Ch12
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Ch12 Ch12 Presentation Transcript

  • The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy
  • Chapter Outline
    • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
    • The Organization of the Nucleus
    • Radioactivity
    • Energy from the Nucleus
  • Empty Space, Explosive Energy View slide
  • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
    • Relation of atom to nucleus
      • What goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom’s chemistry, and vice versa
      • The energies available in the nucleus are much greater than those available among electrons
    • E = mc 2
    View slide
  • Mass Change When a Bow is Drawn
  • The Organization of the Nucleus
  • The Organization of the Nucleus
    • Rutherford
    • Nucleus
      • Proton
      • Neutron
    • Nucleus gives atom its mass
  • Atomic Numbers, Isotopes, and the Mass Number
    • Atomic number
      • Number of protons in nucleus
        • Dictates the arrangement of electrons
        • Defines chemical behavior
    • Isotopes
      • Elements with different numbers of neutrons
    • Mass number
      • Total protons and neutrons
  • Isotopes
  • The Strong Force
    • Strong force
      • Holds nucleus together
      • Operates over short distances
      • Binding energy
  • Radioactivity
  • What’s Radioactive?
    • Radioactivity or radioactive decay
    • Radiation
  • Using a Geiger Counter to Detect Radioactivity
  • Science in the Making
    • Antoine Henri Becquerel
    • The Curie family
  • The Curie Family
  • The Science of Life
    • The CAT Scan
  • The Kinds of Radioactive Decay
    • Alpha decay
      • Release of particle; composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
    • Beta decay
      • Emission of electron
      • Neutrino
      • Effect; weak force
    • Gamma Radiation
      • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Identification of the Alpha Particle
  • Three Common Types of Radioactive Decay
  • Radiation and Health
    • Ionization
      • Stripping electron(s)
    • Long-term effects
      • Cancer
      • Birth defects
  • Damaging Effects of Radiation
  • Moving Down the Chart of the Isotopes
  • The Science of Life
    • Radioactive tracers
  • Half-Life
    • Half-life
      • Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes
    • Wide range of half-lives
    • Cannot predict half-life
  • Half-Lives
  • Radiometric Dating
    • Radiometric dating
      • Measurement of half-life
    • Carbon-14
      • Half-life = 5700 years
    • Geology
      • Need longer half-lives
  • The Shroud of Turin
  • Use of Potassium-Argon Dating
  • Science by the Numbers
    • Dating a frozen mammoth
      • Predictable decay of carbon-14
  • Decay Chains
    • Decay chains
      • Series of decays
      • Continues until stable isotope appears
  • Uranium-238 Decay Chain
  • Indoor Radon
    • Decay of uranium-238
    • Radon-222
      • Undergoes alpha decay
      • Can build up
      • Increase ventilation
  • Energy from the Nucleus
  • Nuclear Fission
    • Fission
      • Splitting of nucleus
    • Nuclear Reactor
      • Extracts energy
    • Meltdown
  • Nuclear Reactor
  • Three Mile Island – Partial Meltdown
  • Fusion
    • Fusion
      • 2 atoms of H combine to form He
      • Some mass converted to energy
    • Sunlight
  • Fusion Reaction
  • Technology
    • ITER: the future of fusion
  • Science in the Making
    • Superheavy elements
  • Thinking More about the Nucleus
    • Nuclear waste
      • Management
      • Yucca Mountain project
        • Controversial