Molecules of Life Chapter 22 Great Idea: A cell’s major parts are constructed from a few simple molecular building blocks
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Organic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins: The Workhorses of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrat...
Organic Molecules
Four Basic Characteristics <ul><li>Most molecules based on chemistry of carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </l...
Four Basic Characteristics – cont. <ul><li>Molecules composed of simple building blocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged dif...
Atoms in the Human Body
<ul><li>No H atoms or bonds to H are shown </li></ul><ul><li>C atoms are not shown explicitly </li></ul>Chemical Shorthand...
Science in the Making <ul><li>The synthesis of urea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friedrich Wohler </li></ul></ul>
Proteins:  The Workhorses of Life
Amino Acids:  Building Blocks of Proteins <ul><li>Amino acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carboxyl group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Amino Acid Structure
Distinctive Side Chain on  Amino Acids
Amino Acids - cont. <ul><li>Bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H bonds with OH  ...
Proteins <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain of amino acids </li></ul></...
Structural Proteins
The Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Primary structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear sequence of amino acids </li></ul></ul><u...
The Structure of Proteins
Science by the Numbers <ul><li>How many proteins can you make? </li></ul>
Proteins as Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific shape and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilita...
An Enzyme in Action
Computer-Generated Image  of an Enzyme in Action
The Science of Life <ul><li>Proteins and diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-...
Essential Amino Acids in  Eggs and Cornmeal
Balanced Protein Meal
How Drugs Work <ul><li>Blocking enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block active site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules canno...
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C, H, O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplest - sugars  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Glucose
Fructose
Polysaccharides
Lipids
Lipids <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Lipids and Water Are  Immiscible
Structure of a Phospholipid
Saturated and  Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>Saturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is fully bonded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids
Technology <ul><li>Nonfattening fats </li></ul>
Cell Membranes <ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul>
Lipid Bilayer
Minerals and Vitamins
Vitamin and Mineral  Supplements
Minerals <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All chemical elements except C, H, N, O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </l...
RDAs for Minerals
Vitamins <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be taken in with food </...
Types of Vitamins <ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins B & C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul>...
Citrus Fruit and Vitamin C
RDAs for Vitamins
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Ch22

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Ch22

  1. 1. Molecules of Life Chapter 22 Great Idea: A cell’s major parts are constructed from a few simple molecular building blocks
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Organic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins: The Workhorses of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals and Vitamins </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organic Molecules
  4. 4. Four Basic Characteristics <ul><li>Most molecules based on chemistry of carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life’s molecules form from few elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H, O, C, N  97.5% of body weight </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Four Basic Characteristics – cont. <ul><li>Molecules composed of simple building blocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged differently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape determines behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines ability for bonding </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Atoms in the Human Body
  7. 7. <ul><li>No H atoms or bonds to H are shown </li></ul><ul><li>C atoms are not shown explicitly </li></ul>Chemical Shorthand Shorthand
  8. 8. Science in the Making <ul><li>The synthesis of urea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friedrich Wohler </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Proteins: The Workhorses of Life
  10. 10. Amino Acids: Building Blocks of Proteins <ul><li>Amino acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carboxyl group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes amino acid unique </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Amino Acid Structure
  12. 12. Distinctive Side Chain on Amino Acids
  13. 13. Amino Acids - cont. <ul><li>Bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H bonds with OH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms peptide bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polypeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Proteins <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 20 amino acids in living organisms </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structural Proteins
  16. 16. The Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Primary structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear sequence of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending due to hydrogen bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disulfide bridges and other bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one polypeptide chain </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Structure of Proteins
  18. 18. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>How many proteins can you make? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Proteins as Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific shape and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. An Enzyme in Action
  21. 21. Computer-Generated Image of an Enzyme in Action
  22. 22. The Science of Life <ul><li>Proteins and diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-quality proteins </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Essential Amino Acids in Eggs and Cornmeal
  24. 24. Balanced Protein Meal
  25. 25. How Drugs Work <ul><li>Blocking enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block active site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules cannot bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction does not take place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape of molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block membrane transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Carbohydrates
  27. 27. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C, H, O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplest - sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C n H 2n O n </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Glucose
  29. 29. Fructose
  30. 30. Polysaccharides
  31. 31. Lipids
  32. 32. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up cell membrane </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Lipids and Water Are Immiscible
  34. 34. Structure of a Phospholipid
  35. 35. Saturated and Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>Saturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is fully bonded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis of cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogenation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids
  37. 37. Technology <ul><li>Nonfattening fats </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cell Membranes <ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Lipid Bilayer
  40. 40. Minerals and Vitamins
  41. 41. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
  42. 42. Minerals <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All chemical elements except C, H, N, O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% of weight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. RDAs for Minerals
  44. 44. Vitamins <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be taken in with food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except vitamin D </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist enzymes </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Types of Vitamins <ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins B & C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins A, D, E, & K </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Citrus Fruit and Vitamin C
  47. 47. RDAs for Vitamins
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