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  • 1. Earth and Other Planets Chapter 16 Great Idea: Earth, one of the planets that orbit the Sun, formed 4.5 billion years ago from a great cloud of dust.
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • The Formation of the Solar System
    • Exploring the Solar System
  • 3. The Formation of the Solar System
  • 4. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System
    • Solar system
      • Objects gravitationally bound to Sun
    • Deduction of origin
      • Observations
        • Earth
        • Space
  • 5. The Solar System
  • 6. Clue #1: Planetary Orbits
    • Features of solar system
      • All planets orbit in same direction
      • Orbits in same plane
      • Most rotate in direction of orbit
  • 7. Clue #2: Distribution of Mass
    • Most material within Sun
    • Two types of planets
      • Terrestrial planets
      • Jovian planets
    • Other objects
      • Moons, asteroids, comets
  • 8. Mass in the Solar System
  • 9. The Planets and Their Characteristics
  • 10. The Nebular Hypothesis
    • Nebular Hypothesis
      • Cloud of dust and gas
      • 99% H and He
    • Collapse of nebula
      • Planetary orbits
      • Clumping of matter
      • Planetesimals
      • Temperature
  • 11. The Stages in Solar System Formation
  • 12. The Inner Planets – Small and Rocky
  • 13. Jupiter – Gas Giant Planet
  • 14. The Science of Life
    • Gravity and bones
  • 15. The Formation of Earth
    • Planetesimals
      • Combined to form earth
    • Great bombardment
      • Meteors
      • Growth of planet
        • 20 metric tons per day
  • 16. Artists Impression of the Earth’s Great Bombardment
  • 17. Disk around a Young Star
  • 18. Differentiation
    • Differentiation
      • Heat from collisions
      • Dense material sank to center
      • Lighter material rose to surface
    • Structure
      • Core
      • Mantle
      • Crust
  • 19. The Principal Layers of the Earth
  • 20. Technology
    • Producing world-record high pressures
  • 21. The Formation of the Moon
    • Big splash
      • Large object impacted earth
      • Parts of mantle blown into orbit
      • Moon formed from this material
  • 22. Formation of the Earth’s Moon
  • 23. Planetary Idiosyncrasies
    • Cratering
      • Mercury, Mars, Moon
      • None on earth
        • Weathering
    • Rotation
      • Venus
      • Earth’s axis
      • Uranus
  • 24. The Science of Life
    • When could life begin?
    • Effect of collisions
  • 25. The Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres
    • Earth’s atmosphere
      • Early
      • Outgassing
        • Atmosphere was N 2 , CO 2 , H 2 , and H 2 O
      • Gravitational escape
      • Living organisms
  • 26. Exploring the Solar System
  • 27. The Inner Solar System
    • Mercury, Venus, Mars
      • Mercury and Venus too hot for life
    • Mars exploration
      • Multiple missions
      • Found evidence of water
  • 28. Surface of Mars
  • 29. The Phoenix Lander on Mars
  • 30. Science of Life
    • Why look for life on Mars?
    • Source of science fiction
    • Current views
  • 31. The Outer Solar System
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
      • Layered structure
      • No solid surface
    • Jupiter
      • Comet Shoemaker-Levy
      • Galileo spacecraft
    • Saturn
      • Cassini spacecraft
  • 32. Theoretical View of the Interior of Jupiter
  • 33. Comet Shoemaker-Levy Impacted Jupiter in 1994
  • 34. Saturn with Its Rings and Moons
  • 35. Moons and Rings of the Outer Planets
    • Moons
      • Io
      • Europa
      • Titan
    • Rings
      • Ice and rock
  • 36. Artist’s Conception of the Oceans of Europa
  • 37. Pluto and the Kuiper Belt
    • Pluto
      • .3% of Earth’s mass
      • Orbit tilted out of plane of other planets
      • Three moons
      • Formation
        • Captured comet or asteroid
        • Still open to question
      • Plutoid designation in 2008
  • 38. Pluto and Its Moon, Charon
  • 39. Science in the Making
    • The discovery of Pluto
    • Xena
      • Orbits sun every 560 years
      • One moon
      • Larger than Pluto
  • 40. Science in the Making
    • The Voyager Satellites
    • Discoveries
  • 41. Asteroids
    • Asteroids
      • Small rocky bodies
      • Orbit sun
      • Most in belt between Mars and Jupiter
  • 42. Comets
    • Comets
      • Dirty snowballs
        • Orbit outside Pluto
        • Oort cloud
        • Kuiper belt
      • Halley’s Comet
      • Stardust and Deep Impact missions
  • 43. Comet’s Tail
  • 44. Meteors
    • Meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites
      • Meteor showers
      • Original solar system material
  • 45. Major Meteor Showers
  • 46. Science in the Making
    • Discovering new planetary systems
    • Use the Doppler effect
    • Search for transits
  • 47. Changes in Redshift or Blueshift of Light
  • 48. Planet in Front of a Star
  • 49. Kepler Satellite