Ch19

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Ch19

  1. 1. Ecology, Ecosystems, and the Environment Chapter 19 Great Idea: Ecosystems are interdependent communities of living things that recycle matter while energy flows through.
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Ecology and Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Unintended Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to the Global Ecosystem and Environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ecology and Ecosystems
  4. 4. Ecology and Ecosystems <ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural living systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic and abiotic components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers, consumers, decomposers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ecosystems
  6. 6. Characteristics of Ecosystems <ul><li>Every ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flows through ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is recycled by ecosystems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Ecosystems – cont. <ul><li>Every organism occupies an ecological niche </li></ul><ul><li>Stable ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems are not permanent, but change over time </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ecosystems Consist of Living and Nonliving Parts <ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical and physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All interacting individuals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Flows through Ecosystems <ul><li>Food Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions of organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most energy is lost as heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% is transferred </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Matter is Recycled by Ecosystems <ul><li>Atoms continuously cycle </li></ul>
  11. 11. Every Organism Occupies an Ecological Niche <ul><li>Ecological niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode of survival </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each plant/animal fills a niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms compete for dominance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stable Ecosystems Achieve a Balance among Their Populations <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance among populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources are limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some variation in populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall relatively constant </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ecosystems Not Permanent - but Change over Time <ul><li>Long time scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short time scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human impact </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Law of Unintended Consequences <ul><li>It is virtually impossible to change one aspect of a complex system without affecting other parts of the systems, often in as-yet unpredictable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi levees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everglades Restoration Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Victoria </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Lake Victoria Disaster <ul><li>Lake Victoria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest freshwater lake in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduced species-Nile perch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive predator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae blooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snail populations carry disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roasting fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decimated forests </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in shoreline erosion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lake Victoria and the Nile Perch
  17. 17. Science in the Making <ul><li>Island biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert MacArthur and Edward Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson and Daniel Simberloff </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Threats to the Global Ecosystem and Environment
  19. 19. The Problem of Urban Landfills <ul><li>Solid Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing is ever thrown away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay slowed enormously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large depositories </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Different Kinds of Trash in Urban Landfills
  21. 21. Technology <ul><li>The science of recycling </li></ul>
  22. 22. Acid Rain and Urban Air Pollution <ul><li>Burning introduces chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, hydrocarbons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of bad ozone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Los Angeles, CA
  24. 24. Acid Rain
  25. 25. Acid Rain Destruction
  26. 26. Reduction of Air Pollution
  27. 27. The Ozone Problem <ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule of 3 oxygen atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs ultraviolet radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ozone layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft sampling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure spectral lines from molecule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest concentration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Ozone Layer
  29. 29. The Ozone Problem - cont. <ul><li>The ozone hole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of ozone reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly occurrence over Antarctica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks apart O 3 molecule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the threat to the ozone layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of CFCs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Lower Ozone over Antarctica
  31. 31. The Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps heat on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 main points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is a greenhouse gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fossil fuels increases CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average global temperature has significantly increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990s warmest decade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The Greenhouse Effect
  33. 33. Carbon Dioxide Production Trend
  34. 34. Debates about Global Climate Change <ul><li>Increased CO 2 levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for temperature increase? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World’s oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 exchange with atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar energy output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies over time </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Debates about Global Climate Change – cont. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warming of Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorological impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyoto accord </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. “ Little Ice Age”
  37. 37. Coastal Flooding
  38. 38. The Ongoing Process of Science <ul><li>Dealing with the greenhouse effect </li></ul>

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