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  • 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific Robert M. Arthur
  • 2. Australia, New Zealand & The South Pacific
    • Oceania
      • Oriented towards the Pacific
      • Isolated
      • Low Population
        • 31 million people
    • Three Island Regions
      • Melanesia
      • Micronesia
      • Polynesia
  • 3. Landforms
    • Australia
      • Continental Shield
      • Little orogenic activity
      • Three major regions
        • The Great Dividing Range
        • The Interior Lowlands
          • Murray River
          • Darling River
        • The Western Plateau
          • Simpson Desert
          • Great Sandy Desert
  • 4. Antarctica
    • 5.5 Million Sq. Miles
      • 70% of world’s fresh water
      • 90% of world’s ice
    • Antarctic Treaty
      • 44 nations signed
        • Nuclear ban
        • Peaceful uses only
      • 1991
        • 50 year ban on oil and mineral exploration added
  • 5. Landforms
    • New Zealand
      • Tectonically active
      • South Island
        • The Southern Alps
        • Mt. Cook (12,316 ft.)
        • Glaciers
        • The Canterbury Plain
      • North Island
        • Volcanic activity
        • Mt. Ruapehu
  • 6. The Outback
    • Remote, Dry, Inland Region
      • Cattle stations
      • Outstations
      • Mining centers
        • Road trains
      • Alice Springs
        • Ayer’s Rock
        • Tourist site
        • Sacred to Aboriginals
      • Frequent droughts
      • Wildfires
  • 7. Landforms
    • New Guinea
      • 2 nd largest island
      • Mountain spine
        • 13,000 feet
      • Papua New Guinea
    • Pacific Islands
      • High islands
        • Volcanic
        • High rainfall
      • Low islands
        • Atolls
  • 8. Climate
    • Australia
      • Dry interior
      • East coast – wet
      • South west – Mediterranean climate
    • New Zealand
      • North island – warmer
      • East coasts dryer
    • Pacific Islands
      • Tropical climate
  • 9. Environmental History
    • Isolation
      • Australia
      • Great diversity
        • 20,000 different plants
        • 650 species of birds
        • 380 different reptiles
      • Unique species
        • Marsupials
        • Monotremes
  • 10. The Great Barrier Reef
    • World Heritage Site
      • 1,250 miles long
      • 3,400 individual reefs
      • 300 species of coral
      • 1,500 species of fish
      • 4,000 types of mollusks
    • Tourism
      • $1 billion yearly
  • 11. Ecosystems
    • Pacific Islands
      • Theory of island biogeography
      • Plant species dispersed by birds or ocean
      • Higher islands have rain forests
      • Mangroves in coastal regions
      • Larger islands have middle-elevation grasslands
      • Low islands – coral, dry, little vegetation
      • Birds and marine animals predominant
      • Few native mammals
  • 12. Early Inhabitants
    • 40,000 years ago
      • Migration from southeast Asia to Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands
    • 3,500 years ago
      • Dispersal to more distant islands
    • Australia – Aborigines
      • Dreamtime
    • New Zealand - Maoris
  • 13. Introduction of Exotics
    • Ecological Imperialism
      • “Exotics”: they come from elsewhere
      • Escaped domestic animals
        • Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and camels
        • 1859 the European rabbit was introduced
          • Spread quickly destroying pastureland
          • Hunting, diseases, and rabbit proof fences
          • Prickly pear cactus
          • Cane toad
  • 14. Environmental Concerns
    • Marine Ecosystems
      • Fishing
        • Major industry
        • Major source of food
        • Common property resources
        • Tragedy of the commons
        • Exclusive economic zone
          • 200 nautical miles
      • Coastal tourism
        • Another major industry
    • Climate Change
      • Ozone depletion
        • Skin cancers
        • Cataracts
        • Danger to marine organisms
      • Global warming
        • Even dryer conditions in Australia
        • Melting of New Zealand’s glaciers
        • Sea-level rise
  • 15. Marine Territorial Claims
    • Greatly Expanded the Area of Small Island Nations
      • Protect undersea resources: oil and gas fields, nodules, fisheries
    • Very Little Open Sea Left
  • 16. European Exploration
    • Initial Contact in the Mid 1700’s
      • Spanish and Portuguese followed by the Dutch – Abel Tasman
      • James Cook: 1770, lands at Botany Bay
      • Claims land for England, also claims New Zealand
  • 17. Colonization
    • Australia
      • British Settlements: 1800’s
        • Convicts as forced labor
        • Importation of sheep
        • Wool exports
          • By 1860 exporting 35 million pounds of wool to Britain
          • Wheat production expands
        • Gold Rush: Late 1800’s
        • Other metals and minerals
        • Construction of railroads and roads
  • 18. Colonization
    • New Zealand
      • 1792 – Establishment of sealing stations
      • 1840 – The Treaty of Waitangi
      • Official settlement begins
      • Maori uprisings
      • Discovery of gold and other metals
      • Refrigeration enables the export of perishables
        • Meat and dairy products
  • 19. Colonization
    • Pacific Islands
      • Originally of little interest to Europeans
      • Late 1700’s early 1900’s traders and missionaries
      • British, French, and Germans
  • 20. Independence
    • Australia & New Zealand
      • 1901: The Commonwealth of Australia
        • Six states and two territories
          • Obtains Papua New Guinea from Britain
      • New Zealand becomes self governing colony
        • Obtains protectorates of Pacific Islands
          • Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tokelau
      • Both countries fight with Allies in WWII
      • Cold War concerns in Southeast Asia
  • 21. WWII & Independence
    • Important Turning Point
      • Damage from bombing and occupation
      • Interaction with U.S.
