Ch18

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Ch18

  1. 1. Earth’s Many Cycles Chapter 18 Great Idea: All matter above and beneath Earth’s surface moves in cycles.
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Cycles Small and Large </li></ul><ul><li>The Hydrologic Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The Atmospheric Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The Rock Cycle </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cycles Small and Large
  4. 4. Recycling <ul><li>Where did the aluminum can go? </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms last virtually forever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lava flow bonded to oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum metal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycling saves energy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Recycling Aluminum Cans
  6. 6. The Nature of Earth’s Cycle <ul><li>Earth materials move in cycles </li></ul><ul><li>A change in one cycle affects the others </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms constantly moving and recycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot  cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal processes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Hydrologic Cycle
  8. 8. Reservoirs of Water <ul><li>Amount of water on earth is fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Major repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice caps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unseen reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aquifers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Major Repositories of Water
  10. 10. Movements of Water between Reservoirs <ul><li>Hydrologic cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term transfer of water between ocean and land </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Glaciers and Ice Caps Store Water
  12. 12. The Hydrologic Cycle
  13. 13. Ocean Currents <ul><li>Redistribute heat across planet </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Science of Life <ul><li>Sobering facts about Earth’s water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>96% is salty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1% is readily available for human use </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chemical Cycles in the Oceans <ul><li>Chemicals in constant motion </li></ul><ul><li>Saltiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant over several hundred million years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily determined by Na + and Cl - ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residence time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical cycle </li></ul>
  16. 16. Residence Times for Elements in the Ocean
  17. 17. Great Salt Lake, Utah US
  18. 18. The Science of LIfe <ul><li>Element residence times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human body </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>The ocean’s gold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much is present? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ice Ages <ul><li>Ice Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water locked in glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers advance from poles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current ice age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interglacial period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s total water is fixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice caps, glaciers grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level drops </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. North American Glaciation
  22. 22. Milankovitch Cycles <ul><li>Milutin Milankovitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbian civil engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between earth and sun are affected by variations in earth’s rotation and orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precession </li></ul><ul><li>Change in angle of axis of rotation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Relationship of the Earth’s Tilt to the Seasons
  24. 24. Precession of the Earth’s Axis
  25. 25. Science in the Making <ul><li>Milankovitch decides on his life’s work </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Atmospheric Cycle
  27. 27. Air Masses: Reservoirs of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Air mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform temperature and moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term average of weather </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Low-Pressure System
  29. 29. Weather <ul><li>Five variables define state of atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases with altitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jet stream </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Jet Stream
  31. 31. Weather – cont. <ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric water content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of water droplets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailing winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence of atmospheric convecti on </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Clouds and Rain; Windward Side of Mountains
  33. 33. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Circulation powered by Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air heated and rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cools and sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevailing winds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by Earth’s rotation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. If the Earth Did Not Rotate
  35. 35. Atmospheric Convection Due to the Earth’s Rotation
  36. 36. Common Storms and Weather Patterns <ul><li>Severe weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical storms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Nino </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Hurricane
  38. 38. Tornado
  39. 39. The Ongoing Process of Science <ul><li>How steady is the Earth’s climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change drastically and quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Understanding Climate <ul><li>Long-term climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount radiated back to space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global circulation models </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Technology <ul><li>Doppler radar </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Rock Cycle
  43. 43. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Igneous rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solidify from hot liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solidify at surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solidify below surface </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Igneous Rocks
  45. 45. Granite
  46. 46. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Sedimentary rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From grains of weathered rock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Sedimentary Rocks
  48. 48. Sand
  49. 49. The Science of Life <ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul>
  50. 50. Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Metamorphic rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure and heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough heat to melt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gneisses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartzite </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Metamorphic Rocks
  52. 52. The Story of Marble <ul><li>Marble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphic rock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process of formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin as limestone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjected to heat and pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion exposes rocks </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Lincoln Memorial
  54. 54. Science in the Making <ul><li>James Hutton and the discovery of “deep time” </li></ul>
  55. 55. Stages in the History of the Jedburgh Outcrop
  56. 56. Thinking More about Cycles <ul><li>Beach erosion </li></ul>

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