Published on

Published in: Education, Travel
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Ch12ed

    1. 1. THE GREAT PLAINS AND PRAIRIES (Chapter 12) Elizabeth J. Leppman
    2. 2. Introduction: Perceptions • Coronado (raised in dry Spain): “This region is the best I've seen for producing the crops of Spain. [The land] is very flat and black [and] well watered by the rivulets and springs and river.”  Early 1800s (by people raised in humid east) perceived as wholly unfit for cultivation and habitation • Mid-1850s: "Great American Desert" • Region largely an academic construct of 20th century
    3. 3. (page 231)
    4. 4. The Great Plains in Literature • Hamlin Garland, Main- Traveled Roads (1891) • O. E. Rölvaag, Giants in the Earth (1927) • John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939) • Marie Sandoz, Old Jules (1935) • Willa Cather, My Ántonia (1918)
    5. 5. Physical Geography • General rise in elevation from east to west: 500 meters (1,600 feet) to 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) • Southern half unvaried topography—all within Interior Plains physiographic province • Subdivisions – High Plains: western margin from Edwards Plateau (Texas) to southern Nebraska – Lake Agassiz Basin • Formerly occupied by largest Pleistocene lake • Southern Manitoba, eastern Saskatchewan, Red River of the North valley
    6. 6. Topographic Variation • Hills – Black Hills—geologically part of Rocky Mountains – Cypress Hills—Alberta and Saskatchewan – Sand Hills—central and northwestern Nebraska • Badlands – Desolate, irregular topography from erosion – Badlands National Park (South Dakota) and Theodore Roosevelt National Park (North Dakota)
    7. 7. Black Hills Cypress Hills Topographic Variation Black Hills—geologically part of Rocky Mountains Cypress Hills —Alberta and Saskatchewan
    8. 8. Mt. Rushmore
    9. 9. Crazy Horse Monument
    10. 10. Sand Hills About a quarter of Nebraska is covered by the Sand Hills. These are Pleistocene (1.8-1.6 million to 10,000 years before present) sand dunes derived from glacial outwash eroded from the Rocky Mountains, and now stabilized by vegetation. The hills are characterized by crowded barchan (crescent-shaped) dunes, general absence of drainage, and numerous tiny lakes filling the closed depressions between dunes. Covering an area of 51,400 square kilometers, the Sand Hills are the largest sand dune formation in America. This ASTER simulated natural color image was acquired September 10, 2001, covers an area of about 57.9 x 61.6 km, and is centered near 42.1 degrees north latitude, 102.2 degrees west longitude.
    11. 11. Sand Hills Sand Hills—central and northwestern Nebraska
    12. 12. Badlands National Park, South Dakota Desolate, irregular topography from erosion Badlands National Park (South Dakota) and Theodore Roosevelt National Park (North Dakota)
    13. 13. Vegetation • Grasses characteristic vegetation – Taller and more dense in the East – Shorter and relatively sparse in the West • Intricate root systems – Add decayed organic matter to soil – Difficult to plow – Often required “bonanza teams" of about 20 animals to break the sod
    14. 14. State Symbol: Illinois State Prairie Grass — Big Bluestem Pronghorn on sagebush/short grass prairie, Shirley Basin, Wyoming Transistion to mid-grass prairie near Lamar, Colorado West: Shorter, drier East: Taller, wetter
    15. 15. Sodbusters
    16. 16. Climate: Precipitation • Most precipitation from conflict between air masses – Cool, dry air from north – Warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico (misses southern Great Plains) – In Canada: Pattern is northeast-southwest • Wide variation from year to year: 80% to 120% of “average” • About 75% from April through August (growing season)
    17. 17. Vegetation in Canadian Prairie Provinces (page 236)
    18. 18. Drought • Approximately 20-year cycles • Optimism in good years followed by disaster in dry years (e.g., Dust Bowl) (page 237)
    19. 19. Extreme Weather • Thunderstorms – Collision of contrasting air masses, especially in spring – May produce wind, rain, lightning, hail Average days with hail (page 238)
    20. 20. Wind • Late spring, summer velocities in central and northern Plains among the highest in North America—mixed blessing – Ensures maximum efficiency of windmills – High rates of evaporation and transpiration (increase dryness)
    21. 21. Wind Power: Certainty Rating of the Wind Resource
