
      • Higher – cooler
        • Tierra Caliente
        • Tierra Templada
        • Tierra Fria
        • Tierra Helada
      • Different agricultural activities for each zone
  • 11. Altitudinal Zonation
  • 12. Environmental Issues – Overview Figure 4.3 Wood Chips in Chile
  • 13. Environmental Issues (cont’d)
    • Mexico City
    • What aspects of physical and human geography combine to produce air pollution in this city?
  • 14. Environmental Issues (cont’d)
    • These satellite images were taken of Rondônia, Brazil in 1975 and 2001
    • What differences do you see between these two time periods?
  • 15. Environmental Issues (cont’d)
    • Cochabamba, Bolivia
    • How is this landscape related to changes in agricultural productivity?
  • 16. Topography – Western Mountains and Eastern Shields
    • The Andes
    • Uplands of Mexico and Central America
    • The Shields
      • Large upland areas of exposed crystalline rock
      • Brazilian and Patagonian Shields
    Lake Titicaca Patagonia
  • 17. Topography – River Basins and Lowlands Figure 4.12 Itaipú Dam
  • 18. Hurricane Mitch
    • October 1998
      • 4 ft. of rain in 48 hours
      • Flooding and mudslides
      • 10,000 dead
      • 20,000 missing
      • 2.5 m. dependent on aid
    • Social Vulnerabilities
    • Honduras
      • 70% of agriculture wiped out
      • ½ of export revenue
  • 19. El Nino
    • Periodic Warming of Ocean Surface
    • Warmer Water off Peru’s Coast
    • Global Climatic Effects
      • Droughts in Brazil, Central America, and Australia
      • Flooding in Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay
      • Changes in North American Climate
  • 20. Environmental History
    • Domestication
      • Plants: maize, manioc, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, squash, avocadoes, pineapples, tobacco, vanilla, cacao, peanuts, coca
    • Animals: llamas, alpacas, dogs, guinea pigs
  • 21. Environmental History
    • Mayans
      • Slash and burn
      • Swidden
      • Environmental degradation
      • Raised fields
    • Incas
      • Mountain environment
      • Terraces
    • Aztecs
      • Dams, irrigation systems, drainage canals
      • Chinampa
  • 22. Water Resources
    • 3 Largest Basins
      • The Amazon
      • The Plata
        • Itaipu Dam
      • The Orinoco
    • Lakes
      • Lake Nicaragua
      • Lake Titicaca
    • Waterfalls2
      • Iguacu Falls
      • Angel Falls
        • 3230 ft. tallest in the World
  • 23. Amazon Basin
      • 1.2 Billion Acres
        • Tremendous biodiversity
      • Resource Potential
        • Rubber
        • Frontier
        • Government policies of populating
        • Deforestation
          • 15% cleared
          • 50,000 square miles each year
  • 24. Costa Rica
    • Ecotourism
      • 12 Ecosystems
        • 30% of its territory is bioreserve and wildlife preserve
        • 850 bird species
        • 6000 flowering plants
        • 200 animal species
        • 200 reptile species
        • 35,000 insect species
        • Since 1995 800,000 tourists increasing by 10% a year
  • 25. The Colonial Experience
    • 15 th C. – Spanish Begin Colonization
      • Viceroyalty system – Audiencias - Quinto Real
    • 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas Pope Alexander VI
  • 26. The Columbian Exchange
    • Demographic Collapse
      • Began ~ 1500
      • Virgin epidemics
      • 75% of indigenous peoples died
      • Abandonment of settlements and fields
      • Scarcity of labor
    • Pests Brought Over
      • Weeds
      • Cats, rats
      • Competed with local species
    • Exchange of Produce
      • Goods went to Europe to be grown there and elsewhere
      • Crops brought to Latin America
    • Animals
      • Horses, cattle, pigs, sheep
      • Overgrazing
      • Soil erosion
      • Deforestation
  • 27. Colonization
    • Land Tenure
      • Latifundia
      • Minifundia
      • Haciendas
        • Domestic production
      • Plantations
        • Export crops
        • Monoculture
    • Labor
      • Encomienda
      • Repartimiento
      • Slave trade
    • A Process Spanning Two Centuries
    • Differential Effects
    • “ Black Legend” of Spanish Conquest
    • The Spanish Main
      • Piracy sponsored by Britain, France, and the Dutch
      • Disrupt Spanish shipments
  • 28. Sugar
    • Transformed Latin America
      • Began in the 1500’s in Brazil
      • By 1800 the Caribbean produced 80% of the World’s sugar
      • Required slave labor
      • Tremendous European demand
        • Use in tea
        • Molasses
        • Rum
  • 29. Independence
    • 1810 - Miguel Hidalgo
      • Grito (cry)
      • Mexico
    • 1824 - Simon Bolivar
