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    • APPALACHIA AND THE OZARKS (Chapter 8) Elizabeth J. Leppman
    • Introduction
      • Two parts of one province
        • Similar topography
        • Close association between topography and human settlement
      • Mountains relatively low, but…
        • Impede transportation
        • Promote isolation
    • Appalachians Ozarks
    • (page 147) Appalachia and the Ozarks
    • Topography
      • Tectonic plate collisions (460 million years ago)
      • Physiographic provinces:
        • Blue Ridge
          • Abrupt rise from adjacent Piedmont to the east
          • Narrow in north, widens in south
          • Natural gaps:
            • Potomac River
            • James River at Roanoke
            • New River (western North Carolina)
    • Topography (continued)
        • Ridge and Valley
          • Easternmost part of sedimentary rock beds of central North America
          • Ridges: Resistant shale and sandstone
          • Valleys: Limestone, good farmland
        • Great Valley
          • Between Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley
          • Important historic routeway
    • Topography (continued)
        • Appalachian Plateau
          • Allegheny Front sharp escarpment on eastern edge
          • Significant barrier to early westward movement
          • Formed by stream erosion of uplifted horizontal rock beds
        • Ozarks-Ouachita
          • Ouachita
            • Southern part
            • Folded parallel ridges
          • Ozarks
            • Separated from Ouachita by Arkansas River valley
            • Plateau
    • Topography of Appalachians and Ozarks (page 148)
    • Human Geography (Ethnic Heritage)
      • Popular myth of “ Hillbilly ”
      • Earliest settlers of Appalachia
        • Scots-Irish , English, Germans
        • Settlement late in colonial era (late 1700s)
        • Entered Great Valley in southern Pennsylvania, moved south into Virginia
      • Post-Independence arrivals
        • Adequate flat land for farms (10-20 hectares/ 25-50 acres)
        • Forests with abundant game
    • Routes of Settlement and Cultural Diffusion Pennsylvania culture hearth Migration routes into Appalachia Migration routes into Ozarks
    • Increasing Isolation
      • Farmland
        • Insufficient flat land, with a few exceptions, for large farms
        • Unsuitable for plantations, therefore, few blacks
      • Bypassed in westward movement
        • Unsuitable for mechanization, economies of scale
        • Far from major crossings of Appalachians
        • No early rail lines
      • Slow urbanization
        • Southern emphasis on agriculture
        • Few products to sell
    • These farms beside the river may lack an abundance of flat crop land, but they are set in a beautiful paradise. www.rmock.com/trips/appalachians/newriver2.jpg
      • Relative immobility
        • Little in-migration
        • Little—and reluctant—outmigration until late 20 th century
      • Population
        • Predominantly white , Anglo-Saxon , Protestant
        • Largest predominantly white low-income region
        • Politically and religiously conservative
      • Similar conditions in Ozarks
      Regional Cultures: Southern Appalachia
    • Poverty
    • Northern Appalachia
      • From Pennsylvania northward
      • Less poverty
      • Immigration
        • Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia: East Europeans
        • New York: New Yorkers, New Englanders
    • Northern Appalachia
      • Religion
        • Fewer fundamentalist churches
        • Catholic and Orthodox churches, especially in Pennsylvania
      • Transportation
        • Mountains easier to cross
        • Links between eastern and western parts of Manufacturing Core
    • Divided States of Appalachia
      • West Virginia only state wholly within Appalachia
      • Other states
        • Largest city, capital outside Appalachia
    • Divided States of Appalachia
        • Civil War
          • Mountain people opposed to secession
          • Plantations foreign to mountains
          • Mountain part of Virginia became West Virginia (1863)
        • Impact of outside portions of states
          • Education
          • Economic funding
          • Newspapers, radio, TV
          • Taxes
      Weston, West Virginia
    • Agriculture
      • Low urbanization rate (50% of U.S. average)
      • Farms
        • Primary region of owner-operated farms
        • Tenancy rare
        • Few resources, many farmers
          • Rugged topography
          • Poor soil
          • Short growing seasons in many areas
        • Small farm sizes: 40 hectares (100 acres)
        • Many part-time farmers
    • Agricultural Products
      • General farming (no one crop dominant)
      • Animal husbandry (best use of steep slopes)
      • Valley-area crops
        • Tobacco (especially burley in south)
        • Apples
        • Tomatoes
        • Cabbage
        • Corn—distilled into moonshine
        • Marijuana
    • Specialty Crop Areas
      • Shenandoah Valley, Virginia
        • Once state’s breadbasket, but lost out to Great Plains
        • Hay
        • Corn (fodder)
        • Apples
      • Pennsylvania valleys
        • Dairying
        • Apples
      • Tennessee Valley
        • Fodder crops
        • Livestock
      Elizabeth J. Leppman
    • Coal
      • Allegheny Plateau beds
        • Collectively world’s largest
        • Bituminous
        • Seams up to 3 meters (10 feet)
      • History of exploitation
        • Post–Civil War new coke-burning iron and steel furnaces using bituminous coal
        • Fueled rise of Pittsburgh “Steel City”
        • Electricity for east coast and Manufacturing Core
      A mountaintop removal coal mining operation near Blair, West Virginia Photo by The National Memorial for the Mountains
    • Coal (continued)
      • Post–World War II
        • Decline with growth of petroleum, natural gas
        • New technology
        • Rising unemployment, out-migration
        • Economic depression in coal-mining regions
      • Late 20 th century
        • Declining demand in steel industry
        • Shift to other regions
        • Fluctuation in exports
        • Environmental concerns
    • Primary Home Heating Fuels, 1950-2000 (page 157)
    • Coal Mining Methods
      • Shaft (underground mining)
        • Earliest and still dominant method
        • Huge mobile drills, continuous mining machines
      • Surface
        • More prevalent in central region
        • Techniques
          • Contour mining
          • Area mining —flatter terrain
