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Ch11

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Transcript

  • 1. Materials and their Properties Chapter 11 Great Idea: A material’s properties result from its constituent atoms and the arrangements of chemical bonds that hold those atoms together
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Materials and the Modern World
    • The Strengths of Materials
    • Electrical Properties of Materials
    • Magnetic Properties of Materials
    • Microchips and the Information Revolution
  • 3. Materials and the Modern World
  • 4. Materials and the Modern World
    • Materials define technical sophistication
    • Chemists’ contributions
    • Properties of materials depend upon:
      • The kind of atoms of which it is made
      • Arrangement of atoms
      • Type of bonding of atoms
  • 5. Typical Room with High-Tech Materials
  • 6. The Strengths of Materials
  • 7. Different Kinds of Strength
    • Strength
      • Compressive
      • Tensile
      • Shear
    • Elastic limit
    • Strength depends on type and arrangement of bonds
  • 8. Strength of Muscle Fibers
  • 9. Strength of Suspension Bridges
  • 10. Strength of Girder Framework
  • 11. Strength of a Diamond’s Crystal Structure
  • 12. Composite Materials
    • Composite materials
      • Combination of materials
      • Increase strength
  • 13. Composite Materials
  • 14. Electrical Properties of Materials
  • 15. Conductors and Insulators
    • Conductors
      • Electrical conductor
        • Electrons flow freely
      • Electrical resistance
        • Draining of energy from current
    • Insulators
      • No electricity flows through them
  • 16. Electrical Wiring
  • 17. Semiconductors
    • Semiconductors
      • Neither good conductors nor insulators
    • Example: silicon
      • Conduction electrons
      • Hole
  • 18. Silicon Crystal
  • 19. Holes
  • 20. Superconductors
    • Superconductivity
      • Absence of electrical resistance
      • At cold temperature electrons move without losing energy
    • How?
      • Electron-ion interactions
  • 21. Searching for New Superconductors
  • 22. Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • 23. Magnetic Properties of Materials
    • Magnetic field
      • Due to electrical current
        • Electrons spinning
    • Arrangement of atomic magnets
      • Determines level of magnetism
  • 24. Dipole Magnetic Field of Atoms and magnets
  • 25. Different Magnetic Behaviors
  • 26. Microchips and the Information Revolution New materials often lead to new technologies that change society
  • 27. Doped Semiconductors
    • Doping
      • Addition of minor impurity
    • n -type semiconductor
      • Extra electron
    • p -type semiconductor
      • Hole
  • 28. n -Type and p -Type Semiconductors
  • 29. Diodes
    • Diodes
      • Combination of p - and n -type semiconductors
      • One-way gate
  • 30. Diodes
  • 31. Diodes Convert AC to DC
  • 32. Technology
    • Photovoltaic cells and solar energy
  • 33. The Transistor
    • Transistor
      • Control flow of electrons
        • Emitter
        • Base
        • Collector
    • Uses
      • Cell phone
      • Computer
  • 34. A pnp and an npn Transistor
  • 35. A Transistor Acting Like an Amplifier
  • 36. A Transistor Acting Like a Switch
  • 37. Microchips
    • Microchip
      • Complex array of p - and n -type semiconductors
      • Integrated circuit
    • Design
      • Layers interconnected
  • 38. Microchip
  • 39. Technology
    • Jim Trefil give his car a tune-up
  • 40. Information
    • The binary digit or bit
      • Two possible answers to a simple question
      • 8 bits = 1 byte
  • 41. Science by the Numbers
    • Is a picture really worth a thousand words?
  • 42. Computers
    • Computer
      • Stores and manipulates information
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Nanotechnology
  • 43. Old and New Computer Game Technology
  • 44. The Science of Life
    • The computer and the brain

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