      • Strategic naval bases
      • Independence movements
      • Transfer payments
  • 22. Economic Change
    • Australia and New Zealand
      • 1970s: Economic changes
      • Increased foreign investment
        • Particularly Japanese
      • Restrictions by the EU
        • Realignment of economy towards Asian markets
      • Rise in service sector
        • Finance, tourism, business services
      • Shifts in agriculture
  • 23. Pacific Islands Economy
    • MIRAB Economies
        • Migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy
      • Fiji
        • Sugar and tourism (300,000 tourists yearly)
      • Samoa
        • Coconut products and tourism
      • Tuvalu
        • Global communications
      • Trade deficits
  • 24. Population
    • Least populated world region
      • 32 million
        • Australia – 19.6
        • Papua New Guinea – 5.3
        • New Zealand – 3.9
        • Mostly coastal regions
        • Low densities
        • Islands have higher densities
        • Low birth rates
        • Aging population
  • 25. Migration & Ethnicity
    • Strong Influence of Immigration
      • Australia – mostly British settlers
        • 1901: White Australia Policy
          • Ranked British and northern Europeans highest
          • Abolished in 1973
          • New wave of southeast Asian immigrants
      • New Zealand – similar to Australia
      • Pacific Islands – high degree of indigenous peoples
      • Diaspora
        • Pacific Islanders to Australia and New Zealand
  • 26. Language & Religion
    • Australia and New Zealand
      • English dominates
      • Many aboriginal languages extinct
    • Pacific Islands
      • Wide variety
      • Isolation aids variety
        • Some spoken by only 500 people
      • Papua New Guinea
        • 817 different languages
    • Australia and New Zealand
      • Christianity
        • Protestant in New Zealand
        • Protestant and Catholic in Australia
    • Pacific Islands
      • Traditional beliefs
      • Cargo cultures
  • 27. Culture & Society
    • Traditional Cultures
      • Strong ties to the land
      • Disrupted by Europeans
      • Altered for tourism
    • British Heritage
      • Sports
      • Movies
    • Pacific Islands
      • Diverse cultures
      • Influence of the ocean
  • 28. Political Stability
    • Conflict
      • Fiji
        • British importation of Asian laborers
        • Upset ethnic balance
      • New Caledonia
        • Indigenous peoples want independence from France
      • Bougainville
        • Succeed from Papua New Guinea
        • Join Solomon Islands
        • Irredentism
    • Regional Cooperation
      • South Pacific Commission
        • Includes U.S., France and UK
      • South Pacific Forum
        • Excludes U.S., France and UK
        • Supports independence movements
      • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group (APEC)
          • Regional trade and transportation
      • New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement
        • NZAFTA
  • 29. Poverty & Inequality
    • Inequality
      • Australia and New Zealand
        • High overall GDP’s
        • High poverty amongst aboriginal peoples
      • Pacific Islands
        • Lower GDP’s
        • Subsistence affluence
  • 30. Uranium
    • Testing of Bombs
      • US
        • Marshall Islands
        • Ends 1958
      • Great Britain
        • Western Australia
      • France
        • Began in 1966
        • French Polynesia
        • 150 Tests
        • Greenpeace protests
      • Uranium mines in Australia
  • 31. Aboriginal Issues & Multiculturalism
    • New Zealand
      • Biculturalism
    • Australia
      • Few rights for aboriginals
      • The Stolen Generation
      • 1930s – reserves created
        • Remote, marginal land
        • 20% of the Northern Territories
        • Further land claims
        • Multiculturalism
  • 32. Southeastern Australia
    • Australian Core Region
      • Queensland to Adelaide
        • 60% of Australia’s population
      • Main agricultural region
        • Wheat and cotton
      • Wine Region
        • 4 th largest exporter
        • World class wines
        • Barossa Valley
        • Hunter Valley
  • 33. Southeastern Australia
    • Sydney
      • 4 million people
      • Gentrification
    • Canberra
      • Federal capital
      • Selected in 1909
    • Melbourne
      • Manufacturing center
      • 2 million people
      • Transport hub
  • 34. Islands of the Pacific
    • Mining Landscapes
      • Social tensions
        • Destruction of environment
        • Export of profits
      • Nauru
        • Guano
        • Phosphate
      • New Caledonia
        • Nickel mines
        • Polluting refinery
      • Papua New Guinea
        • Copper mines
  • 35. Islands of the Pacific
    • Tourist Landscapes
      • “ Tropical Paradise”
      • Bora Bora
        • Overdeveloped
      • Tourism facilitated by air travel and cruises
      • Boom – 1980 on
      • Major source of foreign exchange
      • 3 million tourists yearly
      • Ecotourism, eco-villages
  • 36. End of Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman