Chapt25 lecture


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Chapt25 lecture

  1. 1. William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Mary Ann Cunningham Vassar College Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Chapter 25 Lecture Outline *
  2. 2. What Then Shall We Do?
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Environmental Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Careers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How Much is Enough? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Consumerism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainline and Radical Environmental Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campus Greening </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is a Global Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Assessment </li></ul>What Then Shall We Do?
  4. 4. Environmental Education <ul><li>In 1990, Congress passed the National Education Act establishing two goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve understanding among the general public of the natural and built environment and the relationships between humans and their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage post-secondary students to pursue careers related to the environment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Environmental Literacy <ul><li>William Reilly , former EPA administrator, called for environmental literacy in which every citizen is fluent in the principles of ecology and has a working knowledge of the environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster a stewardship ethic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Environmental Education
  7. 8. Citizen Science <ul><li>Ordinary people join with established scientists to answer real scientific questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-based research was pioneered in the Netherlands in when they combined researchers with students and neighborhood groups to work on research projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Audubon Society sponsors a annual Christmas Bird Count. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthwatch International and American River Watch are also examples of enlisting the public in scientific research projects. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Environmental Careers <ul><li>Trained people in environmental professions, at every level from support staff to managers to educators are essential, and those roles will only increase in importance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wildlife Fund estimates 750,000 new jobs in renewable energy in next 10 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental education </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Green Business <ul><li>Can resource conservation and environmental awareness be an advantage in business? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most large companies have an environmental department. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies are beginning to design with pollution control and waste disposal in mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge market for pollution control technology </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Environmental Technician Taking Samples
  11. 12. How Much Is Enough? <ul><li>Veblen in Theory of the Leisure Class coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe buying things we do not need in order to impress others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average American now consumes twice as many goods and services as in 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An average house in the U.S. is now more than twice as big as 50 years ago, even though the typical family has half the number of people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We need the additional space to hold all the stuff we buy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. How Much Is Enough? <ul><li>Growing number of people find themselves stuck in a vicious cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work frantically at a job they hate, to buy things they don’t need, so they can save time to work longer hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some, however, take a cue from Thoreau and are adopting more simple, less consumptive lifestyles. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. We Can Reduce Our Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Even small steps can have significant environmental effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switching from a diet high in red meat to a vegetarian one can save as much energy as trading in a normal car for a hybrid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It takes only about 2 calories of fossil fuel to grow one calorie of energy in a fruit or vegetable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ratio is as high as 80 to 1 for cattle grown in confined feeding operations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. “Green Washing” Can Confuse Consumers <ul><li>Many terms used in advertising are vague and have little meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nontoxic, biodegradable, recyclable, natural, organic, environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several national programs scientifically analyze the environmental impacts of products. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Angel label in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Seal program in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most comprehensive product analysis is called life cycle analysis , as it follows a product through its manufacture, use and disposal. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Life Cycle Analysis of Products
  16. 18. Limits of Green Consumerism <ul><li>Often, consumers are faced with complicated comparisons and choices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper or plastic grocery bags? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both have good and bad points, and represent trade-offs in energy use, pollution production, ability to recycle, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you have both paper and plastic recycling, plastic is probably better because it is easier to recycle and produces less pollution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A better choice may be to take your own cloth bag. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Limits of Green Consumerism <ul><li>Focus on doing your best to recycle, buy green products, and be involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Green consumerism generally can do little about larger issues of global equality, chronic poverty, and oppression in the Third World. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a danger that an exclusive focus on our own small steps, such as recycling, may divert attention from greater environmental issues. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. How Can We Work Together? <ul><li>Collective action can magnify the power of individuals. For this reason, many people join environmental or social action groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainline Environmental Groups Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Wildlife Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wildlife Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Audubon Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sierra Club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducks Unlimited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources Defense Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Wilderness Society </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Growth of Environmental Organizations
  20. 22. Mainline Environmental Groups <ul><li>Mass membership, large professional staffs, and long history provide these groups a degree of respectability and influence not found in newer, smaller groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainline environmental organizations are often criticized by radical environmentalists for their tendency to compromise and cooperate with the establishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These groups have local chapters, a good way for you to become involved </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Mainline Environmental Groups <ul><li>Some groups have limited contact with members and focus instead on land acquisition, litigation and lobbying. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Defense Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature Conservancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Resources Defense Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilderness Society </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Radical Groups Capture Media Attention <ul><li>Direct Action Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth First! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Shepherd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenpeace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often associated with deep ecology - profoundly biocentric worldview </li></ul><ul><li>Use creative tactics such as street theater and civil disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>How far should you go in disobeying rules to change public opinion? </li></ul>
  23. 26. Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) <ul><li>Rapid rise in international NGOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rio Summit in 1992 had 30,000 representatives of environmental groups attending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out public education and consciousness-raising using protest marches and civil disobedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation International does debt for nature swaps </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Campus Greening <ul><li>Student Environmental Action Coalition (SEAC) is largest group with some 5000 chapters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a chapter on your campus? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another important student organizing group is the network of Public Interest Research Groups. </li></ul><ul><li>You can learn to organize, use media to get your message out. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Step it Up” campaign about global warming was done via internet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic environmentalism allowed them to organize more than 800 events. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Schools Can Be Environmental Leaders <ul><li>Schools can do campus audits to study water and energy use, waste disposal, recycling, paper consumption, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>New buildings should meet U.S. Green Building Council standards. It does not cost any more to build in an environmentally friendly way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At Carnegie Mellon in Pittsburgh, a kiosk in the dorm shows daily energy use and there are green dorms with natural lighting, clean air and few allergens. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Colleges Showing Environmental Leadership <ul><li>Dartmouth, Harvard, Stanford and Williams rank at the top for green policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Berea College in Kentucky got special commendation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berea’s ecovillage has a student designed house that produces its own electricity and treats waste water in a living system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College has a full time sustainability coordinator </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Your Campus Can Reduce Energy Usage <ul><li>Your campus can reduce energy use by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purchasing fuel efficient vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using green building standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purchasing energy from renewable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>buying locally produced foods </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Sustainability is a Global Challenge <ul><li>Sustainable Development - use renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing countries need access to more-efficient, less-polluting technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology transfer and financial aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty is at the core of many problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The $350 billion/yr needed is small compared to the $1 trillion/yr spent on wars and military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to find compromise between no-growth and unlimited growth </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. A Model For Sustainable Development
  30. 33. Millennium Assessment <ul><li>Millennium Assessment done by the U.N. in 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of us depend on ecosystems to provide conditions for decent life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have made unprecedented demands on ecosystems to meet growing demands for food, water, fibers for clothing and energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These changes improved humans but weakened nature’s ability to purify air and water, protect from disasters. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Millennium Assessment in 2000 <ul><ul><li>Outstanding problems include the dire state of the world’s fish stocks, the vulnerability of people living in dry regions, and the growing threat of global warming and pollution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human actions have taken the planet to the edge of a massive wave of extinctions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of ecosystem services is a barrier to reducing poverty, hunger, and disease. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Millennium Assessment in 2000 <ul><ul><li>Pressures on ecosystems will increase globally unless we change our actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation is more likely to succeed if local communities are given ownership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s technology can reduce human impact, but it is unlikely to be deployed fully until we stop thinking of ecosystem services as free and limitless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better protection of natural assets requires coordinated efforts of governments, business, and international institutions. </li></ul></ul>