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  • 1. SOUTHWEST BORDER AREA (Chapter 14) Elizabeth J. Leppman
  • 2. Introduction • Distinct region, yet extremely difficult to define – Parallels Mexican border – Overlaps other regions • Tricultural, acculturation (cultural borrowing) – Native Americans (1% of population today) – Spanish (25% of population today) – Northwest European Anglo American (74% of population) • Spanish settlement as regional identifier • Climatic aridity – Discouraged Anglo settlement – Substantial numbers of Native Americans
  • 3. Southwest Border Area (page 277)
  • 4. American Indians • Earliest inhabitants but least accepted • Most numerous in areas that Anglo settlers rejected • Within Southwest Border Area, culturally diverse
  • 5. American Indian Reservations • Largest groups – Navaho – Pueblo – Papago – Hopi – Utes • Major reservations in Four Corners region (page 280)
  • 6. Navajo Blanket Navajo Constellations
  • 7. Pueblo Bonito Ansel Adams, 1942, 79-AAP-2 "Dance, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, 1942," two Indians descending wooden stairs, carrying drums; another Indian and child near by. In 1941 the National Park Service commissioned noted photographer Ansel Adams to create a photo mural for the Department of the Interior Building in Washington, DC. The theme was to be nature as exemplified and protected in the U.S. National Parks. The project was halted because of World War II and never resumed.
  • 8. Papago Basket
  • 9. Hopi Canteen Hopi Kachina
  • 10. Studio portrait of Native American (Ute) and white men and women in Washington, D. C. for the treaty signing. Left to right- Back row (Northern Ute), Shawsheen (sister of Chief Ouray), Johnson #2 (Shawsheen's husband), Capt. Jack (leader of Thornberg ambush), John. Middle row: Uriah M. Curtis (Interpreter for Northern Utes), J. B. Thompson (agent at the Denver Ute Agency), Chas Adams (agent of the Los Pinos Agency, 1872-75), Otto Mears. Front row: Guerro (may be
  • 11. Hispanic Americans • Spanish exploration (by 1550) –Unsuccessful quest for gold and silver –Claim to Southwestern territory –Little settlement or attention • Lack of valuable resources • Distance from core of Spanish Empire in Mexico City • Settlement – Upper Rio Grande Valley (before 1700) – Arizona (1700) – Texas (1700) – California (beginning 1769) • Anglo Americans allowed to settle in 1820s and 1830s
  • 12. Hispanic Americans • 1845: U.S. acquisition of Texas • 1848: Mexican Cession – End of Mexican War – Remaining Mexican population about 82,500 • 1850: – New southern frontier for Anglo Americans in Texas – Gold rush (1849) in California: More non-Spanish to region – Mexicans dominant in • New Mexico • Southern California • Texas south of San Antonio
  • 13. Hispanic Americans Today • Immigration – 1900-1990: 2.9 million – Late 1980s: 75,000-90,000 annually – 2000 to date: 171,000 annually • Illegal immigration • Push factors – Mexican population growth – Widespread unemployment • Pull factors – Ease of crossing – Available jobs • Political issues (page 279)
  • 14. Socioeconomic Disparities • Cultural differences, especially in rural areas –Differences among Mexicans in area in 1848 –Indian reservations • Correlation with poverty • Recent improvements –Education –Government –Discovery of resources (page 284)
  • 15. Cross-Border Economy • Mexican migration – World War I, 1920s: Mexican immigration to fill labor needs in U.S. – World War II • U.S. labor shortage (workers in armed forces) • Mexican Labor Program (Bracero Program) to 1964 • Maquiladoras – Border Industrialization Program (1965) – U.S. labor-intensive manufacturing industry • Import of raw materials, semi-finished parts (in-bond) • Manufactured products to be re-exported (since 1989, 50% can be sold in Mexico) – Wage-rate differential
  • 16. Of the top 100 maquiladoras in Mexico; 66 are owned by companies from the U.S., 7 from Japan, 2 from the Netherlands, 1 from Germany, 3 from Canada, 1 from Singapore, 4 from Korea, 1 from China, 1 from Sweden, 1 from Sweden, 2 from France, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan, 1 from Finland, and 5 from Mexico.
  • 17. An aerial view of a maquiladora park in Tijuana, Baja California del Norte; Mexico
  • 18. Since the maquiladora industry offers thousands of low-skill jobs, the border has been a magnet to Mexican workers seeking economic opportunity for decades. The opportunist nature of this industry creates an industrial ecology of trade, supported by and supporting millions of migrant workers living in shanty towns around the industrial parks while industry logistics are controlled on the U.S. side.
  • 19. North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Loss of special tariff status for maquiladoras • Increased integration of border area as a region – Income differential – Tourists, retirees from U.S. to Mexico for lower costs – Mexican shoppers for goods unavailable at home – Travel to visit friends and family – Twin cities along border
  • 20. Regional Population Growth • Climatic attractions – Sunshine and aridity – Respiratory patients, retirees • Growth areas – Southern California (late 19th century) – Arizona • Industries and corporate offices – Aircraft • Proximity to California • Good flying weather – Electronics • Amenities • High value, low weight
  • 21. Master planned community of Anthem, Arizona
  • 22. Plural Society • Hispanic population – Northern highlands of New Mexico 70% Hispanic – Strong Hispanic influence on rural landscapes – Lower Rio Grande Winter Garden of Texas overwhelmingly Hispanic – Hispanic enclaves in Los Angeles • Large Indian reservations

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