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Chapter 11

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    Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Presentation Transcript

    • World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific Robert M. Arthur
    • Australia, New Zealand & The South Pacific
      • Oceania
        • Oriented towards the Pacific
        • Isolated
        • Low Population
          • 31 million people
      • Three Island Regions
        • Melanesia
        • Micronesia
        • Polynesia
    • Landforms
      • Australia
        • Continental Shield
        • Little orogenic activity
        • Three major regions
          • The Great Dividing Range
          • The Interior Lowlands
            • Murray River
            • Darling River
          • The Western Plateau
            • Simpson Desert
            • Great Sandy Desert
    • Antarctica
      • 5.5 Million Sq. Miles
        • 70% of world’s fresh water
        • 90% of world’s ice
      • Antarctic Treaty
        • 44 nations signed
          • Nuclear ban
          • Peaceful uses only
        • 1991
          • 50 year ban on oil and mineral exploration added
    • Landforms
      • New Zealand
        • Tectonically active
        • South Island
          • The Southern Alps
          • Mt. Cook (12,316 ft.)
          • Glaciers
          • The Canterbury Plain
        • North Island
          • Volcanic activity
          • Mt. Ruapehu
    • The Outback
      • Remote, Dry, Inland Region
        • Cattle stations
        • Outstations
        • Mining centers
          • Road trains
        • Alice Springs
          • Ayer’s Rock
          • Tourist site
          • Sacred to Aboriginals
        • Frequent droughts
        • Wildfires
    • Landforms
      • New Guinea
        • 2 nd largest island
        • Mountain spine
          • 13,000 feet
        • Papua New Guinea
      • Pacific Islands
        • High islands
          • Volcanic
          • High rainfall
        • Low islands
          • Atolls
    • Climate
      • Australia
        • Dry interior
        • East coast – wet
        • South west – Mediterranean climate
      • New Zealand
        • North island – warmer
        • East coasts dryer
      • Pacific Islands
        • Tropical climate
    • Environmental History
      • Isolation
        • Australia
        • Great diversity
          • 20,000 different plants
          • 650 species of birds
          • 380 different reptiles
        • Unique species
          • Marsupials
          • Monotremes
    • The Great Barrier Reef
      • World Heritage Site
        • 1,250 miles long
        • 3,400 individual reefs
        • 300 species of coral
        • 1,500 species of fish
        • 4,000 types of mollusks
      • Tourism
        • $1 billion yearly
    • Ecosystems
      • Pacific Islands
        • Theory of island biogeography
        • Plant species dispersed by birds or ocean
        • Higher islands have rain forests
        • Mangroves in coastal regions
        • Larger islands have middle-elevation grasslands
        • Low islands – coral, dry, little vegetation
        • Birds and marine animals predominant
        • Few native mammals
    • Early Inhabitants
      • 40,000 years ago
        • Migration from southeast Asia to Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands
      • 3,500 years ago
        • Dispersal to more distant islands
      • Australia – Aborigines
        • Dreamtime
      • New Zealand - Maoris
    • Introduction of Exotics
      • Ecological Imperialism
        • “Exotics”: they come from elsewhere
        • Escaped domestic animals
          • Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and camels
          • 1859 the European rabbit was introduced
            • Spread quickly destroying pastureland
            • Hunting, diseases, and rabbit proof fences
            • Prickly pear cactus
            • Cane toad
    • Environmental Concerns
      • Marine Ecosystems
        • Fishing
          • Major industry
          • Major source of food
          • Common property resources
          • Tragedy of the commons
          • Exclusive economic zone
            • 200 nautical miles
        • Coastal tourism
          • Another major industry
      • Climate Change
        • Ozone depletion
          • Skin cancers
          • Cataracts
          • Danger to marine organisms
        • Global warming
          • Even dryer conditions in Australia
          • Melting of New Zealand’s glaciers
          • Sea-level rise
    • Marine Territorial Claims
      • Greatly Expanded the Area of Small Island Nations
        • Protect undersea resources: oil and gas fields, nodules, fisheries
      • Very Little Open Sea Left
    • European Exploration
      • Initial Contact in the Mid 1700’s
        • Spanish and Portuguese followed by the Dutch – Abel Tasman
        • James Cook: 1770, lands at Botany Bay
        • Claims land for England, also claims New Zealand
    • Colonization
      • Australia
        • British Settlements: 1800’s
          • Convicts as forced labor
          • Importation of sheep
          • Wool exports
            • By 1860 exporting 35 million pounds of wool to Britain
            • Wheat production expands
          • Gold Rush: Late 1800’s
          • Other metals and minerals
          • Construction of railroads and roads
    • Colonization
      • New Zealand
        • 1792 – Establishment of sealing stations
        • 1840 – The Treaty of Waitangi
        • Official settlement begins
        • Maori uprisings
        • Discovery of gold and other metals
        • Refrigeration enables the export of perishables
          • Meat and dairy products
    • Colonization
      • Pacific Islands
        • Originally of little interest to Europeans
        • Late 1700’s early 1900’s traders and missionaries
        • British, French, and Germans
    • Independence
      • Australia & New Zealand
        • 1901: The Commonwealth of Australia
          • Six states and two territories
            • Obtains Papua New Guinea from Britain
        • New Zealand becomes self governing colony
          • Obtains protectorates of Pacific Islands
            • Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tokelau
        • Both countries fight with Allies in WWII
        • Cold War concerns in Southeast Asia
    • WWII & Independence
      • Important Turning Point
        • Damage from bombing and occupation
        • Interaction with U.S.