    22. 22. Tornadoes • Occur throughout North America • Collision of air masses especially great in “Tornado Alley” • Small area but tremendous damage Tornado Frequency (page 238)
    23. 23. Winds • Chinook – Occurs in winter – Warm, dry air descending from Rocky Mountains – Pushed over mountains by Pacific air flow – Relief from bitter cold and snow • Blizzards – Storms of snow, wind, and intense cold – Occur when cold polar air masses push south along the Rockies – Can last for several days – Cause “whiteouts” that limit visibility – May block livestock from food supplies
    24. 24. Plains Indians • Buffalo hunting main economic base • Mobility limited by lack of transportation—dog was only domesticated animal • Acquisition of horses (left by Spanish) – Spread through Great Plains – Excelled at horse-mounted warfare – More easily followed buffalo herds • Pushed from Great Plains – Loss of buffalo to trophy hunting – Flood tide of European settlement
    25. 25. Plains Indians Comes Out Holy, Oglala Sioux 1900
    26. 26. Settlement Geography of the Great Plains The Plains Indians The Plains Indians were the earliest settlers on the Great Plains. They traditionally lived in small groups scattered in semi- permanent settlements along the dispersed streams in the region. They often migrated following the large bison (American buffalo) herds that roamed the Plains. Spanish Horses When the Spanish explorers arrived in the 1600s, they brought and left a few horses, which also thrived in the Plains environment. By the time the first Americans arrived from the East Coast in the 1800s, the horse had become widely adopted by the Plains Indians. Plains Indians - 1880
    27. 27. Sioux Indian Tipi The photo was taken in 1907. The picture shows Slow Bull in front of his dwelling.
    28. 28. Nineteenth-Century Population Pressures in the East As nineteenth-century population pressures increased in the east, European-American settlers increasingly came into conflict with native tribes. This was especially true in the South, where many of the soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War were given Indian land instead of the salary they were entitled to. Native Americans were not considered US citizens; however, the US Supreme Court had declared in 1831 that the federal government must protect their rights under the US Constitution. White settlers openly took Indian lands in the east. President Jackson refused to enforce any laws protecting Indian rights, thereby engaging in a legally impeachable offense.) Sioux Indian Village The picture was taken in 1891 near the pine ridge Indian Reservation
    29. 29. Oklahoma Taken from the Indians The Native Americans who were removed from the East to Oklahoma in 1831 were promised the rights to their new lands "for as long as the sun shines, the rivers flow, and the grass grows." Many of the Plains Indians were also relocated to reservations in either Oklahoma or South Dakota. Gradually, more and more homesteaders made their way westward, settling the areas around Oklahoma. Because good homesteading land was becoming increasingly scarce, President McKinley, in 1889, voided the treaties establishing the Oklahoma reservations and opened the lands to non-Indian settlement. (Native Americans commemorated the 100-year anniversary of this event in the summer of 1989, declaring it to be the greatest single betrayal ever perpetrated against Indians by the US government.) Guthrie, Oklahoma Land Office on opening day Oklahoma 1890
    30. 30. Oklahoma 1905
    31. 31. First Euro-American Settlers • Hindered by – Lack of trees for building, fencing, fuel – Lack of water • First settlers – Best waterways— riparian rights – Excluded later settlers • Great Plains bypassed in favor of West Coast
    32. 32. Sod Houses
    33. 33. The Kern family seated in front of their sod house in 1886, holding slices of an enormous melon as if to show off their prosperity and the bounty of their land. (Courtesy Nebraska State Historical Society
    34. 34. The Shores family, one of the African-American families that came to settle on the Great Plains, whose formal pose, with their sod house and other possessions displayed behind them, conveys a strong sense of accomplishment and determination to stay on their own land. (Courtesy Nebraska State Historical Society
    35. 35. Raising a Fine Family of Pioneers, which shows a family of ten dressed in their best and posed in front of their almost windowless sod house. (The Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, ND.)