      • Northern South America
    • Regional Revolts
      • Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Columbia, Chile and Brazil
      • Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay
      • Central America separates from Mexico
    • The Caribbean
      • 1804 - Haiti
      • 1844 - Dominican Republic
    • 1958 - West Indies Federation
      • 1962 - Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
      • 1966 - Barbados
      • 1967 - Dominica and Grenada
    • Spanish American War
      • U.S. gets Cuba and Puerto Rico
  • 30. U.S. Dominance
    • 1823 The Monroe Doctrine
      • Called for European non-interference in Latin America
      • 1848 - U.S. War with Mexico
      • U.S. Interference
        • Cuba (1896-1922)
        • Haiti (1915-1934)
        • Nicaragua (1909-1933)
        • Panama (1903 on)
    • Revolutions
      • Oligarchies
      • Banana Republics
      • Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
      • Cuban Revolution (1959)
        • Bay of Pigs (1961)
      • Socialist Governments elected in Chile and Guatemala
        • U.S. implicated in overthrow of these governments
      • Nicaragua, Sandinistas (1989)
        • Contras supported by U.S.
  • 31. U.S. Interference
  • 32. Distinctive Landscapes
    • Caribbean Islands
      • Diversity
        • Wealth and poverty
        • Cultural
        • Coral reefs and Mangrove forests
        • Mountainous and flat islands
        • Numerous languages including Creole
      • Economy
        • Agriculture
        • Mining and oil
        • Tourism
        • Free trade zones
        • Offshore banking
  • 33. Economic Development
    • 1929 – Great Depression
    • Import Substitution
      • 1930s to 1960s
      • Tariffs
      • Import quotas
      • Nationalization with global markets
      • Government investment in new industries
      • Stimulated growth in local industry and labor
      • Lack of integration
  • 34. The Debt Crises
    • Oil Boom
    • 1960s Borrowed Money
    • 1980s Market Slump
      • Unprecedented debt
          • Brazil - $111 billion
          • Mexico - $104 billion
          • Venezuela - $33 billion
          • The Lost Decade – 1980s
    • Solutions: (U.S. & IMF)
      • Extension of loans
      • Lend more money
      • Forgiveness
    • Structural Adjustment
      • Removal of subsidies
      • Removal of trade barriers
      • Privatization
      • Reduction of labor union power
      • Reduction of welfare programs
      • Poor hit very hard
        • Malnutrition
        • Destitution
        • Underemployment
  • 35. People of Latin America
    • 50 million prior to Conquest
    • Class Structure
      • Peninsulares
        • European born Spanish
      • Criollos
        • Spanish born in the Americas
      • Castas
        • Mixture of European and indigenous peoples
      • Mulatto
        • Spanish and African
      • Zambo
        • African and indigenous peoples
      • “ Whiteness” and European cultural values favored
  • 36. Indigenous Populations Communal Lands and Participatory Mapping President Evo Morales of Bolivia
  • 37. Diasporas
    • African
      • 5 million brought over during colonial period
      • 3 million to Brazil
      • Slavery abolished in 1800s
      • Maroon communities
      • Prejudice still exists
      • Lighter color is still equated with higher status
    • Asian immigration
      • Also began in the colonial period
      • Indentured workers
    • Europeans
      • Italian, German, British, Welsh to Argentina
      • French to Guiana
  • 38. Population Growth
    • Currently 524 million
      • Brazil - 172 million
      • Mexico - 99 million
      • Growth of 2%/year
      • Doubling times less than 35 years
      • Young populations
      • High to medium fertility rates
  • 39. Population and Settlement - Urban Primacy - Megalopolis Figure 4.17 São Paulo, Brazil
  • 40. Demographic Indicators Note variation in % urban across the region
  • 41. Urban Form Reflects colonial origins and contemporary growth
  • 42. Migration
    • Urbanization – 50 to 90%
      • Mexico City 21 million
      • Sao Paulo 19 million
      • Buenos Aries 13 million
      • Rio de Janeiro 11.5 million
      • Urban Primacy
  • 43. Population Growth and Movements
    • Rapid growth: 1960s and 1970s
    • Flows within and outside of Latin America
  • 44. Population Movements
    • Rural-to-Urban Migration
    • Border Movements
    • European Migration
    • Asian Migration
    Japanese Brazilians U.S.–Mexico Border
  • 45. Urbanization
    • Migration
      • Rural to Urban
      • Push – Pull Factors
      • Movement to frontier regions
      • Migration to other countries
        • Mexicans to U.S.
