• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Ch16a
 

Ch16a

on

  • 526 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
526
Views on SlideShare
490
Embed Views
36

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

1 Embed 36

http://northamericawiki.wikispaces.com 36

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ch16a Ch16a Presentation Transcript

    • THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST (Chapter 16) Elizabeth J. Leppman
    • Introduction
      • Strong appeal of “ Ecotopia ”
        • Coastal
        • Lofty, snow-capped mountains
        • Attractive cities
        • Migration destination—locals’ concern with overpopulation
      • Beauty and bounty of landscapes
      • Relative location (situation) : Isolation from North America
        • Distance
        • Arid or mountainous terrain
    • North Pacific Coast (page 323)
    • Physical Geography: Climate
        • Precipitation
          • Average > 190 cm (>75 inches) per year
          • Western slopes of Olympic Mountains, Washington, coastal mountains of British Columbia: 380 cm (150 inches)
          • Northern Vancouver Island: 600 cm (230 inches)
        • Olympic Peninsula rain forest
          • Moss, ferns
          • Trees: western hemlock, red cedar, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir (to 60 meters/200 feet)
          • Possibly more weight of living matter than anywhere else on earth!
    • Pacific Northwest Topography and Precipitation (page 324)
    • Precipitation Patterns
        • Northern Pacific Ocean spawning ground for moisture-laden air masses
          • Move south and east
          • Blocked by high-pressure cell off the coast of Mexico
          • Most moisture over Pacific Northwest
        • Seasonal pattern : most precipitation in winter, especially farther south
        • Role of mountains
          • Air forced up western (windward) mountain slopes: heavy precipitation
          • Warming of air descending eastern slopes: less moisture-carrying capacity, less rainfall
          • Lowlands semi-arid, greatest aridity east of Cascade Mountains
        • Less rainfall north and west of Alaska’s panhandle
    • Temperatures
      • Moderating effect of ocean
        • Mild winters
        • Cool summers
      • Snow uncommon south of Vancouver
      • High winds , especially Oregon, northern California, southwestern Washington
    • Topography
        • Dominance of mountains
          • Mt. McKinley (6200 meters/20,300 feet) highest in North America
          • St. Elias Mountains world’s highest coastal mountains
          • Mt. Logan (6000 meters/19,700 feet) highest mountain in Canada
        • Coast Ranges : Oregon and Washington
          • Reach elevations of 1200 meters (4000 feet)
          • Responsible for the rain shadow effect
    • Topography (continued)
      • Klamath Mountains (northern California, southern Oregon): rugged, empty area
      • Lowlands of western British Columbia, Oregon: structural trough
      • Cascades
        • Uplifted plateau topped with volcanic peaks (e.g., Mt. St. Helens)
        • Coast Mountains in Canada, impeding coastal land travel
        • Mountains and islands of Alaska panhandle
    • Topography: Alaska
      • Division in mountain ranges
        • Chugach and Kenai Mountains along coast
        • Alaska Range in interior
      • Anchorage on Cook Inlet, south of gap in Alaska Range, largest city
      • Alaska capital ( Juneau ) on narrow coastal lowland in panhandle
      • Moving capital to new location 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of Anchorage?
        • More central, accessible location
        • Cost of construction and move
    • American Indians
      • Pre-European population of the area relatively large
        • Moderate climate
        • Abundant food year-round
      • Economy
        • Hunting and gathering , based on deer and salmon, berries, roots, shellfish
        • Many distinct ethnic groups clustered in small valleys along the coast
        • Large, impressive houses and dugout canoes built of red cedar planks
        • Potlatch : Ritual giving of gifts
        • Totem poles : Record of person’s life carved into vertical log
    • European Exploration
      • Last area (besides poles) to be explored by Europeans
        • Distance from Europe
        • Vitus Bering (1740) for Russia
        • Captain James Cook (1778) for Britain
      • Russians
        • First settlements late 1700s
        • Fur-trading posts from southeastern Alaska to northern California
        • Never self-sufficient in food, expensive to maintain
        • U.S. purchase of Alaska (1867)
    • British and American Settlers
      • Hudson’s Bay Company
        • Fur-trading operation in Columbia River Basin (early 19 th century)
        • Dominant influence between northern Oregon and British Columbia until 1830s
      • American settlers
        • Oregon Trail from Missouri to Willamette Valley
        • Manifest Destiny : Boundary dispute with British
        • Agreement to boundary at 49° latitude
          • Politically acceptable
          • Disrupted north-south movement in Puget Sound, Columbia River transportation corridors
    • British Columbia and Railroads
      • Vancouver Island: British focus on Victoria (established 1843)
      • Vancouver
        • Mainland location
        • Terminus of first Canadian trans-continental railroad (1886)
      • Railroad to Seattle (1883)
        • Ended dependence on ocean shipping
        • Stimulated large numbers of immigrants
          • Oregon: from other parts of North America, especially New England
          • Washington: Europeans, especially Scandinavians
    • Population Distribution
      • Faster growth than national averages in U.S. and Canada
      • Most in lowland from Fraser River to Willamette Valley
      (page 330)
    • Vancouver
        • Canada's third largest city
        • More than 1.2 million people, may double in 10 years
        • Western headquarters for Canadian businesses
        • Serves as western outlet for Interior Canada
        • Canada's busiest port
          • Wood products
          • Wheat destined for Asia
    • Seattle
        • Largest city of the North Pacific Coast since late 1800s
        • Founded as a logging center, became dominant with coming of railroads
        • Since World War I, the home of Boeing Aircraft
          • Sometimes called “world's largest company town”
          • Major employer
        • Diversification: Computer
          • software, especially
          • Microsoft
    • Portland
        • Ranks high among livable cities
        • More diversified economy than Seattle’s with better access to interior via Columbia River
          • Shipment of grain from eastern Washington
          • Better port than Seattle’s
    • Regional Economy
      • Dominant characteristics
        • Production of staple products
        • Distance from major markets of U.S. and Canada
      • Population
        • 3% of U.S. population
        • 10% of Canadian population
      • Freight-rate structures
        • Limits to transferability
        • Raises costs compared to closer sources
    • Agriculture
      • Similar crops to areas farther east
        • Competition with suppliers closer to market
        • Much production for local consumption
        • Aggressive marketing for some specialties
      • Agricultural areas
        • Willamette Valley
          • Forage crops
          • Dairy products (local markets)
          • Strawberries, hops, grass for turf seed, cherries, spearmint, grapes for wine
    • Agricultural Regions (continued)
        • Puget Sound lowland
          • Dairying
          • Peas
        • British Columbia : dairying
        • East of Cascades
          • Semi-arid, grasses, desert shrubs
          • Rolling hills with steep-sided coulees (canyons)
          • “ Inland Empire”
          • Palouse: Wheat (dry farming)
          • Irrigated
            • Yakima and Wenatchee valleys : apples
            • Grand Coulee : Sugar beets, potatoes, alfalfa, dry beans
    • Forestry
        • Production
          • British Columbia: 54% of Canada's timber.
          • Washington, Oregon, and California: > 50% of the U.S. total
        • Douglas fir major lumber tree (houses, plywood)
        • Types of trees highly regional
        • Large-scale logging
          • Size of trees
          • Distance to markets
        • Markets
          • All parts of both countries
          • Japan, especially for British Columbia, Alaska lumber
    • Power and Dams
      • Hydroelectric potential unmatched in North America
        • Rugged topography (40% of U.S. potential in Oregon and Washington)
        • Precipitation
      • Grand Coulee Dam (1933), The Dalles
      • Inexpensive electricity