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Ch12
 

Ch12

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    Ch12 Ch12 Presentation Transcript

    • The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy
    • Chapter Outline
      • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
      • The Organization of the Nucleus
      • Radioactivity
      • Energy from the Nucleus
    • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
    • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
      • Relation of atom to nucleus
        • What goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom’s chemistry, and vice versa
        • The energies available in the nucleus are much greater than those available among electrons
      • E = mc 2
    • Mass Change When a Bow is Drawn
    • The Organization of the Nucleus
    • The Organization of the Nucleus
      • Rutherford
      • Nucleus
        • Proton
        • Neutron
      • Nucleus gives atom its mass
    • Atomic Numbers, Isotopes, and the Mass Number
      • Atomic number
        • Number of protons in nucleus
          • Dictates the arrangement of electrons
          • Defines chemical behavior
      • Isotopes
        • Elements with different numbers of neutrons
      • Mass number
        • Total protons and neutrons
    • Isotopes
    • The Strong Force
      • Strong force
        • Holds nucleus together
        • Operates over short distances
        • Binding energy
    • Radioactivity
    • What’s Radioactive?
      • Radioactivity or radioactive decay
      • Radiation
    • Using a Geiger Counter to Detect Radioactivity
    • Science in the Making
      • Antoine Henri Becquerel
      • The Curie family
    • The Curie Family
    • The Science of Life
      • The CAT Scan
    • The Kinds of Radioactive Decay
      • Alpha decay
        • Release of particle; composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
      • Beta decay
        • Emission of electron
        • Neutrino
        • Effect; weak force
      • Gamma Radiation
        • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Identification of the Alpha Particle
    • Three Common Types of Radioactive Decay
    • Radiation and Health
      • Ionization
        • Stripping electron(s)
      • Long-term effects
        • Cancer
        • Birth defects
    • Damaging Effects of Radiation
    • Moving Down the Chart of the Isotopes
    • The Science of Life
      • Radioactive tracers
    • Half-Life
      • Half-life
        • Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes
      • Wide range of half-lives
      • Cannot predict half-life
    • Half-Lives
    • Radiometric Dating
      • Radiometric dating
        • Measurement of half-life
      • Carbon-14
        • Half-life = 5700 years
      • Geology
        • Need longer half-lives
    • The Shroud of Turin
    • Use of Potassium-Argon Dating
    • Science by the Numbers
      • Dating a frozen mammoth
        • Predictable decay of carbon-14
    • Decay Chains
      • Decay chains
        • Series of decays
        • Continues until stable isotope appears
    • Uranium-238 Decay Chain
    • Indoor Radon
      • Decay of uranium-238
      • Radon-222
        • Undergoes alpha decay
        • Can build up
        • Increase ventilation
    • Energy from the Nucleus
    • Nuclear Fission
      • Fission
        • Splitting of nucleus
      • Nuclear Reactor
        • Extracts energy
      • Meltdown
    • Nuclear Reactor
    • Three Mile Island – Partial Meltdown
    • Fusion
      • Fusion
        • 2 atoms of H combine to form He
        • Some mass converted to energy
      • Sunlight
    • Fusion Reaction
    • Technology
      • ITER: the future of fusion
    • Science in the Making
      • Superheavy elements
    • Thinking More about the Nucleus
      • Nuclear waste
        • Management
        • Yucca Mountain project
          • Controversial