          • Mountaintop removal —hilly areas, much smaller scale
    • Coal (continued)
      • Anthracite
        • Ridge and Valley northern end in Pennsylvania
        • Harder, lower in moisture content than bituminous
        • Pre-1900 uses
          • Iron and steel manufacture
          • Home heating
        • Disadvantages
          • Smaller, more broken seams
          • More expensive to mine
    • Coal: Consequences
      • Economic mainstay
      • Health and safety issues
      • Regional unemployment
      • Low taxes and benefits to states
      • Environmental impacts
        • Strip mining
        • Reclamation
        • Acid mine drainage
      (Photo of WV stream contamination by J. Henry Fair)
    • Mining
      • Lead
        • Ozarks tristate district (Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri)
        • Southeastern Missouri
      • Oil
        • First oil well in Pennsylvania (1859)
        • High-quality oils and lubricants
      • Zinc : Tennessee
      • Copper : North Carolina–Georgia border
    • Tennessee Valley Authority
      • Rivers
        • Transportation
        • Water power
        • Heavy rain and flooding
      • Great Depression program
        • Navigation: 3-meter (9-foot) channel to Knoxville
        • Hydroelectricity
        • Flood control
    • Appalachia’s Katrina After heavy rains in Huntington, WV during much of December 1936 and January 1937, the Ohio River jumped its banks with a vengeance, cresting on January 27 at 69 ft. (Cincinnati, OH, further upriver, was 80 ft under water). http://www.appalachianhistory.net/2007/02/appalachias-katrina.html
    • http://www.appalachianhistory.net/2007/06/appalachias-sunken-city.html
    • Tennessee Valley Authority (page 161)
      • Over 40 dams, 30 with power generating facilities
      • Electricity attraction for major industries
      • Other power-generating facilities (coal, nuclear)
      • Stimulating regional growth
        • Flood control
        • Water transport
        • Power generation
        • Navigation
        • Flood control
      Tennessee Valley Authority Today
    • Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)
      • Appalachian Redevelopment Act (1965) as extension of Area Redevelopment Act (1961)
      • Appalachian Regional Commission
        • Responsible for an area from New York to Alabama
        • Primary objective to improve highways
          • Decrease isolation
          • Attract manufacturers
        • Differences from TVA
          • Requires state-federal cooperation
          • Improving public and vocational education
          • Regional economic planning
    • Appalachia (as defined by ARC)
    • Arkansas River Navigation System
      • Constructed 1960s, 1970s, dedicated in 1971
      • Established a 3-meter (10-foot) navigation channel up the Arkansas River from the Mississippi River to Cartoosa, Oklahoma (near Tulsa)
      • Facilitated an increase in barge traffic
      • Increased the availability of hydroelectric power in the region
    • World's Fair Park - Knoxville,TN
    • Proclamation Line of 1763
      • Created after Britain acquired the French Territory in North America
      • The purpose was to establish Britain’s new empire in North America and to stabilize relations with Native Americans
        • Was supposed to regulate trade, settlement, and land purchases in the west
      • It forbade colonists from the Thirteen Colonies from buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains
        • Many colonists already had land west of the Proclamation line
        • Also established a monopoly on land west of the line by the crown
          • This made people mad (Revolutionary War)
    • Proclamation Line of 1763
      • Many Native Americans that lived west of the Proclamation Line were not happy about it either
        • The French had peaceful relationships with many Native Americans before the British took over the area
        • Native Americans resisted being taken over by the British
          • Pontiac’s Rebellion
      • The Line was NEVER intended to be permanent
        • The British planned to expand the empire west
        • They wanted to move the Natives west and settlers west in an orderly manner
        • They planned to move the line west gradually
        • Britain firmly believed that all of the land the Native Americans lived on belonged to the crown
      • The idea was for Britain to go into the area west of the line and clear the Natives out either by treaty or by war so that settlers could be brought in.
      • The government would sell land to settlers, not the Natives.
    • Proclamation Line of 1763
      • The Line was NEVER intended to be permanent
        • The British planned to expand the empire west
        • They wanted to move the Natives west and settlers west in an orderly manner
        • They planned to move the line west gradually
        • Britain firmly believed that all of the land the Native Americans lived on belonged to the crown
      • The idea was for Britain to go into the area west of the line and clear the Natives out either by treaty or by war so that settlers could be brought in.
      • The government would sell land to settlers, not the Natives.
    • Proclamation Line
        • This was the British plan, but even after the American Revolution, the new American government followed the same policies.
          • This was such a large area to control that it did not work out this way for either the British or the American Government.
            • Remember Distance Decay? This is another example
          • People crossed into territory and settled, then they had conflicts with the Natives and then the army was called in and treaties were written after the fact
    • Daniel Boone
      • American pioneer and hunter
      • One of America’s first folk heroes
      • Famous for exploring beyond the boundaries of the thirteen colonies
      • Explored what is now Kentucky in 1767
      • In 1773, took his family and 50 settlers into Kentucky
        • His son and the son of another man were tortured to death by the Shawnee in an attempt to send a message to settlers
          • The message was stop coming
        • The settlement was abandoned
      • Established Boonesborough in 1775 with 30 settlers
        • This was the first city founded in Kentucky
      • Boone established what is known as the Wilderness Road
        • The Wilderness Road crossed the Appalachian Mountains at the Cumberland Gap
        • This was how may people from Colonial America left to settle the Western Frontier
    • Daniel Boone bringing settlers to the West