Ch11
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Ch11

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Ch11 Ch11 Presentation Transcript

  • Materials and their Properties Chapter 11 Great Idea: A material’s properties result from its constituent atoms and the arrangements of chemical bonds that hold those atoms together
  • Chapter Outline
    • Materials and the Modern World
    • The Strengths of Materials
    • Electrical Properties of Materials
    • Magnetic Properties of Materials
    • Microchips and the Information Revolution
  • Materials and the Modern World
  • Materials and the Modern World
    • Materials define technical sophistication
    • Chemists’ contributions
    • Properties of materials depend upon:
      • The kind of atoms of which it is made
      • Arrangement of atoms
      • Type of bonding of atoms
  • Typical Room with High-Tech Materials
  • The Strengths of Materials
  • Different Kinds of Strength
    • Strength
      • Compressive
      • Tensile
      • Shear
    • Elastic limit
    • Strength depends on type and arrangement of bonds
  • Strength of Muscle Fibers
  • Strength of Suspension Bridges
  • Strength of Girder Framework
  • Strength of a Diamond’s Crystal Structure
  • Composite Materials
    • Composite materials
      • Combination of materials
      • Increase strength
  • Composite Materials
  • Electrical Properties of Materials
  • Conductors and Insulators
    • Conductors
      • Electrical conductor
        • Electrons flow freely
      • Electrical resistance
        • Draining of energy from current
    • Insulators
      • No electricity flows through them
  • Electrical Wiring
  • Semiconductors
    • Semiconductors
      • Neither good conductors nor insulators
    • Example: silicon
      • Conduction electrons
      • Hole
  • Silicon Crystal
  • Holes
  • Superconductors
    • Superconductivity
      • Absence of electrical resistance
      • At cold temperature electrons move without losing energy
    • How?
      • Electron-ion interactions
  • Searching for New Superconductors
  • Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • Magnetic Properties of Materials
    • Magnetic field
      • Due to electrical current
        • Electrons spinning
    • Arrangement of atomic magnets
      • Determines level of magnetism
  • Dipole Magnetic Field of Atoms and magnets
  • Different Magnetic Behaviors
  • Microchips and the Information Revolution New materials often lead to new technologies that change society
  • Doped Semiconductors
    • Doping
      • Addition of minor impurity
    • n -type semiconductor
      • Extra electron
    • p -type semiconductor
      • Hole
  • n -Type and p -Type Semiconductors
  • Diodes
    • Diodes
      • Combination of p - and n -type semiconductors
      • One-way gate
  • Diodes
  • Diodes Convert AC to DC
  • Technology
    • Photovoltaic cells and solar energy
  • The Transistor
    • Transistor
      • Control flow of electrons
        • Emitter
        • Base
        • Collector
    • Uses
      • Cell phone
      • Computer
  • A pnp and an npn Transistor
  • A Transistor Acting Like an Amplifier
  • A Transistor Acting Like a Switch
  • Microchips
    • Microchip
      • Complex array of p - and n -type semiconductors
      • Integrated circuit
    • Design
      • Layers interconnected
  • Microchip
  • Technology
    • Jim Trefil give his car a tune-up
  • Information
    • The binary digit or bit
      • Two possible answers to a simple question
      • 8 bits = 1 byte
  • Science by the Numbers
    • Is a picture really worth a thousand words?
  • Computers
    • Computer
      • Stores and manipulates information
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Nanotechnology
  • Old and New Computer Game Technology
  • The Science of Life
    • The computer and the brain