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  • THE BYPASSED EAST (Chapter 7) Elizabeth J. Leppman Elizabeth J. Leppman
  • Environmental Setting
    • Canadian Provinces
      • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Nova Scotia
      • PEI Prince Edward Island
      • New Brunswick
    • American Side
      • Maine
      • Vermont
      • New Hampshire
      • NE New York state
  • Figure 6-1
  • The Bypassed East (page 131)
  • Environmental Setting
    • Rugged terrain
      • Influenced historically and today
    • Proximity to the coast
      • Gives it cool weather
  • Labrador - Inuit family
  • Introduction
    • "Bypassed East"
      • Atlantic Provinces of Canada
      • Northern New England
      • Adirondack region of New York
    • Northern vs. southern New England
      • New England formerly more unified, a vernacular region in people’s mental map
      • Today, more similarities between northern New England and Atlantic Provinces of Canada
      • Lack of effect of U.S.–Canada boundary
  • Northern Coast of Labrador
  • “ Bypassed”
    • A transportation shadow: an area of limited development located near an area of much greater accessibility
    • Although settled early, increasing isolation as settlement pushed westward
    • Relatively few large urban areas
      • Canada’s main port at Montreal ( break-in-bulk on the St. Lawrence)
      • Better access to hinterland from harbors in Megalopolis
  • Landforms
    • Rugged terrain affected transportation in the region
      • Today still use boats transportation
      • Most cities on the coast or in river valleys
  • Bay of Fundy Acadia National Park Figure 6-4 Figure 6-3
  • Physical Geography: Physiography
    • Northern extension of the Appalachian Highlands
      • Green Mountains, Vermont: <1,500 meters (4,600 feet), glaciated
      • White Mountains, New Hampshire: 1,900 meters (6,500 feet), highest summits not glaciated
      • Mountains of the Atlantic Provinces : < 700 meters ( < 2,200 feet), rounded
    • Adirondack Mountains , New York
      • Part of Canadian Shield
      • Severely eroded by continental glaciation
  • Landforms
    • Part of the Appalachian Mountains
      • Alabama to Eastern Canada
      • Old mountain range geologically
      • Mt. Washington in NH is the highest point at 6,288 ft.
      • Glaciated landscape
      • Adirondacks in NY large plateau includes uplands of Quebec and Labrador
        • Older than the Appalachians, part of the Canadian Shield
  • Landforms
    • Coastal Plain absent, more rugged coast
      • Harbors
      • Submerged river valleys
      • Sites of settlement
  • Physical Geography: Physiography (continued)
    • Lowlands: People’s livelihoods
      • Connecticut River valley (between Vermont and New Hampshire)
      • Aroostook Valley (northern Maine)
      • Lake Champlain Lowland
        • New York–Vermont boundary
        • Northward extension of southern Appalachian Ridge and Valley
      • Atlantic Provinces : Bay of Fundy to Prince Edward Island
  • Population Distribution Note contrast between northern and southern New England (page 132)
  • Climate and Hazards
    • Cool summers, cold snowy winters
    • Northern location
    • Coastal temperatures cooler in summer months, milder in winter
    • Foggy, cooler temps, cloudy = hazard to shipping and aviation
  • Climate and Hazards
    • Not prone to catastrophes like earthquakes and tsunamis or tornados
    • Late summer or early fall occasional hurricanes
    • Blizzards
    • Nor’easters
      • Coastal storms associated with winds moving from NE to SW
      • Bring 2-3 feet of snow along with high winds and blizzard conditions
  • Physical Geography: Climate
    • Meeting of polar, continental, maritime air masses
      • Maritime impact minimized
      • Generally cool and damp
    • Labrador Current
      • Southward flowing along coast
      • Chills waters
      • Moderates coastal temperatures vs. inland locations
      • Frequent clouds and fog
    • Precipitation
      • Substantial, evenly distributed
      • Snow
        • 250 cm (100 inches) annually
        • 3–5 months snow covered
  • Historical Settlement
    • Variety of native cultures
      • First part of North America to experience European settlement
      • Scene of conflict for political control
      • British Isles and French biggest impact on culture
  • Early Settlers
    • Northeast Culture Area Complex
      • Algonquin, Iroquoian, Siouan languages families as far south as Virginia and as far west as the Great Lakes.
  • Early Settlers
    • Mi’kmaq one group in Newfoundland, Novia Scotia, and Prince Edward Island
      • Hunted caribou and fished
      • After European contact, economy changes, begin fur trade
  • Early Settlers
    • Beothuk, Passamaquaddy and Penobscot people of Northern new England and New Brunswick.