    36. 36. Exterior and Interior of Elling Ohnstad Sod House, photographed in 1923, showing how settlers smoothed and whitewashed the interior walls of sod houses and fitted them for comfortable living. (Reproduction No. 2028.078 and 2028.075, courtesy The Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, ND.)
    37. 37. Ranching • Introduced into Texas by Spanish • Rapid expansion (post–Civil War) – Unbranded cattle running loose during Civil War – Railroads pushing to West Coast – Cattle drives to rail heads in Kansas • Collapse (late 1880s) – Overgrazing – New cattle-raising operations in Midwest – Slipping national economy – Disastrous blizzards of 1887-1888 – Influx of farmers
    38. 38. The Spanish Introduction of Ranching The entire approach to cattle ranching in the American West actually originated on the plains of Spain, where climate and geology is quite similar to that of the Great Plains. Cattle ranching on the Great Plains was first introduced into south Texas by Spanish migrating up from what is today Mexico. Ranching was rapidly adopted across the Plains, reaching all the way to Canada by the mid-1800s. Post-Civil War Cattle Boom During the Civil War, millions of cattle ran free and unmarked across the Great Plains. After the war, these cattle formed the basis for new, and even larger, ranching operations to feed the growing industrial cities of the Northeast. Herds of cattle were driven across the Plains to the newly constructed transcontinental railroad lines, also built after the Civil War. The Open Range In the early years, cattle grazed on the "open range," meaning there were no fences. By the 1880s, the open range was rapidly disappearing due to overgrazing and increasing competition for land from sodbusters. Open range ranching was pushed farther and farther westward, until it completely disappeared.
    39. 39. Cattle and Calves (page 383)
    40. 40. Agricultural Settlement • Innovations – Barbed wire for fencing – Sod houses, until replaced by frame houses of railroad- transported lumber – Deep-well drilling, windmills – Mechanization of grain farming • New crop: Hard winter wheat
    41. 41. Winter Wheat Groundwater Mining
    42. 42. Canadian Prairies • Hudson’s Bay Company – Charter for Rupert’s Land (1670): Hudson Bay drainage basin – Sole agent of British authority until 1870 – Discouraged settlement as interfering with fur trade • Canadian government – Acquired Rupert’s Land in 1870 – Fostered settlement – Problem of Canadian Shield barrier – Railroad (1885), but many settlers from U.S. Midwest – Leases, rather than land grants Icelanders in Saskatchewan
    43. 43. Agriculture • Large scale and machinery intensive • Wheat – Winter wheat • Planted in fall, established before winter • Grows in spring, harvested early May and June • Grown from Northern Texas to Southern Nebraska, as far north as Montana – Spring wheat • Central South Dakota to south-central Prairie Provinces of Canada • Suited to severe winters • Planted in early spring, harvested late summer–fall
    44. 44. Modern Agriculture on the Great Plains Only limited ranching is practiced on the Great Plains today due to competition from Midwest pen-fed beef and greater returns from grain production. Modern agriculture on the Plains is characteristically large scale (much larger than in the Midwest), machinery intensive, and dominated by wheat production. Winter Wheat Winter wheat is grown in the central Great Plains from Texas to Nebraska. It is planted in the fall, grows several inches, becomes dormant in the winter, grows again in the spring, and is harvested in the summer. This allows it to receive plenty of moisture before the parching summer winds arrive. Spring Wheat Spring wheat is grown in the northern Plains. It is planted in the early spring and harvested in the fall. The cooler summers in the north allow it to thrive through the humid summers. Kansas (with winter wheat) and North Dakota (with spring wheat) are the largest wheat-producing states in the US. Other important grain crops grown on the Great Plains include barley and oats in the north and sorghum (used for animal feed) in the south. Winter wheat
