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Ch15ed

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  • http://www.usgs.gov/themes/map1.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. CALIFORNIA Chapter 15
    • 2. Introduction
      • Diverse perceptions of California.
        • Modern, outdoor-oriented, ideal American lifestyle
        • Region of problem-plagued social chaos
      • Home to 12% of Americans
      • Central element in the American cultural fabric
      • Regional criteria
        • Widely diverse region
        • National image as a single place
        • Growing role in influencing American lifestyles
        • Highest urbanization rate in U.S.
    • 3.  
    • 4. California
    • 5. Four primary geographic characteristics of California…
      • Large size and isolation
      • High rate of urbanization (95% of pop. lives in cities)
      • Role in cultural innovation
      • 4) Links to Pacific Rim (now exceeds trade volume of Boston-Norfolk Megalopolis)
    • 6. Physical Geography: Topography
      • Coast Ranges
        • Long, linear mountain ranges oriented northwest to southeast along the coast
        • 1000-1600 meters (3,000-5,000 feet)
        • Heavily folded and faulted as a result of pressure from tectonic plate contact
          • Plate tectonics: The geologic theory of folding (bending) and faulting (breaking) of the solid surface of the earth as result of slow movement of plates (large sections of the crust)
          • Ring of Fire: belt of intense earthquake and volcanic activity that encircles much of the Pacific Ocean
    • 7. Big Sur coast, central California
    • 8. Earthquakes
        • Common throughout large sections of the region, especially
          • Los Angeles southeast through the Imperial Valley
          • San Francisco Bay to Bakersfield
        • Devastating earthquakes
          • 1906
          • 1989
          • 1992
        • Earthquake Laws
          • Local laws limiting building heights
          • Many laws recently repealed, thanks to technological innovations
          • Impact of the laws on the cultural landscape
    • 9. California Earthquake Zones
    • 10.  
    • 11. Topography (continued)
      • Central Valley
        • 650 kilometers (400 miles) north–south
        • Up to 150 kilometers (95 miles) wide
        • Productive agricultural region
          • Extremely flat
          • Fertile soil
          • Favorable climate
      • Sierra Nevada
        • East of the Central Valley
        • Fault-block mountains
        • Major barrier to movement
      Yosemite Valley
    • 12. Dramatic mountains (e.g Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada Mts)
    • 13. Climate
        • Moisture from Pacific Ocean
        • Influence of blocking high-pressure cell
          • Off Mexico coast
          • Moves north in summer, south in winter
        • Mediterranean climate
          • Moderate precipitation
          • All precipitation in winter
          • California regions
            • San Diego north past San Francisco
            • Northern Central Valley
            • Western margin of southern Central Valley
    • 14.  
    • 15. Climate (continued)
      • Marine west coast climate
        • Increase in average annual precipitation
        • Precipitation all year
        • Mild temperatures with relatively little variation
        • North of San Francisco
      • Central Valley
        • Drier than coastal margins:
          • Rainfall on windward (western) side of mountains
          • Drying of air as it descends eastern slopes ( rain shadow )
        • Hotter summer temperatures than coast
    • 16. Central Valley
    • 17. Climate (continued)
      • Interior of Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada
        • Arid steppe or desert
        • Dry air from south and east
        • Hot winds blowing toward coast ( Santa Ana )
      • Vegetation
        • Lowland southern California, east of Sierra Nevada–Cascade Range : sage, creosote bush, chaparral
        • Central Valley, valleys of southern Coast Ranges : grasslands
        • Around Central Valley, Santa Barbara–Monterey Bay: mixed open forests of live oaks, pines
        • North of Monterey Bay : redwoods
        • High elevations : mixed forests of pine and fir, hemlock-fir, sequoia
    • 18. Eastern California: Mojave Desert Creosote Bush
    • 19. Eastern California: Sagebrush Scrub Sagebrush
    • 20. Chaparral White Sage California Buckwheat California Sage
    • 21. Climate (page 298)
    • 22. California’s Advantages and Challenges
        • Advantages
          • Natural resources
          • Strategic location
          • Excellent harbor at San Francisco
          • Climate
        • Disadvantages
          • Western peripheral location, far from national core
          • Topographic barriers to east
    • 23. Settlement History
      • Native Americans
        • 10% of North American Native Americans before European contact
        • Hunters and gathers: Seafood, wild game, wild grains and nuts
        • Small tribes, substantial cultural variation among tribes
      • First Spanish exploration mid-1500s
      • Spanish settlement in response to other colonial powers
        • Missions : San Diego to Sonoma
        • Pueblos (towns)
        • Presidios (forts)
        • Ranchos (large landholdings) to encourage settlement
      • Continued status as backwater of Spanish empire
    • 24.  
    • 25.  
    • 26. San Gabriel Mission, circa 1900 San Gabriel Archangel Mission, San Gabriel
    • 27. California in the United States
      • Acquisition of California
        • Seized 1846 (Bear Flag Republic)
        • Part of Mexican Cession at end of Mexican War (1848)
      • Gold rush
        • Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill (1848)
        • More than 40,000 arrivals through San Francisco by 1849, roughly same number overland
        • Statehood 1850
        • San Francisco: largest city on the west coast until World War I
      • Los Angeles
        • Completion of Southern Pacific Railroad (1876)
        • Southern California land boom (1881-1887): population from 10,000 to 70,000
    • 28. Agriculture
      • Highest farm income in U.S.
      • Contributors
        • Variety of climate regions
        • Demand from local population
        • Crops that grow in few parts of the country
        • No local competition in demand areas
        • Cooperatives to reduce shipping costs
        • Production of winter vegetables
    • 29. Agriculture Vegetables Orchards
    • 30. Agriculture (continued)
      • Many products overall, but specialization within specific areas
        • Echoes general specialization trend in U.S.