      • Last Beothuk died 1829
  • Earliest Known European Settlement
    • Norse traders from Greenland
      • Vinland 1000 years ago
      • Called the native people “Skraelings”
        • Probably Beothuk
    • Location of L’Anse Aux Meadows
    Norse battling Skraelings
  • Fishing
    • 14 th and 15 th centuries
    • Basque, French, and Portuguese migratory fishing
    • No settlement, little contact
  • John Cabot
    • Rediscovers the area for England
      • English start trading with natives
        • Weapons, manufactured goods for skins and furs
        • Changes native culture and population
          • Mi’kmaq and Beothuk decline rapidly
  • John Cabot The Matthew, John Cabot’s ship, 1497
  • Atlantic Periphery
    • Closest to Europe
    • Strategic location next to gulf of St. Lawrence
      • Fight for political control between Britain, France, and later USA
  • French Settlement
    • French explored the St. Lawrence River
    • Established Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick
    • Named the area Acadia
    • First French settlement 1607 Port Royal
    Port Royal
  • Map of the Port Royal Area
  • British Settlement
    • First British settlement at Newfoundland 1610
      • Settlers from British Isles: England, Ireland, Scotland
      • Unique accent today “Newfie” because of English, Scottish, Gaelic mix
    • British sent Scottish colonists to Nova Scotia 1620’s
      • New Scotland
    • Economies based on fish
  • Dispute between Britain and France
    • Were fighting over the area until 1713 Treaty of Utrech
    • Britain gets Newfoundland
    • France gets PEI, Cape Breton Island, and Port Royal
    • War again a year later leads to…
  • Great Expulsion
    • Forced French settlers out of Acadia
    • By 1760 9,000 of the 10,000 Acadians in Nova Scotia out
    • Many to Louisiana, Cajuns descendents of expelled French
    • Lots to New Brunswick
    • Some to the Caribbean, Some to Northern South America
    • 1763 French lose French and Indian War and give up ALL Atlantic Province Possessions except 2 small islands: St. Pierre and Miquellon
  • Map of Acadian Expulsion 1755 Map of Acadian Resettlement 1764
  • Rush of Settlement
    • British take possessions of Acadia, Cape Breton Island and Isle St. Jean
      • Leads to a rush of settlement from the British Isles and other British colonies
      • American revolution brings many in
    • Loyalists: opposed revolution and remained loyal to Britain
  • Early Settlers
      • Earliest European settlement (early 1600s)
      • Major commodities for export
        • Fish
          • Shallow banks (30–60 meters/100–200 feet) with cod and haddock (cold-water species)
          • Today: inshore fishing (near shore with small boats) for cod, lobster
        • Trees
          • Trees needed for naval ships
          • New England’s white pine
            • 60 meters (190 feet)
            • Clear, light strong wood
            • Center in Maine
          • Today: Most lumbering for pulp
  • Fishing Grounds, Bypassed East (page 134)
  • Political Economy
    • Geographers distinguish between core areas and peripheries
    • Core Areas
      • Characterized by economic growth , strength, leadership, and influence over other economies
    • Peripheral Areas
      • Economically weaker, dependent on decisions and policies elsewhere.
  • Atlantic Periphery
    • This region is defined as a periphery.
    • Economy is dependent on economic forces and policies outside the region.
    • Dominated by the Megalopolis to the south and west.
      • Marginal agriculture
      • Relative isolation
      • Lack of natural resources
      • Lack of urbanization
  • Agriculture
    • Most of the region is not suited to large-scale agriculture
    • Climate cool
    • Growing season short
    • Rocky soil
    • Could not compete with better neighboring agricultural regions
    • Many original settlers moved westward
  • Agriculture
    • Early agriculture
      • Mainly subsistence
      • Declined:
        • Opening of western land
        • Industrial employment
    • Present trends
      • <10% of New England farmed, compared to about 50% c. 100 years ago
      • Specialize in single crop production
  • Agriculture
    • Some exceptions:
      • Maine produces most of the nation’s blueberries and cranberries
      • Maple and dairy in Vermont and New Hampshire
      • Potato production in the Aroostook Valley and New Brunswick
      • Annapolis Valley apples
      • PEI diversified agriculture
  • Major Agricultural Areas and Products
      • St. John–Aroostock Valley
        • Potatoes (silty loam soils) with large-scale mechanization
        • Competition with Idaho and Oregon
        • Changing American diet
      • Lake Champlain Lowland :
        • Milk shed (nodal region that supplies milk to a metropolitan area) for northern Megalopolis
    (page 136)
  • Major Agricultural Areas and Products
    • Prince Edward Island
      • Seed potatoes major crop
      • Fairly diverse area
    • Annapolis River Valley
      • Traditionally apple area
      • Competition from places closer to market
    (page 136)
  • Resources from the Forest and the Sea
    • Farmland not so great, but large forests and fish offshore
    • Early settlers cut down forests for agriculture and to sell timber
    • Lumber in high demand in England and Western Europe.
