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Ch14

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Transcript

  • 1. The Stars Chapter 14 Great Idea: The Sun and other stars use nuclear fusion reactions to convert mass into energy. Eventually, when a star’s nuclear fuel is depleted, the star must burn out.
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • The Nature of Stars
    • The Anatomy of Stars
    • The Variety of Stars
    • The Life Cycles of Stars
  • 3. The Nature of Stars
  • 4. The Nature of Stars
    • Astronomy
      • Oldest science
    • Star
      • Fusion reactor in space
      • Ball of gas
    • All stars have a beginning and an ending
  • 5. The Night Sky
  • 6. Measuring the Stars with Telescopes and Satellites
    • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Measurement of photons
      • Wavelength
      • Intensity
      • Direction
      • Variation
  • 7. Schematic Drawings of Telescopes
  • 8. Keck Telescopes
  • 9. Magellan Telescope
  • 10. Orbiting Observatories
    • Great Observatories Program
      • Hubble Space Telescope
      • Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope
      • Chandra X-Ray Observatory
  • 11. The Hubble Space Telescope
  • 12. The Anatomy of Stars
  • 13. The Structure of the Sun
    • Structure
      • Stellar core
      • Convection zone
      • Photosphere
      • Chromosphere
      • Corona
    • Solar wind
      • Stream of particles
  • 14. The Surface of the Sun
  • 15. The Sun's Chromosphere and Corona
  • 16. Earth’s Magnetic Field
  • 17. Northern Lights
  • 18. The Science of Life
    • Why is the visible spectrum visible?
  • 19. The Sun’s Energy Source: Fusion
    • Sun’s energy source
      • Historical
      • Current
        • Hydrogen
  • 20. Fusion on the Sun – cont.
    • Fusion
      • 3-steps-hydrogen burning
        • P + P  D + e + + neutrino + energy
        • D + P  3 He + photon + energy
        • 3 He + 3 He  4 He + 2protons + photon + energy
    • Life expectancy
      • 11 billion years
  • 21. The Ongoing Process of Science
    • The Solar neutrino problem
  • 22. The IceCube Lab
  • 23. The Variety of Stars
    • Differences
      • Color
      • Brightness
        • Distance
        • Absolute brightness
          • Energy output
          • Luminosity
        • Apparent brightness
    • Behavior
      • Total mass
      • Age
  • 24. The Astronomical Distance Scale
    • Time
      • Light-years
    • Measurement
      • Triangulation
      • Cepheid variable
  • 25. The Triangulation of Stellar Distances
  • 26. Cannon and Leavitt
  • 27. The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram
    • Star groupings
      • Main-sequence stars
      • Red giants
      • White dwarfs
  • 28. The Life Cycles of Stars
  • 29. The Birth of Stars
    • Nebular hypothesis
      • Pierre Laplace
  • 30. The Eagle Nebula
  • 31. Formation of a Planetary System
  • 32. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars
    • Stars much less massive than the Sun
      • Brown dwarf
      • Glows 100 billion years
        • No change in size, temperature, energy output
  • 33. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars – cont.
    • Stars about the mass of the sun
      • Hydrogen burning at faster rate
        • Move off main sequence
      • Helium burning
      • Red giant
      • Begin collapse
      • White dwarf
  • 34. The Life Cycle of the Sun
  • 35. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars – cont.
    • Very large stars
      • Successive collapses and burnings
      • Iron core
      • Catastrophic collapse
        • Supernova
  • 36. The Interior of a Large Star
  • 37. Star Explosion
  • 38. Neutron Stars and Pulsars
    • Neutron star
      • Dense and small
      • High rotation rate
      • Little light
    • Pulsar
      • Special neutron star
      • Electromagnetic radiation
      • End state of supernova
  • 39. Jocelyn Bell Burnell
  • 40. Pulsars – Rapid Rotation and Intense Magnetic Field
  • 41. Black Holes
    • Black hole
      • Result of collapse large star
      • Nothing escapes from surface
      • Cannot see them
        • See impact on other stars
        • Detect x-rays, gamma rays
  • 42. Generation of the Chemical Elements
    • Universe began with light elements
    • All objects made of atoms formed in the giant stars

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