        • Major role of large agricultural operations
        • Diversity of climate and physiography: proper conditions for particular crops
        • Impact of moderate environmental changes on national supply
      • Land-use competition
        • Spread of urban sprawl
        • Taxation systems
        • Zoning
    • 31.  
    • 32. Conversion of Farmland
    • 33. Water Supply
        • Agriculture as a major consumer of water
        • More irrigated land in California than any other state: 3.5 million hectares (8.5 million acres)
        • Accounts for more than 25% of all irrigated water usage in the U.S.
        • 1 meter (40 inches) of irrigation water annually
      Irrigated Farmland
    • 34. Development Projects
      • Water mismatch
        • 70% of precipitation in northern California
        • 80% of use in southern California
      • Los Angeles Aqueduct (1913)
        • Exhaustion of groundwater resources in Los Angeles
        • Aqueduct from Owens Valley in Sierra Nevada
        • Loss of water to Owens Valley farmers
    • 35. Owens (Dry) Lake
    • 36. Development Projects (continued)
      • Metropolitan Water District (1928)
        • Los Angeles and 10 other cities
        • Colorado River Aqueduct (1939) from Parker Dam
      • Formation of Salton Sea
        • Privately constructed canal to Imperial Valley (1901)
        • Flooding of Colorado River into Imperial Valley (1905)
        • All-America Canal from Colorado to Imperial Valley (1930s)
      • Central Valley Project (1940s)
        • Bureau of Reclamation
        • Water from northern Central Valley to San Joaquin Valley (in the south)
    • 37. Development Projects (continued)
      • California Water Plan (1957)
        • California Water Project
        • California Aqueduct from Delta-Mendota Canal to
          • Western San Joaquin Valley
          • Southern coastal urban centers
      • Future prospects
        • Continued demand
        • Desalinization of seawater?
        • Tap Columbia River?
    • 38.  
    • 39. California’s Water Supply
      • Ability to move water, given sufficient financing
      • Increasing demand with greater supply
      • Ability to reach over increasing distances
      • Faster demand increase than population increase
        • Private swimming pools
        • Industry
        • Increased irrigated agriculture
    • 40. Mono Lake
    • 41. California Water Projects
    • 42. Urban California
      • Southern Metropolis
        • Several settlements from southern California land boom (1881-1887)
        • Continued municipal independence, despite spreading and merging
        • Megalopolis from Santa Barbara–San Diego: 300 kilometers (about 185 miles) with 19.2 million people
        • 20 th century creation: World War I conversion from agriculture to urban
    • 43. Municipalities in Southern California (page 308)
    • 44. Smog
      • Partly caused by automobiles
      • Geographic contributors
        • Mountains to north and east
        • Hot, dry deserts beyond mountains
        • Cool waters of Pacific to south and west
        • Frequent temperature inversions : body of warm air over cool air
      • Palm Springs as high-status community east of mountains, beyond reach of smog
    • 45. Impact of Automobiles
      • 50% of land devoted to automobiles
      • Low population density : 3040 per square kilometer (7876 per square mile), compared to Philadelphia with 4336 per square kilometer (11,232 per square mile)
      • Predominance of single-family houses
      • No central business district (CBD)
    • 46.  
    • 47. Economy of Los Angeles
      • Petroleum
        • Major petroleum fields
        • Offshore development (1965)
      • Climate
        • Hollywood film industry:
          • Outdoors settings, natural light
          • Expansion to television
          • Dissemination of attractiveness of region
        • Recreation industry
      Oil derricks Anaheim 1920
    • 48.  
    • 49. Los Angeles Today
      • Postindustrial activity
        • Growth in tertiary and quaternary industries
        • Lack of need for local raw materials
        • Light industry
        • Government spending
      • Ethnic diversity
        • Immigration from
          • Central America
          • South America
          • Asia
        • Challenges to institutions (e.g., schools)
        • Impact on landscape
      • Los Angeles one of the few global north cities still among world’s largest and growing rapidly
    • 50.  
    • 51. San Francisco Bay
      • Historical development
        • Northern core of Spanish activity
        • Supply port for Gold Rush
        • First transcontinental railroad terminus
        • Largest west coast city until 1920
        • Large numbers of Asian immigrants
      • Attractions
        • Scenery
        • Climate
        • Excellent harbor
      • Varying centers
        • East bay : most varied
        • Silicon Valley (north of San Jose)
    • 52. San Francisco
      • Grid pattern of streets, despite terrain
      • Closely spaced houses, low profile
      • Ethnic neighborhoods
      • Water barriers to surrounding centers
      • Construction of Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)
      • Situation as major Pacific port of North America
    • 53.  
    • 54.  
    • 55. Cities of the Valley
        • Sacramento (1.8 million)
          • State capital
          • Largest of the Central Valley cities
          • Major agricultural processing city
          • Substantial aerospace industry
        • Fresno (2,002,284)
        • Bakersfield (780,711)
        • Stockton (673,170)
    • 56. California’s Outlook
      • Fewer than ½ of Californians born there
      • Major destination for migrants since 1850
      • Dominant political and economic force in American life
      • Location on Pacific Rim
      • Vies for position as national core
      • Problems
        • Fragile environment
        • Urban expansion
        • Water supply
    • 57. One state or many? (example of “state” of Jefferson)
      • Northern California and southern Oregon
      • From Dunsmuir, CA to Ashland, OR
      • Regional personality traits? (independence, free-spiritedness, anti-California attitudes)??

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