    45. 45. Locations and Methods • Producing regions – Great Plains premier wheat-producing region – Canadian Prairie Provinces leader in Canada – United States: Kansas, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Montana • Techniques – Dry farming – Strip fallowing widespread
    46. 46. (page 242)
    47. 47. Labor and Ownership • Harvesting teams – Crews with large combines – Start with winter wheat harvest in Texas in June and work northward – Traditionally well paid – Gradually being replaced by farm-owned equipment • Fragmented land holdings – Pressure to increase farm size – “Sidewalk farmers” – Seasonal nature of work – Spotty nature of hail damage
    48. 48. (page 243)
    49. 49. Storage and Transportation to Market • Use of small grain elevators—or open-air storage • Transportation – Canadian • Most to Winnipeg, then to Thunder Bay for shipment on Great Lakes • North to Churchill on Hudson Bay (to Europe) – U.S.: Great Lakes or Mississippi river
    50. 50. Water and Irrigation • Most important resource second to land • Irrigation beneficial, produces more than non-irrigated land – 45% more wheat – 70% more sorghum – 135 % more cotton • Ogallala aquifer – Vast, natural underground reservoir beneath 250,000 square kilometers (100,000 square miles) – “Fossil” water deposited > 1 million years ago
    51. 51. (page 381)
    52. 52. Water: Costs and Government Programs • Costs – Water being overdrawn – Conservation regulations by states • Government programs – National Reclamation Act of 1902 – Big Thompson River project (1938-1957) – Missouri valley project (Pick- Sloan Plan)
    53. 53. Costs and Government Programs Changes in Llano Estado water Missouri Valley Project (page 246) (page 247)
    54. 54. Energy Resources • Natural gas: Panhandle field (western Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas) world’s largest field • Petroleum: – Panhandle field – Wyoming – Alberta (technical problems with Athabasca Tar Sands) • Coal – Thick seams, easily mined – Low-sulfur (less polluting) – Expensive to ship – Wyoming now leading coal-producing state • Wind?
    55. 55. Population and Regional Orientation • Out-migration to cities – Larger cities within region – Cities beyond Great Plains periphery • Transportation routes – Do little to integrate the region – Perceptual orientation toward places elsewhere (page 250)
    56. 56. Settlement East and West of 98 Degrees West Longitude The 98-degree west longitude line also divides areas where the US population density is more than 20 persons per square mile (east) and under 20 persons per square mile (west). Related to this, the transportation network (road system) is much more dense to the east than to the west. Most of the major transportation routes cross the Great Plains in an east-west direction. They are primarily designed to cross the region, not provide access to the scattered settlements within it. Rail lines go only east-west, while the only north-south interstate freeways are located on the eastern and western edges of the Great Plains.
    57. 57. Sitting Bull Quotes "If you have one honest man in Washington, send him here and I will talk to him." "I was never the aggressor. I only fought to protect the children."
