Ch06ed

1,790 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,790
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
505
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch06ed

  1. 1. CANADA’S CORE REGION (Chapter 6)
  2. 3. Canada’s Population Distribution (page 52) Core
  3. 4. Physical Geography <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Broadleaf Deciduous and Needleleaf Evergreen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maple Significant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelmingly Spodosols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic haunt of the beaver </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Relatively small size of Canada’s core, and lack of expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Marked cultural division </li></ul><ul><li>Location as part of North America’s larger core </li></ul><ul><li>Location far from center of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of St. Lawrence River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Canada (Quebec) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Canada (Ontario) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of staple products for export to Europe </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Aboriginal and European settlement patterns <ul><li>Dictated by fish, furs, and trade networks (Hurons, Iroquois, and later the French) </li></ul><ul><li>1608: French settle in Quebec City on the St. Lawrence (Champlain) – and found their ‘New France’ </li></ul><ul><li>End of 1600s: French farms and small towns up and down the St. Lawrence </li></ul>
  6. 7. Britain steps in <ul><li>1763 – New France taken over by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalists from US (and others from British Isles) arrive </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec’s population growth outpaces ‘Anglophone’ CN </li></ul>
  7. 9. Canada’s National Core (page 113)
  8. 10. Canada’s Population Distribution (page 52) Core
  9. 11. Limits of Canada’s Core <ul><li>Canadian Shield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor drainage </li></ul></ul>Canadian Shield Canada’s Core
  10. 12. Limits to Canada’s Core <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating effect of Great Lakes in core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperatures, degree days (cumulative number of degrees over 42 ° F/5.5° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong trade ties to Europe </li></ul>
  11. 13. Environmental Limits to Canada’s Core (page 115)
  12. 14. Cultural Divisions <ul><li>Core’s constituent provinces (southern parts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontario </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similarities between the provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located on access routes from Europe to Canadian interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban commercial centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-to-urban migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive environmental base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ties to the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidiary ownership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Cultural Dualism: French <ul><li>Early farmer settlers in St. Lawrence valley </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec and Montreal as trading centers </li></ul><ul><li>Trappers and traders in Ohio–Mississippi–Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Strong cultural base at time of British conquest (1763) </li></ul><ul><li>Status today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language laws in Quebec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal bilingualism (both French and English as official languages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats of Quebec to secede </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Cultural Dualism: British <ul><li>1780s: Immigration of British Loyalists after American Revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime Provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Canada (Ontario) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional British, American settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario: Anglo Canadian culture hearth </li></ul>
  15. 17. Today’s Quebec economies <ul><li>Primary production in some areas (farming, fishing, mining, logging) still important – </li></ul><ul><li>But urban-industrial development dominates (largest cities = Montreal and Quebec City) </li></ul>Quebec -- Ile d'Orleans dairy farm
  16. 18. Languages in Ontario and Quebec, 2001 (page 118)
  17. 19. Canadian Confederation <ul><li>British North America Act , 1867 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Canada as Ontario —Anglo Canadian hearth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Canada as Quebec —French Canadian hearth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Brunswick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nova Scotia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provinces (or states) under central authority but retain certain powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates regional differences (English vs. French) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today: 10 provinces, 3 territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital (Ottawa) on boundary between French-speaking Quebec and English-speaking Ontario </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Ottawa
  19. 21. Overview - Quebec <ul><li>An ‘island’ set apart politically, culturally, and economically </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of French language and Catholic religion for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Unique landscapes </li></ul>
  20. 23. A political/cultural region? <ul><li>Quebec is the only region defined by its political status and cultural boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadians also live in other parts of Canada (esp. New Brunswick and in St. Boniface – Winnipeg, Man.) </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 1/4 th of the total population of Canada are ‘Francophones’ </li></ul>
  21. 24. Figure 7-3 L’hiver (Winter)
  22. 25. Rural Landscapes: French <ul><li>Rang survey system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants of seigneuries (blocks of land) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmstead on river bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roture (lot) extending back, measured in arpents (192 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to main transport line (river) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of land of all types (swamp to upland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French out-migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States (northern New England) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edges of Canadian Shield </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Figure 7-7 Agriculture in French Canada <ul><li>Hay and Dairying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk, Butter, and Cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truck Gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Hogs </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Orchards </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Beets </li></ul><ul><li>Maple Sugar and Honey </li></ul>
  24. 27. Forest Industries <ul><li>Key Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Townships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaspe Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appalachian Uplands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern New Brunswick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sawmill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp Mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood-processing Plants </li></ul></ul>Figure 7-8
  25. 28. The French rang system is still visible in the rural landscape in Quebec. (page 121)
  26. 29. Figure 7-6
  27. 30. Urban French Canada: The Montreal-Quebec City Axis <ul><li>Quebec City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Center and Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trois Rivieres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp and Paper plus Other Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montreal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now #2 for All of Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern Townships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of Industries </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Rural Landscapes: British <ul><li>Square or rectangular survey system </li></ul><ul><li>Individual homesteads </li></ul><ul><li>Land use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat (early 1800s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed farming (raising grain to feed livestock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco (middle Lake Erie shore) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit (Niagara Peninsula) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Cities and Industries: Quebec <ul><li>Montreal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site advantages in colonial period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defensible island at junction of Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapids in St. Lawrence ( break-in-bulk point) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern end of Hudson–Lake Champlain lowland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 th century situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On railroad from Portland, Maine, to Toronto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links to New York via Hudson–Lake Champlain lowland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French workers, British financiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quebec City : Less bicultural </li></ul>
  30. 33. Montreal <ul><li>One of Canada’s largest and most cosmopolitan cities </li></ul><ul><li>Began on an island in the river </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s urban landscapes? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: businesses moving out, imposing French language on non-Francophone enterprises, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions? Underground city, huge port </li></ul>
  31. 35. Montreal
  32. 37. About Quebec City <ul><li>Earliest French place </li></ul><ul><li>Heart of French Canadian identity and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes: cliffs, river terraces, and historic buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Cobbled streets, walls, forts, and the Citadel (‘Upper Town’) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Lower Town’ – commercial development, river connections </li></ul>
  33. 38. Quebec City, original wall around the city View of Quebec City, 1759.
  34. 39. Cities and Industries: Toronto, Ontario <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On Lake Ontario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of Toronto Passage (lowland route to Georgian Bay in Lake Huron) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early capital of Upper Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of roads, later railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, productive hinterland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relations with United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early growth along Atlantic seaboard: Montreal’s advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth along Great Lakes: Toronto’s advantage </li></ul></ul>
  35. 40. Toronto
  36. 41. Southern Ontario Urban Pattern <ul><li>“ Golden Horseshoe ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto and hinterland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oshawa (east of Toronto)–Hamilton (western end of Lake Ontario)–Niagara Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton’s iron and steel industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron from Lake Superior, through Welland Canal, now from Labrador </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal from Appalachia, by rail to Buffalo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Catharines: Hydropower from Niagara Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southwestern Ontario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local mineral resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities in between: Guelph, Kitchener-Waterloo, Brantford, London </li></ul>
  37. 42. The Core and the Rest of Canada <ul><li>Changes in advantages and disadvantages of cities’ locations </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture hearth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of economic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space economy : Links to other regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation via Great Lakes–St. Lawrence system, reinforced by road, rail, and air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. investment in Canada </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. Quebec
  39. 44. Canada = both Anglophones and Francophones
  40. 46. Figure 7-2
  41. 47. Today’s ‘U.S. and Canada’ in the 1820s
  42. 50. Figure 7-4

×