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Ch18

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  • 1. Earth’s Many Cycles Chapter 18 Great Idea: All matter above and beneath Earth’s surface moves in cycles.
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Cycles Small and Large
    • The Hydrologic Cycle
    • The Atmospheric Cycle
    • The Rock Cycle
  • 3. Cycles Small and Large
  • 4. Recycling
    • Where did the aluminum can go?
    • Atoms last virtually forever
      • Different forms
        • Lava flow bonded to oxygen
        • Solid rock
        • Soil
        • Aluminum metal
    • Recycling saves energy
  • 5. Recycling Aluminum Cans
  • 6. The Nature of Earth’s Cycle
    • Earth materials move in cycles
    • A change in one cycle affects the others
    • Atoms constantly moving and recycling
      • Reservoirs
      • Hydrologic cycle
      • Atmospheric cycle
      • Rock cycle
    • Heat
      • Hot  cold
      • Sources
        • Sun
        • Geothermal processes
  • 7. The Hydrologic Cycle
  • 8. Reservoirs of Water
    • Amount of water on earth is fixed
    • Major repositories
      • Ice caps
      • Glaciers
    • Unseen reservoirs
      • Groundwater
        • Aquifers
  • 9. Major Repositories of Water
  • 10. Movements of Water between Reservoirs
    • Hydrologic cycle
      • Short-term transfer of water between ocean and land
  • 11. Glaciers and Ice Caps Store Water
  • 12. The Hydrologic Cycle
  • 13. Ocean Currents
    • Redistribute heat across planet
  • 14. The Science of Life
    • Sobering facts about Earth’s water
      • 96% is salty
      • Less than 1% is readily available for human use
  • 15. Chemical Cycles in the Oceans
    • Chemicals in constant motion
    • Saltiness
      • Constant over several hundred million years
      • Primarily determined by Na + and Cl - ions
      • Residence time
    • Chemical cycle
  • 16. Residence Times for Elements in the Ocean
  • 17. Great Salt Lake, Utah US
  • 18. The Science of LIfe
    • Element residence times
      • Human body
  • 19. Science by the Numbers
    • The ocean’s gold
      • How much is present?
  • 20. Ice Ages
    • Ice Age
      • Water locked in glaciers
      • Glaciers advance from poles
    • Current ice age
      • Interglacial period
    • Earth’s total water is fixed
      • Ice caps, glaciers grow
      • Sea level drops
  • 21. North American Glaciation
  • 22. Milankovitch Cycles
    • Milutin Milankovitch
      • Serbian civil engineer
      • Relationship between earth and sun are affected by variations in earth’s rotation and orbit
    • Precession
    • Change in angle of axis of rotation
  • 23. Relationship of the Earth’s Tilt to the Seasons
  • 24. Precession of the Earth’s Axis
  • 25. Science in the Making
    • Milankovitch decides on his life’s work
  • 26. The Atmospheric Cycle
  • 27. Air Masses: Reservoirs of the Atmosphere
    • Air mass
      • Uniform temperature and moisture
    • Weather
      • State of the atmosphere
    • Climate
      • Long-term average of weather
  • 28. Low-Pressure System
  • 29. Weather
    • Five variables define state of atmosphere
      • Temperature
        • Ground level
      • Air pressure
        • Decreases with altitude
        • Jet stream
  • 30. Jet Stream
  • 31. Weather – cont.
      • Humidity
        • Atmospheric water content
      • Cloudiness
        • Concentration of water droplets
      • Prevailing winds
        • Consequence of atmospheric convecti on
  • 32. Clouds and Rain; Windward Side of Mountains
  • 33. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
    • Circulation powered by Sun
      • Air heated and rises
      • Cools and sinks
    • Prevailing winds
      • Caused by Earth’s rotation
  • 34. If the Earth Did Not Rotate
  • 35. Atmospheric Convection Due to the Earth’s Rotation
  • 36. Common Storms and Weather Patterns
    • Severe weather
      • Tropical storms
        • Hurricanes
        • Typhoons
      • Tornadoes
    • Weather cycle
      • El Nino
  • 37. Hurricane
  • 38. Tornado
  • 39. The Ongoing Process of Science
    • How steady is the Earth’s climate?
      • Can change drastically and quickly
        • Evidence
  • 40. Understanding Climate
    • Long-term climate
      • Oceans
      • Mountains
      • Sunlight
        • Amount radiated back to space
    • Prediction
      • Global circulation models
  • 41. Technology
    • Doppler radar
  • 42. The Rock Cycle
  • 43. Igneous Rocks
    • Igneous rocks
      • Solidify from hot liquid
    • Types
      • Extrusive
        • Solidify at surface
      • Intrusive
        • Solidify below surface
  • 44. Igneous Rocks
  • 45. Granite
  • 46. Sedimentary Rocks
    • Sedimentary rock
      • From grains of weathered rock
    • Formation
      • Compaction
      • Cementation
    • Examples
      • Sandstone
      • Shale
      • Limestone
  • 47. Sedimentary Rocks
  • 48. Sand
  • 49. The Science of Life
    • Coral reefs
  • 50. Metamorphic Rocks
    • Metamorphic rock
      • Pressure and heat
        • Not enough heat to melt
    • Examples
      • Slate
      • Schists
      • Gneisses
      • Quartzite
  • 51. Metamorphic Rocks
  • 52. The Story of Marble
    • Marble
      • Metamorphic rock
    • Process of formation
      • Begin as limestone
      • Subjected to heat and pressure
      • Erosion exposes rocks
  • 53. Lincoln Memorial
  • 54. Science in the Making
    • James Hutton and the discovery of “deep time”
  • 55. Stages in the History of the Jedburgh Outcrop
  • 56. Thinking More about Cycles
    • Beach erosion

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