World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd . ed) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 1: A World of Regions Robert M. Arthur
Global differences in Cultures, Resources, Capital, Spatial Organization, & Territoriality
Appreciate the variety of the world’s people and places
Understand the relationships between the world’s communities
Help with regional, national & global development
The Power of Geography
Examines how natural forces shape the Earth
How human interaction modifies the environment and the spatial organization of human activity
Combines both physical & human approaches
Holistic examination of territories
The Power of Geography
Large size territories (such as counties, provinces, and countries, or large sections of countries such as the Midwest USA) that encompass many places, all or most of which share a set of attributes that differ from the attributes of places that make up a different region.
A World of Regions
Regions are dynamic, changing
A two-way process of people’s activities changing their environment and people being affected by their environment
Created by people responding to the opportunities and constraints presented by their environments
Setting the Boundaries – World Regions
High degree of homogeneity
Characterized by functional organization of human occupancy
The Regional Approach
Geography & Interdependence
“ The tangible partitioning of space within which different processes operate”
The geographer’s classification of individual places or areal units
The geographers equivalent of scientific classification
Boundaries and Frontiers
Define space, encompass territory.
Allow the flow of goods and people across them.
Act as barriers to movement of goods and people.
Regionalism & Sectionalism
When individuals begin to relate stronger to their region than their country, then separatist movements can occur.
Geopolitical Framework Nations vs. States Ethnic Separatism – Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Forces Basques in Spain
Globalization The increasing interconnectedness of the world’s regions.
Technological Factors -
Advances in communications
Advances in information handling
Advances in transportation
Economic factors –
Trade associations between countries
Political factors –
Supranational governments (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, etc)
Issues of Scale
Global to Local
Example of Call Centers (Back Office Jobs)
Are we in Nebraska or in India??
Call Center in Mumbai, India
Globalization and Population Change
Unevenly distributed, 3 major areas of high density, China, India & Europe.
Near water, oceans, seas, lakes or rivers, temperate, low lying areas with fertile soils.
6 billion now, projected to rise to 10 billion by 2050.
Demographic Transition Model
Attempts to link population growth to Industrial Growth.
Population Growth and Change
Age–Sex Structure of Populations
Globalization and Cultural Change
The global spread of common architectural forms, dress, ‘fast food’, entertainment, & the English language.
These changes do have local character and are not universal.
Many local fashions, foods, etc. are exported around the world, not just those of the developed world.
Diversity Amid Globalization
Human and Physical Environments
Continual Reorganization of Global and Local Geographies
Figure 1.0 Contemporary and Traditional Landscapes in Shanghai
Alternative Images of Globalization Southwestern India Washington, D.C. demonstration Guilin, China
Cultural Globalization McDonald’s in Thailand … … Linguistic Diversity in Maryland
Economic Globalization – Formal Figure 1.10
Economic Globalization – Informal Figure 1.6
Economic Development, Technology, and Social Well-Being
Uneven global distribution of natural resources and of energy sources
Favors a few countries while leaving others disadvantaged