    58. 58. Sitting Bull TATANKA IYOTAKA • 1831-1890 • Head chief of the Lakota Nation in 1869 – He was a great leader • People left the reservations to follow Sitting Bull – Gold discovered in the Black Hills 1874 • Sets the course for war between the Sioux and the US • He and his people were involved in the battle at Little Big Horn in which General Custer was killed • After that battle Sitting Bull and his people were pursued constantly so he took them across the border to Canada • They stayed in Canada for about four years but could not survive because the buffalo were nearly extinct • Sitting Bull was offered a pardon (more than once) and he finally accepted and took his people to a reservation in Montana – Instead of giving him what was promised to him in his pardon, Sitting Bull was taken as a prisoner of war and separated from his people
    59. 59. Sitting Bull TATANKA IYOTAKA • He was eventually allowed to leave the reservation and travel with Buffalo Bill’s (William Cody) Wild West show – Some accounts say that he was released into Cody’s custody – His time with the show was short, only four months, and he was paid $50 a week to ride around the ring once • While on tour with Cody, Sitting Bull realized that it was futile to fight the Americans because there were so many of them – He also saw the poverty of the cities-many people were homeless and hungry and Sitting Bull bought food for many that he encountered • Back at the reservation, Sitting Bull refused to give up his way of life, he still kept two wives and refused to convert to Christianity – BUT he sent his children to the missionary school believing that it was necessary for them to learn to read and write • Sitting Bull was killed by his own people, the tribal police, in December of 1890 – The tribal police had come to arrest him because they were afraid of the Ghost Dance movement – Sitting Bull had allowed his people to participate in the dance and the government was afraid that the movement would become too strong if Sitting Bull were behind it because his people were still very loyal to him
    60. 60. Class photo of Charles Eastman-Dartmouth College Charles Eastman Ohiyesa Not a fictional character… 1858-1939 -Started his education at 15 -Became a doctor within 7 years -Was a witness to the events at The Standing Rock Agency -Held many jobs after that -Wrote several books -Was politically active -Was influential in the boy scouts **Much is based on his Traditional Sioux boyhood
    61. 61. Ghost Dance of 1890 • A religious movement incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems • Swept throughout much of the American West starting in 1889 • Started with the prophet of peace Jack Wilson, known as Wovoka among the Paiute • Prophesied a peaceful end to white American expansion while preaching messages of clean living, an honest life, and cross-cultural cooperation. • As the Ghost Dance spread from its original source, Native American tribes synthesized selective aspects of the ritual with their own beliefs. • An alternate interpretation of the Ghost Dance tradition may be seen in the so-called Ghost Shirts, which were special garments rumored to repel bullets through spiritual power – This is how the Sioux interpreted the Ghost Dance – They also believed that the white man would be washed away from their land, which was a variation on Wavoka’s original prophecy Wovoka
    62. 62. Ghost Dance Shirts
    63. 63. Movements with similarities • 1856-1857 Cattle-Killing in South Africa in which perhaps 60,000 of the Xhosa people died of self-induced starvation. They destroyed their food supplies based on a vision that came to Nongqawuse. • The Righteous Harmony Society was a Chinese movement which also believed in magical clothing, reacting against Western colonialism. • The Maji Maji Rebellion where an African spirit medium gave his followers war medicine that he said would turn German bullets into water. • Melanesian cargo cults believed in a return of their ancestors brought by Western technology (see Vailala Madness, Jon Frum). • The Spanish Carlist troops fought against secularism and believed in the detente bala — pieces of cloth with an image of the Holy Heart of Jesus — would protect them against bullets. • Burkhanism was an Altayan movement that reacted against Russification. • Child soldiers in the civil wars of Liberia wore wigs and wedding gowns to confuse enemy bullets by assuming a dual identity See Joshua Blahyi.
    64. 64. Dawes Act of 1877-Allotment Act • Authorized survey of Native Lands for the purpose of division • Gives each family 160 acres to farm, or 80 acres for livestock, or 40 acres just for the purposes of living • Had a clause that allows for the land to be sold once it is in the hands of the individual • Also had the clause that who ever received the grant would become a citizen • There was also a clause that forced children into ‘Indian Schools’
    65. 65. Indian Schools-Americanization of Native Americans • Americanization can refer to the policies of the United States government and public opinion that there is a standard set of cultural values that should be held in common by all citizens. Education was and is viewed as the primary method in the acculturation process. • An Indian boarding school refers to one of many schools that were established in the United States during the late 19th century and early 20th century to educate Native American youths according to Euro- American standards. – Run by missionaries – They were traumatic to many of children who attended them, as they were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity and adopt European-American culture. – There are also documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools. • A similar system in Canada was known as the Canadian Residential School System.
    66. 66. Pupils at Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Pennsylvania (c. 1900)
    67. 67. Little girls praying beside their beds, Phoenix Indian School, Arizona, June 1900. Stewart Indian School, Carson City, NV Albuquerque Indian School