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  1. 1. THE CHANGING SOUTH (Chapter 9)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Deeper regional sense than any other part of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Regionality reinforced by people from across the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Often perceived superficially and in caricature </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous diversity with many subregions possessing their own versions of southern culture </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include geographically southernmost areas of southern Florida, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid changes </li></ul>
  3. 3. (page 167) Fall Line cities
  4. 4. The Southern Heritage <ul><li>Early European settler goals commercial, exploitative </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas suitable for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good soils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, hot summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ample rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigable rivers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Settlement Patterns <ul><li>Most areas strongly rural until late 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ports and small market centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection and transshipment points for cash crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little linkage with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctly local allegiances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people very isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plantations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to cash crop production </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Peoples <ul><li>Much plantation investment in labor </li></ul><ul><li>Low population densities, cheap land leading to use of slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves from Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Little later immigration from Europe, very small proportion foreign-born by 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Most Southerners still English and Scots-Irish (but more immigration recently) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impact of Slavery <ul><li>From early years of settlement, slaves integral to organization, social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed key elements of Southern life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief in inferiority of blacks as rationale for slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks and whites living in close proximity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Minorities <ul><li>Cajuns (Southern Louisiana) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name derived from “ Acadian ,” French settlers in Acadia (now Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left when British conquered New France (1763) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain distinctive: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French dialect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcible removal of Indians by 1830s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendents of those who escape removal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Cherokee (North Carolina) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choctaw (central Mississippi) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Religious Patterns <ul><li>Small, rural churches </li></ul><ul><li>Baptist denomination dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evangelists (mid-18 th century) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resisted formal organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of influence from later immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note difference in southern Louisiana, southern Texas </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Civil War <ul><li>Prewar distribution of slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost every county outside Appalachian highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original plantation areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New lands most suited to cotton production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest % of Civil War battles fought on Southern soil </li></ul>
  11. 11. Economic Impacts of the Civil War <ul><li>Railroads disrupted or in disrepair </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment confiscated </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping terminals in ruins </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate currency and bonds worthless </li></ul><ul><li>Labor supply formally eliminated (emancipation) </li></ul><ul><li>Large land holdings heavily taxed and/or subdivided </li></ul>
  12. 12. Post–Civil War Transition <ul><li>White reaction to emancipation: Institutionalized segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Few opportunities for blacks until World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Greater isolation of the South </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of economic infrastructure and plantation economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of factors for economic development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local capital (used for war or drawn off by Northerners) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued dependence on agriculture </li></ul>
  13. 13. Agricultural Labor <ul><li>Emancipation of blacks, white labor pool decimated by war deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Few jobs in South’s small towns </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved both blacks and poor whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent and repayment of loans from share of the crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt perpetual, sharecropper bound to land until paid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced by “Black Codes” restricting black movement </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Development of Manufacturing <ul><li>Attractions of Piedmont South: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of underemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to modernize factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cotton textile industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally based in New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifted south in late 19 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carolina Piedmont and northern Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew other industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and synthetic fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apparel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks excluded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work paid low wages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Other Industrial Development <ul><li>Railroad construction, other public improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette manufacturing (North Carolina, Virginia) </li></ul><ul><li>Timber resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture manufacturing (North Carolina, Virginia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp and paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atlanta-Birmingham-Chattanooga triangle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources and low wages for iron and steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate manipulation of prices to favor Pittsburgh: “Pittsburgh plus” pricing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Segregation <ul><li>Reconstruction (to late 1870s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiblack actions localized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black advances in certain places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entry to professions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Election to public office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalized alternative to slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established virtually total legal separation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Segregation (continued) <ul><li>De jure segregation (segregation by law) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed by courts if separate facilities were equal (but they were not) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite daily interaction, institutionalized physical separation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation facilities and parks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking fountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disenfranchisement of blacks </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dual Landscapes <ul><li>Different human landscapes, one black and one white </li></ul><ul><li>Little overlap in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common workplaces, retail shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Violent reaction to protest, including lynching </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Black Outmigration <ul><ul><li>Push factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws, violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence economic conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe boll weevil infestation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War in Europe, cutting off market for cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs in industry (decline in immigration from Europe) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for a better life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive information/feedback from previous migrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on the Southern economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most migrants 18-35 years old, most productive workers among blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old (no longer in labor force) and young (not yet in labor force) left behind </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. % African American, 2000 (page 174)
  21. 21. Population Pyramids for Mississippi, 2000 (page 179)
  22. 22. Sectionalism <ul><li>Solid South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting by entire region as a bloc, often in contradiction to nation as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equated war and Reconstruction with North and Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voted Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeling of regional distinction </li></ul><ul><li>Distain by non-Southerners </li></ul>
  23. 23. The New South <ul><li>Before World War II: belief that region had seceded decades earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Trends breaking down isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences from outside the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events affecting entire nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal intervention in affairs of the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation of South’s distinctive culture </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 1930s South <ul><li>Heavy dependence on agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal power (usually mules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharecropping and tenant farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little processing within the South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital deficient </li></ul><ul><li>Low-wage industry, oriented to narrow local markets </li></ul><ul><li>Urban structure based on small towns </li></ul>
  25. 25. Post–World War II Agriculture <ul><li>Declined as percentage of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Diversified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional crops still grown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New crops: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soybeans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>End of sharecropping </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in farm size </li></ul>
  26. 26. Poultry Rice Tobacco Cotton
  27. 27. Changes in Economic Structure (page 180)
  28. 28. Urbanization <ul><li>Rural-to-urban migration since World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1940: 35 cities with populations > 50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: 42 cities with populations > 50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996: 110 cities with populations > 50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atlanta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest business, financial, commercial center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to Coca-Cola, CNN, others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large land area, long commutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosted 1996 Olympic games </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Changes in Manufacturing <ul><li>Traditional industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel (Alabama) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco products (North Carolina, Virginia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles (northern Georgia, Carolinas, southern Virginia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New consumer goods manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Banking centers (Charlotte) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more skilled labor, education </li></ul>
  30. 30. Changes in Employment Structure Percent non-agricultural labor force in manufacturing, 1950 Percent non-agricultural labor force in manufacturing, 2000 (page 182) (page 183)
  31. 31. Federal Government Intervention <ul><li>Agricultural Adjustment Acts (1935) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusted wages and prices in agriculture to mirror industrial levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved market for manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education (1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished separate but equal doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual adjustments and compliance </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Cultural Integration <ul><li>Increased urbanization of blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Return migration of blacks from the North </li></ul><ul><li>New immigrant groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latinos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians </li></ul></ul>Changes in regional distribution of black population (page 185)