Ch15
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    Ch15 Ch15 Presentation Transcript

    • Cosmology Chapter 15 Great Idea: The universe began billions of years ago in the big bang and it has been expanding ever since.
    • Chapter Outline
      • Galaxies
      • The Redshift and Hubble’s Law
      • The Big Bang
      • The Evolution of the Universe
      • Dark Matter and Ripples at the Beginning of Time
      • The End of the Universe
    • Galaxies
    • The Nebula Debate
      • Nebulae
        • Cloud-like objects
      • Shapley vs. Curtis
        • Debate over distance of nebulae
    • Edwin Hubble and the Discovery of Galaxies
      • Hubble
        • Largest telescope
        • Used Cepheid variable stars to measure distance to nebula
      • Galaxies
        • Hubble discovered universe is billions of galaxies
      • Cosmology
    • Edwin Hubble
    • Kinds of Galaxies
      • Spiral
      • Elliptical
      • Irregular and dwarf
      • Active galaxies
        • Quasars
    • A Map of the Milky Way
    • A Typical Spiral Galaxy
    • A Typical Elliptical Galaxy
    • Deep-Field Image of Galaxies
    • The Redshift and Hubble’s Law
    • The Redshift and Hubble’s Law
      • Redshift
      • Hubble’s Law
        • The more distant a galaxy, the faster it recedes
        • V = H x d
    • Photographs of Galaxies and Their Spectra
    • Illustration of Hubble Expansion
    • Science by the Numbers
      • Analyzing Hubble data
    • Distance versus Velocity Relationship
    • The Big Bang
    • The Big Bang
      • Big Bang
        • The universe began at a specific time in the past, and it has been expanding ever since
    • The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
      • The Local Group
        • Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy, and others
      • Groups, clusters, superclusters
      • Voids
    • Distribution of Galaxies in Space
    • Apache Point Observatory – New Mexico, U.S.
    • Useful Analogies
      • Raisin-Bread Dough Analogy
      Expanding Balloon Analogy
    • Evidence for the Big Bang
      • The universal expansion
        • Steady-state universe
      • The cosmic microwave background
        • Penzias and Wilson
          • End of steady-state theory
      • The abundance of light elements
        • Hydrogen, helium, and lithium
    • Cosmic Background Explorer
    • Map of Microwave Radiation
    • The Evolution of the Universe
    • Some General Characteristics of an Expanding Universe
      • All matter heats when compressed
        • Hot big bang
      • Freezings
        • Changes in universe
    • The Sequence of “Freezings”
    • 10 –43 Second: The Freezing of All Forces
      • Two fundamental forces
        • Gravity
        • Strong-electroweak force
      • Limit of our knowledge of universe
    • 10 –35 Second: The Freezing of the Electroweak and Strong Forces
      • Three fundamental forces
      • The elimination of antimatter
        • Galaxy is ordinary matter
        • Why?
          • Leftover protons
      • Inflation
        • Short rapid expansion
          • Common temperature
    • Evolution of the Universe through the Succession of Freezings
    • 10 –10 Second: The Freezing of the Weak and Electromagnetic Forces
      • Four fundamental forces
      • Particle accelerators
        • Reproduce from here forward
        • Experimental evidence for evolution of universe
    • 10 –5 Second: The Freezing of Elementary Particles
      • Elementary particles formed
      • Prior
        • Quarks and leptons
      • After
        • Hadrons and leptons
          • Electrons, protons and neutrons
    • Three Minutes: The Freezing of Nuclei
      • Nuclei become stable
      • Only nuclei of H, He and Li
      • Plasma
    • Before One Million Years: The Freezing of Atoms
      • Formation of atoms
      • Radiation released
        • Cosmic microwave background
      • Galaxy problem
    • Dark Matter and Ripples at the Beginning of Time
      • Dark Matter
        • Measure gravitational effects
      • Hydrogen atoms
      • Formation of dark matter (questions to be answered)
        • Before atoms formed?
        • Formed clumps?
      • Ripples at the beginning of time
        • Collection of luminous matter
    • Discovery of Dark Matter
    • The End of the Universe
      • Open, closed or flat universe
      • Current data
        • Mass of universe
          • Open universe
        • Type Ia supernova
      • Dark Energy
        • 74% of universe’s mass
    • Dark Energy
    • Future
      • Depends on dark energy
      • “ Big Rip”