    • Fishing first European venture
    • Fishing for centuries…
    • 1950’s super trawlers
    • Overfished now limits imposed by US and Canadian governments
  • Mining
    • Petroleum and natural gas
      • Hibernia field off Newfoundland
      • Environmental and funding issues
    • Iron ore
      • Adirondacks
      • Labrador
    • Coal in Nova Scotia
    • Building stone :
      • Granite (Vermont, Maine)
      • Marble (Vermont)
    Elizabeth J. Leppman
  • Figure 6-C Acid Rain Issues
  • Shifts in Forestry: Clearcutting
    • Initial Interests in the White Pine
    • Logging Areas for Saw Timber
    • Pulp and Paper Operations
    • Impact of Acid Rain and Diseases
    • Fall Colors for Tourism
    Figure 6-15
  • Tourism: Fickle Revenue Source
    • Second Home Boom
      • Market Factors
    • Scenic-Amenities
    • Importance of Skiing
      • Climate Issue
    • Importance of Sailing
    • Major Problems of Tour-Circuit Overload
      • Accessibility Issue with P.E.I. Bridge
    Figure 6-9
  • Cities
    • 50% urban, 50% rural
    • Relatively low per capita incomes (higher incomes related to urban occupations)
    • Primary occupations dominant
      • Low-paying
      • Manufacturing hindered by small local market
      • Transportation poor
      • Development projects
  • Future Prospects
    • Northern New England
      • Expansion of Megalopolis northward
      • New manufacturing facilities
      • Tourism:
        • Four-season attractions
        • Second-home owners
        • Retirees
    • Eastern Canada:
      • More distant from major markets for tourism
      • Effects of possible Quebec secession
      • Canadian Department of Regional Economic Expansion
  • Spillovers from Megalopolis
    • The population and wealth of Boston through New York City has spilled over into the Atlantic Periphery.
    • Evident in the development of tourism, second homes, and permanent in-migration.
  • Cultures, People, and Places
    • Canadian Places
      • St John largest city in Newfoundland, established in 1600’s, 1/3 of Newfoundland’s population lives here
      • Nova Scotia largest population of African descent, British guaranteed them freedom, Halifax the largest city
      • PEI long isolated, now connected to the mainland with a bridge.
  • Confederation Bridge joining Prince Edward Island with the mainland.
  • Cultures, People, and Places
    • American Places
      • Maine largely forested, tourists from Megalopolis
      • New Hampshire a suburb of Boston, only 50 miles
      • Vermont dairy farming and tourism
        • Yankees and French Canadians
  • Maine
  • Income Trends in Canada, by Province (page 143)
  • Canadian fisheries minister says seal hunting needs to be better explained to rest of the world January 12, 2010 Canada's seal hunting season quietly opened in November along the eastern coast of the country. The attention, and vocal sparring among anti- and pro-hunting interests, doesn't really ramp up until late February or early March, when female harp seals begin giving birth and more sealers take to the ice. In the meantime, Canadian Fisheries Minister Gail Shea is trying to get the rest of the world to better understand seal hunting, slamming animal welfare groups in the process. &quot;Dealing with non-government organizations who are very well funded, who use these types of issues to get money into their coffers, is difficult,&quot; Shea told the Guardian in a late December interview. &quot;They don't put out necessarily factual information. They still put out the picture of the little white seal pup, bleeding red blood on the white ice. We haven't hunted seal pups in decades.&quot; Humane Society of the United States spokesperson Heather Sullivan told Outposts that although the young seals cannot be killed until they begin to molt their white fur, the pups are still less than 2 weeks old when their coats change. Shea has been trying to battle a growing negative sentiment concerning the hunt, including a call to boycott all seafood exported by Canada. &quot;It's not just the seal hunt that's the target of these campaigns,&quot; she said. &quot;You have to counter the campaign. We use whatever means we can to get the right story out there, the true story.&quot; Shea asserts that the annual hunt has led to new products and research. Seal meat will be on the menu at the Canadian House of Commons parliamentary restaurant, and research is being conducted into the use of heart valves from seals, rather than from pigs, in open-heart surgery. &quot;Preliminary research has shown that they do not calcify quite as quickly and are a much better product,&quot;  Shea said. The fisheries minister is also dealing with a ban on seal products instituted last year by the European Parliament, which may have a dramatic effect on sales from this year's hunt. This ban may also influence the quota of seals to be killed this season, which has not yet been announced. Canada continues to work to find new buyers. &quot;There are other markets. The Europeans were a small market,&quot; Shea said. -- Kelly Burgess Photo: Sealers hunt for harp seals during the 2009 hunting season in the Gulf of St Lawrence. Credit: Stewart Cook / IFAW Note: To follow this blog on Twitter please visit @ latimesoutposts