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Ch21
 

Ch21

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    Ch21 Ch21 Presentation Transcript

    • The Living Cell Chapter 21 Great Idea: Life is based on chemistry, and chemistry takes place in cells
    • Chapter Outline
      • The Nature and Variety of Cells
      • How Does a Cell Work?
      • Metabolism: Energy and Life
      • Cell Division
    • The Nature and Variety of Cells
    • The Cell Theory
      • All living things are composed of one or more cells
      • The cell is the fundamental unit of life
      • All cells arise from previous cells
    • Science in the Making
      • The discovery of cells
        • Robert Hooke
        • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • Cork Cells
    • Observing Cells: The Microscope
      • Early microscopes
      • Light microscope
      • Electron microscope
    • Light Microscope
    • Electron Microscope
    • Electron Microscope and Photograph
    • How Does a Cell Work?
    • The Cell Is Like a Refinery
    • Cell Membranes
      • Cell membranes
        • Isolate cell
        • Separates cell parts
      • Transport
        • Individual molecules
        • Specific materials
          • Channels
    • Membrane Lipid Bilayer
    • Cell Membranes – cont.
      • Receptors
        • Bind molecules
      • Cell Wall
        • Plants
    • The Action of Cell Receptors
    • Plant Cell
    • Plant Cell
    • The Nucleus
      • Nucleus
        • Contains genetic material
      • Prokaryotes
        • No nucleus
      • Eukaryotes
        • Nucleus
      • Double Membrane
    • Nucleus Surrounded by a Double Membrane
    • Terms Related to Cells and Single-Celled Organisms
    • Plant Cell
    • Animal Cell
    • Energy Organelle - Chloroplasts
      • Organelle
        • Specialized structure in cell
      • Chloroplasts
        • Energy transformation
          • Chlorophyll
        • Plant cells only
        • Double membrane
        • Own DNA
    • Energy Organelle – Mitochondria
      • Mitochondria
        • Produces cells energy
        • Double membrane
        • Own DNA
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Cytoskeleton
        • Gives cell shape
        • Anchors
        • Allows movement
        • Transport system
          • Within cell
      • Structure
        • Strong filaments
        • Complex web
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Organelles and Their Functions
    • Metabolism: Energy and Life
    • The Cell’s Energy Currency
      • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
        • Provides energy
      • Structure
        • 3 phosphate groups
        • Sugar molecule: ribose
        • Adenine
      • Function
        • Removal of phosphate group provides energy
    • Structure of ATP
    • Photosynthesis
      • Photosynthesis
        • Convert sunlight to energy
      • Process
        • Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O  carbohydrate + O 2
      • Colors
    • Photosynthesis
    • Glycolysis: The First Step in Energy Generation in the Cell
      • Respiration
        • Oxidation of carbohydrate
        • Retrieves energy in glucose
        • Aerobic
    • Glycolysis
      • Process
        • Glycolysis
          • Split glucose
          • Result
            • 2 pyruvic acid
            • 2 ATP
            • 2 energy carriers
          • Convert energy carriers to 2–3 ATP
        • 1 molecule glucose = 6–8 ATP
    • Glycolysis
    • Fermentation: A Way to Keep Glycolysis Going
      • Fermentation
        • Anaerobic
        • Inefficient
      • Yeast
        • Alcohol
      • Animal cells
        • Lactic acid
    • Uses of Fermentation
    • The Final Stages of Respiration
      • Krebs cycle
        • Glucose broken down
        • CO 2 produced
        • ATP
        • Energy-carrying molecules
      • Result
        • 36–38 ATP
    • Water Vapor Expelled during Respiration
    • Cell Division
    • Mitosis
      • Mitosis
        • Cell division
        • Not for sexual reproduction
      • Chromosomes
      • Process
        • Copy chromosomes
        • Spindle fibers
        • Migration of chromosomes
        • Nuclear membrane reforms
    • Mitosis
    • Human Cell Dividing
    • Meiosis
      • Meiosis
        • Sexual reproduction
        • 1 cell forms 4 gametes
          • Gametes are genetically unique
          • Contain half the number of chromosomes
    • Process of Meiosis
      • Process
        • Copy chromosomes
        • Crossing over
        • Segregation
        • Segregation again
      • Result
        • 4 daughter cells
        • ½ normal number of chromosomes
    • Meiosis
    • Crossing Over
    • Thinking More about Cells
      • Biochemical evidence for evolution