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Ch18

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  • http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hawaii/Maps/map_location_hawaii.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. HAWAII (Chapter 18) E. J. PALKA
    • 2. Introduction
      • Should Hawaii be included within North America?
        • One of the fifty states
        • Cultural, historical, and economic ties with the mainland
        • Strategic location
      • A distinct entity
        • Physical separation from the continent
        • Relative isolation
        • Distinctiveness of physical and cultural landscapes
        • Distinct flora and fauna
    • 3. Hawaii (page 361)
    • 4. Geology
      • Visible portion of a series of massive volcanoes
      • Mauna Kea , on Hawaii (the “Big Island”), possibly the world's tallest mountain
        • Elevation is 4528 meters (13,784 feet), but the mountain extends more than 5400 meters 18,000 feet below sea level.
      • Several active volcanoes, including Mauna Loa on the Big Island
      • Spectacular sea cliffs: northeast side of Molokai among the world's highest at 1150 meters (3600 feet) formed by wave action
    • 5.  
    • 6. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the largest and one of the most active volcanoes on earth
    • 7. Climate
        • Tropical location (entirely south of Tropic of Cancer)
        • Maritime influence dominant
        • Temperatures
          • Highest temperatures September and October
          • Lowest temperatures early March
          • Minimal temperature ranges
            • Record high of 31° C (88° F)
            • Record low of 13° C (57° F)
    • 8. Climate: Precipitation
      • Stronger seasonal variation than temperature
        • Drier summer May to October
        • Moister winter October to April
      • Orographic rainfall
        • North and east sides of islands rainier
        • Greatest rainfall at low elevations
        • Kauai
          • Mount Waialeale about 1234 cm (486 inches) of rain each year (one of the wettest places in the world)
          • Waimea , 25 km (15 miles) away, less than 50 cm (20 inches) per year.
    • 9. Plant and Animal Life
        • Diverse plant and bird community
          • Isolation
          • Tropical and temperate climate
          • Environmental variation, including arid areas
        • Several thousand plants and 66 birds found nowhere else
        • Primary threats
          • Human destruction
          • Introduction of alien plants and animals
    • 10. Oahu E. J. PALKA
    • 11. Polynesians
        • Settled the islands possibly 1500 years ago
        • Possibly migrated by canoe from the Marquesas Islands (4000 km/2500 miles southeast)
        • Second wave of immigrants 400-500 years later
        • Population at European discovery about 300,000
    • 12. Early European Impact
      • Captain James Cook (1778) first European to explore the islands
      • Way station for trade with East Asia
      • Center of North Pacific–based whaling industry (early 1820s)
      • New England missionaries
      • Impacts on Native Hawaiian culture
        • Disintegration of political and economic traditions
        • Upsetting of food gathering and distribution systems leading to famine
        • Infectious diseases (measles, leprosy, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis)
        • Population reduction from 150,000 (1804) to 75,000 (1850)
        • Intermarriage
    • 13. Asians
        • First sugar plantation 1837
        • Need for labor, declining numbers of Native Hawaiians
        • Cheap, abundant labor from Asia
          • First Chinese 1852
          • Japanese 1868
          • Filipinos 1906
        • 1852-1930, some 400,000 agricultural laborers
    • 14. Population Growth
      • Pre-European population: about 300,000
      • 1876 : 54,000
      • 1920s : 300,000
      • World War II : 400,000 service personnel (temporarily population at 850,000)
      • 2006 : 1,285,498
      • Immigration bringing higher population growth than country in general
      • Concentration on Oahu —harbor at Honolulu
    • 15. Hawaii’s Ethnic Diversity (page 365)
    • 16. Ethnicity in Hawaii
      • Greater integration than other parts of U.S.
        • No census tract with >40% Chinese
        • No census tract with >70% Japanese
        • Majority of Honolulu tracts with at least 10% of three major groups—Caucasians, Japanese, Chinese
      • Success of Japanese and especially Chinese
        • High educational levels
        • High per capita incomes
      • Lower levels of well-being
        • Native Hawaiians
        • Filipinos (later arrivals)
    • 17. Hawaii in the United States
      • Turbulent history after Cook’s explorations
        • Consolidation under Kamehameha (1785-1795)
        • Missionaries’ growing influence undermining authority of Hawaiian rulers
        • Competing European efforts to fill power vacuum
          • 1820s: French
          • 1843: Brief annexation by Britain
        • Growing influence of American planters
        • Overthrow of Hawaiian rulers (1893)
      • Annexation by United States (1898)
      • Statehood (1959)
    • 18. Land Ownership
      • One-half government owned—by state government
      • Unusually large concentrations of land owned by a few major landholders: 95% of privately owned land in hands of 72 owners
      • Small-unit ownership most common on Oahu
      • Lanai and Niihau almost all under one owner
      • Shortage of individual, small land parcels (e.g., for housing)
      • Most land leased
    • 19. Agriculture
      • Traditional crops
        • Sugar
        • Pineapples
      • Decline in relative importance since World War II
        • Still produces substantial portion of world’s sugar
        • Pineapples declining
    • 20. Federal Government
      • Military
        • Strategic location
        • Headquarters of Pacific Command
        • Center of Pacific operations for all services
        • Major military bases
      • Impact
        • Owns 25% of Oahu
        • Employees 25% of work force
        • Vulnerability to cutbacks
    • 21. Tourism
      • Perception as tropical paradise
      • First scheduled trans-Pacific flights in 1936, but ships remained primary transportation to 1950s
      • Increased visitors
        • Larger aircraft
        • Economic growth on mainland
      • Sources of tourists
        • Mainland U.S., especially West Coast
        • Asia, especially Japan
    • 22. Tourism: A Mixed Blessing?
      • Principal growth sector
        • $11 billion to economy
        • 171,000 employees (22% of all jobs)
      • Problems
        • Congestion
        • Pollution
        • Decline in scenic beauty
        • Instability
          • Seasonal
          • Subject to downturns in economy
        • Inconvenience to natives
    • 23. Transportation
      • Entirely dependent on air transportation
        • Higher costs for everyday and luxury goods
        • Imports of food, energy, vehicles
      • Agricultural exports $96 million annually
    • 24. Honolulu
      • Dominates Hawaii
        • 72% of residents
        • 80% of economy
      • Crowded by mountains, ocean, federally held land
      • High living costs
      • Congestion
      • Pollution
    • 25. The Islands
      • Oahu : Densely population and intensively used
      • Hawaii (the “Big Island”)
        • Dominated by five huge shield volcanoes
        • Large ranches
        • Sugar
        • Tourism
      • Kauai
        • Heavily eroded into spectacular scenery
        • Heavy orographic precipitation
        • Lush vegetation
    • 26. The Islands (continued)
      • Niihau
        • Lee side of Kauai, therefore less rainy
        • Privately owned by Niihau Ranch Company
      • Maui
        • Second largest island
        • Central lowlands with mountains east and west
        • Intensive tourist development
      • Molokai
        • Half ranchland, half rugged mountains
        • Least economically developed
      • Lanai and Kahoolawe
        • Lee of Maui and therefore dry
        • Pineapple production on Lanai
        • Kahoolawe formerly a bombing range for the military, now returned to the state
    • 27. A Paradise?
      • Perception as a paradise
      • Problems
        • Cost of living
        • Unemployment
      • Positive attributes
        • Racial and ethnic assimilation
        • Great scenic beauty
        • Environmental awareness