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Ch17
 

Ch17

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    Ch17 Ch17 Presentation Transcript

    • Plate Tectonics Chapter 17 Great Idea: The entire earth is still changing, due to the slow convection of soft, hot rocks deep within the planet.
    • Chapter Outline
      • The Dynamic Earth
      • Plate Tectonics: A Unifying View of Earth
      • Another Look at Volcanoes and Earthquakes
    • Science by the Numbers
      • How long could a mountain last?
      • The case of the disappearing mountains
    • The Case of the Disappearing Mountains
      • Erosion
        • Few hundred million years
        • Mountains continually forming
      • Earth’s surface is not static
    • Pike’s Peak in Colorado, US
    • Slopes and Peaks in Young and Older Mountains
    • The Dynamic Earth
    • The Dynamic Earth
      • Small-scale changes
        • Construction site
          • Erosion by rain
      • Large-scale changes
        • Volcanoes
        • Earthquakes
        • Erosion
    • Volcanoes and Earthquakes- Evidence of Earth’s Inner Forces
      • Volcano
        • Magma breaks through surface
      • Earthquake
        • Rocks breaks along fault
        • Energy transmitted as wave
        • Richter scale
    • Mount St. Helens – Active Volcano
    • Cross Section of a Volcano
    • Earthquake Scarp
    • Tsunami
    • The Movement of the Continents
      • Francis Bacon
        • Continents like a puzzle
      • Alfred Wegener
        • Continental Drift
          • Continents in motion
    • Continental Atlantic Coastlines
    • The Movement of the Continents – cont.
      • Current Evidence
        • Ocean floors
        • Magnetic reversals
        • Rock ages
    • Ocean Floors
      • Mapping
        • Ocean floor dynamic
          • Canyons, mountains
          • Mid-Atlantic Ridge
            • Earthquakes, volcanoes, lava flows
    • Topographic Map of the Ocean Floor
    • Magnetic Reversals
      • Earth’s magnetic field
        • Changes periodically
      • Magnetite
        • Crystals in lava align to magnetic field
      • Paleomagnetism
      • Seafloor spreading
        • New rock comes to surface
    • Parallel Magnetic Strips
    • Magnetic Strips that Parallel Ocean Ridges
    • Rock Ages
      • Radioactive isotopes
        • Rocks near Mid-Atlantic Ridge younger
        • Rocks farther away older
    • New Support for the Theory
      • Measuring motion of continents
      • Radio astronomy
        • Measured arrival of radio waves
        • Repeated over several years
      • North America and Europe
        • Separating at 5 cm per year
    • Science by the Numbers
      • The age of the Atlantic Ocean
      • Pangaea
    • Plate Tectonics: A Unifying View of Earth
    • Plate Tectonics
      • Plate tectonics
        • Large-scale surface features
        • Related phenomena
    • Plate Tectonics – cont.
      • Tectonic plates
        • Rigid, moving sheet of rock
        • Crust and upper mantle
        • Continental
          • 100 km thick
          • Lower density (granite)
        • Oceanic
          • 8-10 km thick
          • Dense rock (basalt)
    • Plate Tectonics – cont.
      • Earth’s surface
        • ¼ continent, ¾ water
    • Earth’s Major Plates and Direction of Motion
    • The Convecting Mantle
      • Mantle convection
        • Motion driven by Earth’s interior heat energy
      • Sources of energy
        • Gravitational potential energy
        • Decay of radioactive elements
    • The Convecting Mantle – cont.
      • Movement
        • Heat moves to cooler regions
        • Convection cells in mantle
        • Very slow
          • 200 million years for one cycle
    • Mantle Convection
    • Science in the Making
      • Reactions in plate tectonics
      • Pioneer expedition
    • Plate Boundaries
      • Three main boundary types
        • Divergent
        • Convergent
        • Transform
    • Divergent Boundaries
      • Characteristics
        • Volcanoes
          • Chain of mountains
        • Earthquakes
    • Divergent Plate Boundary
    • Divergent Boundaries – cont.
      • Seafloor spreading
        • Plates pushed apart
        • Old spreading centers
          • Located in middle of ocean
        • New spreading centers
          • May begin anywhere
    • Africa’s Great Rift Valley
    • Convergent Plate Boundaries
      • Types
        • Oceanic-oceanic
          • Subduction zone
            • Deep oceanic trench
            • Island arc
    • Ocean-Ocean Plate
    • Convergent Plate Boundaries- cont.
        • Continental-continental
          • High, jagged mountain chain
    • Continental-Continental Plate
    • Convergent Plate Boundaries- cont.
        • Continental-oceanic
          • Subduction zone
            • Deep oceanic trench
            • Coastal mountain range
    • Ocean-Continental Plate
    • Transform Plate Boundary
      • Two plates move past each other
        • NOT smooth
        • Earthquakes as a result of movement
    • Transform Plate Boundary
    • The Science of Life
      • Upright posture
      • Contributions by Richard Leakey
    • The Geological History of North America
      • Northeastern Canada and Greenland
        • Several billion years old
      • Western US
        • Terranes
          • Added to continent over time
      • Appalachian Mountains
        • Formed 450-300 million years ago
        • Continental-continental convergence zone
    • The Geological History of North America – cont.
      • Rocky Mountains
        • 60 million years ago
        • Warping, folding and fracturing of continent
      • The Colorado Plateau
        • Gentle uplift
      • The Sierra Nevada
        • Molten rock pushed up sediments
    • US Mountains
    • Another Look at Volcanoes and Earthquakes
      • Plates and volcanism
        • Divergent plate boundaries
        • Convergent plate boundaries
          • Subduction zones
        • Hotspots
          • Source stationary, plates move
          • Chain of volcanoes
      • Earthquakes
        • At plate boundaries or elsewhere
    • Volcanoes Form Above a Subduction Zone
    • The Hawaiian Islands
    • Seismology: Exploring Earth’s Interior with Earthquakes
      • Seismology
        • Study of sound vibrations within earth
        • Used to determine earth’s inner structure
      • Seismic waves
        • Compressional or longitudinal
        • Transverse or shear waves
      • Earthquake predictions
    • Seismic Waves Passing through Earth
    • The Ongoing Process of Science
      • Seismic tomography
    • Technology
      • The design of earthquake-resistant buildings