        • Caribbean to Britain, Canada, and U.S.
  • 46. “ City of God”: Squatter Settlements in Latin America
    • Importance of the Informal Sector
    • Regional Names
      • ranchos
      • favelas
      • barrios jovenes
      • Pueblo nuevos
    Lima, Peru
  • 47. Language & Culture
    • Many Indigenous Languages Still Spoken
      • Mostly Spanish
      • Portuguese in Brazil
      • English in Belize and Guyana
      • French in French Guiana
      • Dutch in Suriname
    • Mexican and Caribbean Food Very Popular
    • Latin Music
    • Reggae
  • 48. Gender Relations & Religion
    • Gender Relations
      • Strongly patriarchal
      • Machismo
      • Marianismo
        • Stereotypical gender roles
      • Women’s rights are improving; however, many inequalities exist
      • Traditional culture holds back improvements
    • Religion
      • Catholicism very strong (400 million)
        • Colonialism and missionaries
      • Voodoo - 30 million
      • Ancient Mayan – 10 million
      • Liberation theology
      • Fundamental Protestantism (40 million)
  • 49. Transition to Democracy
    • Initial Governments
      • Authoritarian
        • Single party
      • Military
      • Socialistic
      • Centralized control
      • Oppressive
    • Social Movements
      • Pressured governments
      • Land reform
      • Welfare
    • Military Governments
      • Argentina
        • 15,000 killed
        • Many more fled
      • Chile
        • General Pinochet
        • Charged with similar crimes
    • Political Change
      • End of cold war
      • Grass roots movements
      • High levels of poverty
  • 50. Geopolitical Framework
    • Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Revolutionary Movements and Independence
    • Persistent Border Conflicts
    • Trends Toward Democracy
    Figure 4.30
  • 51. Green Revolution & Land Reform
    • Land Reform
      • Most of the good land owned by the wealthy few
      • Broken up and redistributed to the peasants
      • Mexico
        • 52% given to rural peoples
        • Ejidos
      • Bolivia
        • 79% redistributed
      • Guatemala, Chile and Nicaragua
        • 20% + redistributed
    • Green Revolution
      • Improve productivity
        • High yield crops
        • Machinery
        • Irrigation
        • Fertilizers
        • Pesticides
  • 52. Green Revolution
    • Problems
      • Increased irrigation caused salinization
      • Caused economic dependency
      • Only helped the wealthy
      • Environmental degradation
      • Loss of genetic diversity
    • Second Revolution
      • Biotech
      • Nontraditional agricultural exports - NTAEs
  • 53. Regional Organizations - Supranational: Trade Blocks - Subnational: Ethnicity/Ideology
  • 54. Development Strategies Informal Sector in Peru High Tech in Costa Rica
  • 55. Development Strategies (cont’d) Primary Export Dependency Oil Production São Paulo State, Brazil Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela
  • 56. Figure 4.6.1 Figure 4.6.2a Figure 4.6.2b Maquiladora Cities – Contrasts in Wealth and Poverty
  • 57. Insurgencies and Drug Trafficking Colombian National Police
  • 58. The Drug Economy
    • High Priced Crops
      • Peasant farmers can earn much more than traditional crops
        • Marijuana
        • Coca
        • Opium
      • $632 per kg of coca leaves
    • Drug Cartels
      • Government instability
    • War on Drugs
      • Spray crops
      • Arrest dealers
      • “ Reduce demand”
  • 59. Regional Inequalities
    • Income
      • From average to poor
      • 120 million earn less than $2 daily
    • Employment
      • Informal economy
      • Underemployment
    • Health
      • Better on average than most regions
      • Wide variations within the region
  • 60. Distinctive Landscapes
    • The Andes
      • Mountains and volcanoes
      • Altiplano
      • Lake Titicaca
      • Agriculture
      • Grazing
      • Mining
      • Tourism
        • Incan Ruins
        • Mountain climbing
      • Indigenous peoples
      • Poverty
  • 61. Cultural Diversity – Historic
    • Demographic Collapse and Indigenous Populations
    • Columbian Exchange
    Tikal, Guatemala
  • 62. Social Development President Bachelet, Chile
  • 63. End of Chapter 7: Latin America World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman