World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox,  & Diana M...
South Asia <ul><li>Bordered By </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayan Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean  </li></u...
South Asia <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural villages extremely poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little acces...
Landforms <ul><li>Peninsular Highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deccan Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient lava fo...
Landforms <ul><li>The Mountain Rim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayan and Karakoram ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile...
Landforms <ul><li>The Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to the Great Dynasties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major rivers </l...
The Indus Plains <ul><li>Cultural Hearth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigatio...
Landforms <ul><li>The Coastal Fringe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed group of features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally na...
Climate <ul><li>Mountains and Seas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains isolate su...
Monsoons <ul><ul><li>Warm, moist air from the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collides with the mountains </li></ul></ul>...
Environmental History <ul><li>Indus Valley – 4,500 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harrapan culture – hydraulic culture </...
Environmental History <ul><li>Population Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel ...
South Asia in the World System <ul><li>Mauryan Empire (320 – 125  BC ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First empire in southern Asia...
South Asia in the World System <ul><li>Mughal India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic rule </...
British Imperialism <ul><li>British East India Co. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes out Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Independence & Partition <ul><li>Indian National Congress Party – 1887 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To promote greater democracy ...
Independence & Partition <ul><li>India, East and West Pakistan Created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest refugee movement ever...
South Asia in Today’s World <ul><li>Geopolitics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kashmir – Muslim militants and Chinese occupation </...
Tea <ul><li>Introduced to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Japan and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity quickly ...
Economic Transition <ul><li>India – World’s largest democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 th  largest industrial sector </li>...
Population <ul><li>1.35 Billion People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd  largest group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest growin...
Population Policies <ul><li>Concerns over population growth and urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources already sever...
South Asian Diaspora <ul><li>5 to 6 million in Europe, Africa, and North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for cheap la...
Culture <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Culture <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 different languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Major Families </li></...
Culture <ul><li>The Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship Grouping - Jati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, re...
Culture <ul><li>Contemporary Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large middles class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cricket – major ...
Ethnicity & Nationalism <ul><li>Areas of Political Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Punjab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Inequality & Gender <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiteracy, destitution – 100’s of millions </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Inequality & Gender <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffer pover...
The Grameen Bank <ul><li>Muhammad Yunus  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics Professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcredit ...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Deforestation, Water Shortages, Air and Water  Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakly enforce...
Regional Development <ul><li>1992 – Structural Economic Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in manufacturing </li></ul>...
Endangered Megafauna <ul><li>Loss of habitat and poaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheetah – disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Upper Ganga Plains <ul><li>Historical Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred river of Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cen...
Delhi <ul><li>Traditional Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major crossroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculturally product...
Damodar Valley & Hooghlyside <ul><li>Largest Manufacturing Region in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kolkata (Calcutta), major...
Kolkata <ul><li>12.9 million people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd  largest in south Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooghly R...
Mumbai-Pune <ul><li>Small and Isolated Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumbai (Bombay) - 18 million people </li></ul></ul><ul...
Bangalore <ul><li>High-Tech Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense and telecommunica...
End of Chapter 10: South Asia World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed.) Sallie A. Mar...
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Chapter 10

  1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 10: South Asia Robert M. Arthur
  2. 2. South Asia <ul><li>Bordered By </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayan Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Bengal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd densest population </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. South Asia <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural villages extremely poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little access to electricity and clean water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban dwellers distressed also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shantytowns, overcrowded cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful middle class pose a stark contrast </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Landforms <ul><li>Peninsular Highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deccan Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient lava formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the plateau region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The East and Western Ghats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Landforms <ul><li>The Mountain Rim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayan and Karakoram ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated villages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake prone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Landforms <ul><li>The Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to the Great Dynasties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculturally productive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Densest populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deserts and harsh environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the British set up their capital </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Indus Plains <ul><li>Cultural Hearth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inundation canals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tube wells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persian wheels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canal colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double cropping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Craft industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lahore – 6 million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karachi – 11.8 million </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Landforms <ul><li>The Coastal Fringe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed group of features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of large cities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Climate <ul><li>Mountains and Seas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains isolate surface air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orographic effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture from the seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool and dry winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot and dry from March to June </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>June to September is rainy season </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Monsoons <ul><ul><li>Warm, moist air from the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collides with the mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torrential Rainfall: 79 – 158 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of flooding – especially in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Environmental History <ul><li>Indus Valley – 4,500 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harrapan culture – hydraulic culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harrapa and Moenjodaro </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryan tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Vedic culture – cornerstone of Hinduism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settled the plains – agricultural groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British colonial trade marks the beginning of serious environmental degradation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Environmental History <ul><li>Population Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room for agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor sanitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginal farming </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. South Asia in the World System <ul><li>Mauryan Empire (320 – 125 BC ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First empire in southern Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Asoka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influential in establishing Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gupta Empire (320 – 480 AD ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The classical period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishments in arts, sciences, and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded trade </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. South Asia in the World System <ul><li>Mughal India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for arts and sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire collapses in early 1700s </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. British Imperialism <ul><li>British East India Co. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes out Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1690 – European trading outposts established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1773 British begin to control India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Raj – British Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Independence & Partition <ul><li>Indian National Congress Party – 1887 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To promote greater democracy and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from both the British and traditional princes Mohandas Ghandi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country divided along ethnic/religious lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic administrative district – Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principalities were decided by the Princes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Kashmir goes to India due to Hindu princes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Independence & Partition <ul><li>India, East and West Pakistan Created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest refugee movement ever recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting amongst groups as they passed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Pakistan fight for independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India assists – war over 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Pakistan – Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Pakistan – Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan and India continue to fight over Kashmir </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. South Asia in Today’s World <ul><li>Geopolitics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kashmir – Muslim militants and Chinese occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location – Cold War politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India and Pakistan possess nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 – Military dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ties with Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentalist uprising – mujahideen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully fight Soviets with aid from U.S., Saudi Arabia and Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1989 – Soviets retreat, Taliban take power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sept. 11, 2001 – U.S. “Operation Freedom” ousted the Taliban </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Tea <ul><li>Introduced to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Japan and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity quickly spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 million pounds yearly (1700) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British smuggle plants and expertise out of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations in Assam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez Canal speeds transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Lipton establishes plantations in Ceylon </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Economic Transition <ul><li>India – World’s largest democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 th largest industrial sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 instituted reforms to open up economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid middle class growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 million: well-educated, sophisticated consumers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still massive poverty – 390 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other South Asian countries not doing as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) - 1985 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Population <ul><li>1.35 Billion People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd largest group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High densities throughout most of the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good agricultural regions have highest densities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Along rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 - 1 million + cities </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Population Policies <ul><li>Concerns over population growth and urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources already severely taxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India began in 1952 – not successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s, coerced vasectomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on punishments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public backlash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People distrustful of family planning programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female education, status, and wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to lower birth rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on educating women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. South Asian Diaspora <ul><li>5 to 6 million in Europe, Africa, and North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for cheap labor after abolishing slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain drain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to Britain, then students remaining in U.S. and Europe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Culture <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>India, Sri Lanka, and Nepal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Maldives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sikhs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punjab region </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Culture <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 different languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Major Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Bihari, and Urdu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Munda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal tongue spoken in remote peninsular hill regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dravidian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil, Telegu, Kanarese, and Malayalam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibeto-Burmese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered across the Himalayan region </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Culture <ul><li>The Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship Grouping - Jati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, region, and occupation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endogamous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born into caste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norms of interaction between classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmins (religious leaders) at the top </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Untouchables at the bottom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts have been made to alleviate conditions of untouchables </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Culture <ul><li>Contemporary Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large middles class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cricket – major sport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bollywood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>India’s movie industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture exported from South Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mysticism and yoga </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food - curry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Ethnicity & Nationalism <ul><li>Areas of Political Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Punjab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh separatists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic separatists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between India, China, and Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mohajir Quami Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhutan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nepali immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil tigers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic separatist movements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Inequality & Gender <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiteracy, destitution – 100’s of millions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kolkata – 700,000 homeless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shantytowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal economic sector </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Inequality & Gender <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffer poverty the most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform most of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uneducated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few property rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted public behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bride burning” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-help movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children even worse off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bonded labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Grameen Bank <ul><li>Muhammad Yunus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics Professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcredit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12,000 employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>98% repayment rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$120 – typical loan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>95% women borrowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replicated worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Deforestation, Water Shortages, Air and Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakly enforced environmental laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation results in $13.8 billion of yearly losses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1984 – Bhopal Disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Union Carbide plant releases poisonous gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6000 killed, 100’s of thousands injured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tarbela Dam ruining Mangrove forests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish stocks near depletion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wells to supply water, contaminated with arsenic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Regional Development <ul><li>1992 – Structural Economic Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneven economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development in urban areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural areas continue to decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift in agriculture to lucrative export crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local foods more scarce and more expensive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Endangered Megafauna <ul><li>Loss of habitat and poaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheetah – disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bengal tiger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$50,000 to poachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government criticized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian elephant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tusks for ivory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Upper Ganga Plains <ul><li>Historical Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred river of Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of British Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to support population density surpassed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food processing, textiles, glassmaking, crafts, and carpets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Delhi <ul><li>Traditional Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major crossroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculturally productive region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chandni Chowk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planned city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern government buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric street patterns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Damodar Valley & Hooghlyside <ul><li>Largest Manufacturing Region in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kolkata (Calcutta), major port facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalfields and iron ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damodar River supplies power and water for steel industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering, metallurgy, food processing, petrochemicals and book publishing industries </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Kolkata <ul><li>12.9 million people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd largest in south Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooghly River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital of British India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1772 – 1911 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major commercial and industrial city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slums and urban decay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squatters and homeless </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Mumbai-Pune <ul><li>Small and Isolated Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumbai (Bombay) - 18 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major British port - India’s first railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles, automotive, consumer goods, chemicals, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, food processing, printing and film making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slums – site and service </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Bangalore <ul><li>High-Tech Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense and telecommunication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science and technology center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affluent population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compaq, Motorola, Nexus, Oracle, Texas Instruments, Verizon, Philips Electronics, and Daimler Benz </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. End of Chapter 10: South Asia World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman
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