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  • 1. The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Empty Space, Explosive Energy
    • The Organization of the Nucleus
    • Radioactivity
    • Energy from the Nucleus
  • 3. Empty Space, Explosive Energy
  • 4. Empty Space, Explosive Energy
    • Relation of atom to nucleus
      • What goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom’s chemistry, and vice versa
      • The energies available in the nucleus are much greater than those available among electrons
    • E = mc 2
  • 5. Mass Change When a Bow is Drawn
  • 6. The Organization of the Nucleus
  • 7. The Organization of the Nucleus
    • Rutherford
    • Nucleus
      • Proton
      • Neutron
    • Nucleus gives atom its mass
  • 8. Atomic Numbers, Isotopes, and the Mass Number
    • Atomic number
      • Number of protons in nucleus
        • Dictates the arrangement of electrons
        • Defines chemical behavior
    • Isotopes
      • Elements with different numbers of neutrons
    • Mass number
      • Total protons and neutrons
  • 9. Isotopes
  • 10. The Strong Force
    • Strong force
      • Holds nucleus together
      • Operates over short distances
      • Binding energy
  • 11. Radioactivity
  • 12. What’s Radioactive?
    • Radioactivity or radioactive decay
    • Radiation
  • 13. Using a Geiger Counter to Detect Radioactivity
  • 14. Science in the Making
    • Antoine Henri Becquerel
    • The Curie family
  • 15. The Curie Family
  • 16. The Science of Life
    • The CAT Scan
  • 17. The Kinds of Radioactive Decay
    • Alpha decay
      • Release of particle; composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
    • Beta decay
      • Emission of electron
      • Neutrino
      • Effect; weak force
    • Gamma Radiation
      • Electromagnetic radiation
  • 18. Identification of the Alpha Particle
  • 19. Three Common Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 20. Radiation and Health
    • Ionization
      • Stripping electron(s)
    • Long-term effects
      • Cancer
      • Birth defects
  • 21. Damaging Effects of Radiation
  • 22. Moving Down the Chart of the Isotopes
  • 23. The Science of Life
    • Radioactive tracers
  • 24. Half-Life
    • Half-life
      • Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes
    • Wide range of half-lives
    • Cannot predict half-life
  • 25. Half-Lives
  • 26. Radiometric Dating
    • Radiometric dating
      • Measurement of half-life
    • Carbon-14
      • Half-life = 5700 years
    • Geology
      • Need longer half-lives
  • 27. The Shroud of Turin
  • 28. Use of Potassium-Argon Dating
  • 29. Science by the Numbers
    • Dating a frozen mammoth
      • Predictable decay of carbon-14
  • 30. Decay Chains
    • Decay chains
      • Series of decays
      • Continues until stable isotope appears
  • 31. Uranium-238 Decay Chain
  • 32. Indoor Radon
    • Decay of uranium-238
    • Radon-222
      • Undergoes alpha decay
      • Can build up
      • Increase ventilation
  • 33. Energy from the Nucleus
  • 34. Nuclear Fission
    • Fission
      • Splitting of nucleus
    • Nuclear Reactor
      • Extracts energy
    • Meltdown
  • 35. Nuclear Reactor
  • 36. Three Mile Island – Partial Meltdown
  • 37. Fusion
    • Fusion
      • 2 atoms of H combine to form He
      • Some mass converted to energy
    • Sunlight
  • 38. Fusion Reaction
  • 39. Technology
    • ITER: the future of fusion
  • 40. Science in the Making
    • Superheavy elements
  • 41. Thinking More about the Nucleus
    • Nuclear waste
      • Management
      • Yucca Mountain project
        • Controversial