Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Empty Space, Explosive Energy </li></ul><ul><li>The Organization of the Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from the Nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Empty Space, Explosive Energy
  4. 4. Empty Space, Explosive Energy <ul><li>Relation of atom to nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom’s chemistry, and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The energies available in the nucleus are much greater than those available among electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E = mc 2 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mass Change When a Bow is Drawn
  6. 6. The Organization of the Nucleus
  7. 7. The Organization of the Nucleus <ul><li>Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus gives atom its mass </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atomic Numbers, Isotopes, and the Mass Number <ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictates the arrangement of electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defines chemical behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements with different numbers of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Isotopes
  10. 10. The Strong Force <ul><li>Strong force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds nucleus together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates over short distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding energy </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Radioactivity
  12. 12. What’s Radioactive? <ul><li>Radioactivity or radioactive decay </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Using a Geiger Counter to Detect Radioactivity
  14. 14. Science in the Making <ul><li>Antoine Henri Becquerel </li></ul><ul><li>The Curie family </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Curie Family
  16. 16. The Science of Life <ul><li>The CAT Scan </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Kinds of Radioactive Decay <ul><li>Alpha decay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of particle; composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beta decay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission of electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect; weak force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gamma Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Identification of the Alpha Particle
  19. 19. Three Common Types of Radioactive Decay
  20. 20. Radiation and Health <ul><li>Ionization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripping electron(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Damaging Effects of Radiation
  22. 22. Moving Down the Chart of the Isotopes
  23. 23. The Science of Life <ul><li>Radioactive tracers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Half-Life <ul><li>Half-life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide range of half-lives </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot predict half-life </li></ul>
  25. 25. Half-Lives
  26. 26. Radiometric Dating <ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of half-life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbon-14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life = 5700 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need longer half-lives </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Shroud of Turin
  28. 28. Use of Potassium-Argon Dating
  29. 29. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>Dating a frozen mammoth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable decay of carbon-14 </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Decay Chains <ul><li>Decay chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of decays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues until stable isotope appears </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Uranium-238 Decay Chain
  32. 32. Indoor Radon <ul><li>Decay of uranium-238 </li></ul><ul><li>Radon-222 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergoes alpha decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can build up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ventilation </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Energy from the Nucleus
  34. 34. Nuclear Fission <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splitting of nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Reactor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracts energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meltdown </li></ul>
  35. 35. Nuclear Reactor
  36. 36. Three Mile Island – Partial Meltdown
  37. 37. Fusion <ul><li>Fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 atoms of H combine to form He </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some mass converted to energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul>
  38. 38. Fusion Reaction
  39. 39. Technology <ul><li>ITER: the future of fusion </li></ul>
  40. 40. Science in the Making <ul><li>Superheavy elements </li></ul>
  41. 41. Thinking More about the Nucleus <ul><li>Nuclear waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yucca Mountain project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.