Ch09

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Ch09

  1. 1. Quantum Mechanics Chapter 9 Great Idea: At the subatomic scale, everything is quantized. Any measurement at that scale significantly alters the object being measured
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The World of the Very Small </li></ul><ul><li>Probabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Wave-Particle Duality </li></ul><ul><li>Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom </li></ul>
  3. 3. The World of the Very Small
  4. 4. The World of the Very Small <ul><li>Quantum mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion of quanta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bundles versus continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Does not match our intuition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Measurement and Observation in the Quantum World <ul><li>3 components to measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantum world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement alters object </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Radar Antenna
  7. 7. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle <ul><li>Uncertainty Principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At quantum scale, measurement alters object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot know position and velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Equation: </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – cont. <ul><li>Compare large versus small objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small uncertainty with large object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large uncertainty with small object </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Probabilities
  10. 10. Probabilities <ul><li>Newtonian view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine velocity and position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantum view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot determine velocity and position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use probability </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Position of the “Quantum Baseball”
  12. 12. Wave Particle Duality
  13. 13. The Double-Slit Test <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emit photon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood of photons </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Wave or Particle
  15. 15. Double-Slit - cont. <ul><li>Single photon over time </li></ul><ul><li>Results depend on experimental design </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not wave or particle </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Electrons Moving through a Two-Slit Barrier
  17. 17. Technology <ul><li>The photoelectric effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role in the history of quantum mechanics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>CAT scan </li></ul>
  18. 18. Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom
  19. 19. Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom <ul><li>Speed and wavelength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster speed = shorter wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise velocity = stable orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform vibration at certain frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combine wave and particle? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only orbits allowed are those where both particle and wave work </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Standing Wave
  21. 21. Standing Wave of an Electron in Orbit
  22. 22. Quantum Weirdness <ul><li>Richard Feynmann - “I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics. …Do not keep saying to yourself, ‘But how can it be like that?’… Nobody knows how it can be like that.” </li></ul><ul><li>Be Careful! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum mechanics is still a marvelous and necessary tool for understanding the quantum world </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Quantum Entanglement <ul><li>Quantum entanglement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photons emitted at same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite distance, remain entangled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantum teleportation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Quantum Teleportation
  25. 25. Science in the Making <ul><li>Anton Zeilinger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First picture sent through the use of quantum teleported photons </li></ul></ul>

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