2. Terrestrial Flora and Fauna• Ecosystems and Biomes• Terrestrial Flora• Terrestrial Fauna• Zoogeographic Regions• The Major Biomes• Human Modification of Natural DistributionPatterns2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
3. Ecosystems and Biomes• Ecosystem—community of plantsand animals living together• Numerous ecosystem scales• Biomes– large recognizable assemblage ofplants and animals in interactionwith environment– Identified by dominant vegetation,biomass– Ten major types• Ecotones3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-1
4. Terrestrial Flora• Most significant visual component of landscape• Sensitive indicator to other environmental attributes• Influence on human settlement and activities• Plant characteristics– Hardy– Perennials– Annuals– Highly variable in size– Common characteristics: roots, stems, branches,leaves4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5. Terrestrial Flora• Floristic terminology– Two types, seeds and spores– Spore reproduction• Bryophytes—mosses andliverworts• Pteridophytes—ferns, horsetails– Seed reproduction• Gymnosperms—seeds in cones,also called conifers• Angiosperms—seeds encasedin protection, all other plant life isof this type5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-3
6. Terrestrial Flora• Floristic terminology (cont.)– Woody plants versus herbaceous plants– Evergreen trees versus deciduous trees– Broadleaf trees versus needleleaf trees– Hardwoods versus softwoods• Environmental adaptations– Plants have changed their tolerance relative to theirenvironmental conditions– Two most prominent adaptations involve availability ofwater6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
7. Terrestrial Flora• Xerophytic adaptations– Roots modified in shapeand size to seekmoisture– Stems modified as ameans to store moisture– Leaf surface modified todecrease transpiration– Lie dormant for yearsuntil they receive rain,then reproduce rapidly7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-4
8. Terrestrial Flora• Hygrophytic adaptations– Hydrophytes—thosethat are completelysubmersed in water– Hygrophytes—thosewhich require frequentwater soakings– Extensive root systems– Hygrophytic plantssupported by buoyancyof water instead ofstems8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-6
9. Terrestrial Flora• Competition and inevitability ofchange– Plants are competitive for area– Floristic pattern of Earth’ssurface is impermanent– Eventual pattern of constantplant composition—climaxvegetation– Seral stages9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-5
10. Terrestrial Flora• Spatial associations of plants– Need generalization to interpret spatial flora patterns– Human effects• Major floristic associations10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-7
11. Terrestrial Flora• Forests– Trees so close their leafcanopies overlap– Require significant annualprecipitation– Likely to become climaxvegetation• Woodlands– Trees spaced more widely thanforests, no overlapping canopies– Ground cover not inhibited bylack of sunlight– Drier than forest environments11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-8
12. Terrestrial Flora• Shrublands– Short, woody plants such as shrubs or bushes– Leafy foliate near ground– Generally restricted to arid locales• Grasslands– Scattered trees and shrubs– Dominated by grasses and forbs– Prominent types include savanna, prairie, and steppe12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
13. Terrestrial Flora• Deserts (Figure 11-9)– Widely scattered plants withmuch bare ground– Great variety of vegetation• Tundra– Complex mix of low plantswith no trees– Cold climates• Wetlands– Shallow standing water– Swamps and marshes13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-9
14. Terrestrial Flora• Vertical zonation– Distinct pattern of vegetationpatterns in mountainous areas– Elevation-latitude relationship– Upper treeline• Local variations– Sunlight exposure• Adret slope• Ubac slope– Valley bottom location, riparianvegetation14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-13
15. Terrestrial Fauna• Fauna more widelydistributed than flora• Less prominence ingeographic study• Sometimes fauna moresensitive to the health of anecosystem• Animal characteristics– Motile– Need plants and/or animals forsustenance15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-15
16. Terrestrial Fauna• Environmental adaptations– Evolution impacts– Adaptation to environmentalextremes• Physiological adaptations– Anatomical and/or metabolicchanges– Example: fox ear size– Fur-bearing mammalscommon in high-latitude/elevation– Other examples16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-19
17. Terrestrial Fauna• Behavioral adaptations– Change behavior based onenvironmental stress– Hibernation and estivation• Reproductive adaptations– New reproductive cycles toovercome harshenvironmental conditions• Example of animaladaptations to desert life(Figure 11-20)17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-20
18. Terrestrial Fauna• Competition among animals– Indirect competition for space andresources– Direct competition throughpredation– Competition for food and water– Parental instincts• Cooperation among animals– Social groups of animals– Symbiosis• Mutualism• Commensalism• Parasitism18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-22
19. Zoogeographic Regions• Broad distribution of fauna reflects energy and fooddiversity distribution• Nine zoogeographic regions based on vertebratedistribution19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-23
20. Zoogeographic Regions• Ethiopian—Separated by oceanic and landboundaries, most diverse terrestrial fauna• Oriental—Similar fauna to Ethiopian, but fewerspecies, separated by mountainous terrain,endemic groups• Palearctic—fauna poorer than Ethiopian or Oriental,due to its higher latitude• Nearctic—Mixture of Palearctic and Neotropicalregions, poor fauna, possibly joined at one time withthe Palearctic, explaining similarities in biota20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
21. Zoogeographic Regions• Neotropical—tropical portions of Americas; birdsdiverse; numerous endemic fauna• Madagascar—numerous endemic fauna due toisolation from Africa• New Zealand—dominated by birds, no mammals,and limited vertebrate fauna• Pacific Islands—numerous isolated islands, verylimited fauna21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
22. Zoogeographic Regions• Australian—isolated largeisland has limited faunatypes, but 8 of 9 areendemic– Flora unique, 90% areeucalyptus– Fauna dominated bymonotremes andmarsupials22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-17
23. The Major Biomes• Tropical rainforest (selva)– Greatest speciesdiversity– Different heights ofvegetation– Very dense vegetation– Little surface vegetationdue to lack of sunlight– Fauna generallyarboreal (tree dwelling)23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-26
24. The Major Biomes• Tropical deciduous forest– Less tree density thanselva– Lower tree heightsindicative of lessprecipitation– More ground levelvertebrates, manyarboreal vertebrates24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-28
26. The Major Biomes• Tropical savanna– Dominated by tallgrasses, occasionalbare ground– Mixture of bushes andshrubs dot landscape –park savanna– Mixture of fauna; Africansavanna has “big game”– Human modification oftropical regions26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-30
27. The Major Biomes• Desert– Wide flora diversity,xerophytic flora– Sparse plant cover,typically shrubs– Moderately diversefauna, no large-sizedanimals– Rainfall can trigger plantgermination– Biota near oases27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-31
28. The Major Biomes• Mediterranean woodlandand shrub– Pronounced wet-dryclimate (mediterraneanclimate)– Chaparral shrub growthdominant flora– Open grassy woodlandscommon as well– Summer wildfires– Indistinctive fauna28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-33
29. The Major Biomes• Midlatitude deciduousforest– Dense growth ofbroadleaf trees– Widely modified byhumans– Diversity of fauna tomatch tropical regions– Wildlife more limitedduring winter due tohibernation29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-35
30. The Major Biomes• Boreal forest– Often co-located withthe subarctic climate– Most trees are conifers– Trees taller on southernside of this biome– Limited faunal speciesdiversity– Number of animalsmuch higher thanspecies diversity30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-36
31. The Major Biomes• Tundra– Too cold for trees tosurvive– Dense, low height plantcover– Animal life dominated bybirds– Few fish and mammals,no reptiles oramphibians– Alpine tundras exist athigh elevations31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-38
32. Human Modification of NaturalDistribution Patterns• Humans can modifydistribution patternsastonishingly quickly• Physical removal oforganisms– Modification oflandscape to makeroom for civilization– Vast effects on overalldistribution patterns32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-37
33. Human Modification of NaturalDistribution Patterns• Habitat modification– Tropical rainforestremoval• 27 million acres of rainforest lost per year• Ecosystem effects fromrainforest removal• Loss of biodiversitythrough extinction– Methods whichovercome the removalof tropical rainforest33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-40
34. Human Modification of NaturalDistribution Patterns• Artificial translocation oforganisms– Introduction of exoticspecies– Crops and pets– Deliberate release oflivestock as “feral”creatures• Example of relocation:the sad case of Florida34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 11-46
35. Summary• Biomes and ecosystems describe communities offlora and fauna and their spatial location patterns• Terrestrial flora exist in vast diversity on the Earth’ssurface• Floral terminology is used to help understand floralprocesses• Flora undergo environmental adaptations to accountfor their surrounding environment• Flora exist competitively in nature• There are five primary floral distributions globally35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
36. Summary• Flora is subject to a vertical zonation as well• Terrestrial fauna are less spatially defined due tomotility• There are two primary kinds of animals• As with flora, terrestrial fauna undergo environmentaladaptations as their surroundings change• Competition between animals is widely evident• Animals work cooperatively in many instances• There are nine primary zoogeographic regions36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
37. Summary• The ten biomes of the world help to identify thespatial distribution of terrestrial flora and fauna andassess their relationship to the surrounding climate• Numerous human interactions have significantlymodified the biomes of the world37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.