        • Strategic naval bases
        • Independence movements
        • Transfer payments
    • Economic Change
      • Australia and New Zealand
        • 1970s: Economic changes
        • Increased foreign investment
          • Particularly Japanese
        • Restrictions by the EU
          • Realignment of economy towards Asian markets
        • Rise in service sector
          • Finance, tourism, business services
        • Shifts in agriculture
    • Pacific Islands Economy
      • MIRAB Economies
          • Migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy
        • Fiji
          • Sugar and tourism (300,000 tourists yearly)
        • Samoa
          • Coconut products and tourism
        • Tuvalu
          • Global communications
        • Trade deficits
    • Population
      • Least populated world region
        • 32 million
          • Australia – 19.6
          • Papua New Guinea – 5.3
          • New Zealand – 3.9
          • Mostly coastal regions
          • Low densities
          • Islands have higher densities
          • Low birth rates
          • Aging population
    • Migration & Ethnicity
      • Strong Influence of Immigration
        • Australia – mostly British settlers
          • 1901: White Australia Policy
            • Ranked British and northern Europeans highest
            • Abolished in 1973
            • New wave of southeast Asian immigrants
        • New Zealand – similar to Australia
        • Pacific Islands – high degree of indigenous peoples
        • Diaspora
          • Pacific Islanders to Australia and New Zealand
    • Language & Religion
      • Australia and New Zealand
        • English dominates
        • Many aboriginal languages extinct
      • Pacific Islands
        • Wide variety
        • Isolation aids variety
          • Some spoken by only 500 people
        • Papua New Guinea
          • 817 different languages
      • Australia and New Zealand
        • Christianity
          • Protestant in New Zealand
          • Protestant and Catholic in Australia
      • Pacific Islands
        • Traditional beliefs
        • Cargo cultures
    • Culture & Society
      • Traditional Cultures
        • Strong ties to the land
        • Disrupted by Europeans
        • Altered for tourism
      • British Heritage
        • Sports
        • Movies
      • Pacific Islands
        • Diverse cultures
        • Influence of the ocean
    • Political Stability
      • Conflict
        • Fiji
          • British importation of Asian laborers
          • Upset ethnic balance
        • New Caledonia
          • Indigenous peoples want independence from France
        • Bougainville
          • Succeed from Papua New Guinea
          • Join Solomon Islands
          • Irredentism
      • Regional Cooperation
        • South Pacific Commission
          • Includes U.S., France and UK
        • South Pacific Forum
          • Excludes U.S., France and UK
          • Supports independence movements
        • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group (APEC)
            • Regional trade and transportation
        • New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement
          • NZAFTA
    • Poverty & Inequality
      • Inequality
        • Australia and New Zealand
          • High overall GDP’s
          • High poverty amongst aboriginal peoples
        • Pacific Islands
          • Lower GDP’s
          • Subsistence affluence
    • Uranium
      • Testing of Bombs
        • US
          • Marshall Islands
          • Ends 1958
        • Great Britain
          • Western Australia
        • France
          • Began in 1966
          • French Polynesia
          • 150 Tests
          • Greenpeace protests
        • Uranium mines in Australia
    • Aboriginal Issues & Multiculturalism
      • New Zealand
        • Biculturalism
      • Australia
        • Few rights for aboriginals
        • The Stolen Generation
        • 1930s – reserves created
          • Remote, marginal land
          • 20% of the Northern Territories
          • Further land claims
          • Multiculturalism
    • Southeastern Australia
      • Australian Core Region
        • Queensland to Adelaide
          • 60% of Australia’s population
        • Main agricultural region
          • Wheat and cotton
        • Wine Region
          • 4 th largest exporter
          • World class wines
          • Barossa Valley
          • Hunter Valley
    • Southeastern Australia
      • Sydney
        • 4 million people
        • Gentrification
      • Canberra
        • Federal capital
        • Selected in 1909
      • Melbourne
        • Manufacturing center
        • 2 million people
        • Transport hub
    • Islands of the Pacific
      • Mining Landscapes
        • Social tensions
          • Destruction of environment
          • Export of profits
        • Nauru
          • Guano
          • Phosphate
        • New Caledonia
          • Nickel mines
          • Polluting refinery
        • Papua New Guinea
          • Copper mines
    • Islands of the Pacific
      • Tourist Landscapes
        • “ Tropical Paradise”
        • Bora Bora
          • Overdeveloped
        • Tourism facilitated by air travel and cruises
        • Boom – 1980 on
        • Major source of foreign exchange
        • 3 million tourists yearly
        • Ecotourism, eco-villages
    • End of Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman