Ch06

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Ch06

  1. 1. Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation Chapter 6 Great Idea : Whenever an electrically charged object is accelerated, it produces electromagnetic radiation—waves of energy that travel at the speed of light
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Nature of Waves </li></ul><ul><li>The Electromagnetic Wave </li></ul><ul><li>The Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature of Waves
  4. 4. Energy Transfer by Waves <ul><li>Wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A traveling disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Properties of waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Transfer
  6. 6. The Properties of a Wave
  7. 7. The Relationship among Wavelength, Frequency, & Velocity <ul><li>Velocity of a wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equation: </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Waves Passing a Sailboat
  9. 9. The Two Kinds of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal <ul><li>Transverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion is perpendicular to wave direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion is same direction as wave </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
  11. 11. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>The Sound of Music </li></ul>
  12. 12. An Organ Pipe Produces a Single Note
  13. 13. The Science of Life <ul><li>Use of Sound by Animals </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interference <ul><li>Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act together </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Interference <ul><li>Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destructive interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancellation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Interference Pattern
  17. 17. The Electromagnetic Wave
  18. 18. Albert A. Michelson
  19. 19. The Anatomy of the Electromagnetic Wave <ul><li>Point A - Maximum strength, but decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>Point B - Minimum strength, but increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic waves continue through internal mechanisms and transfer energy as they travel </li></ul>
  20. 20. Light and the Energy of Electromagnetic Waves <ul><li>Speed of light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All electromagnetic waves have same velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c = 300,000km/s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher frequency = blue color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower frequency = red color </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Speed of Light
  22. 22. The Doppler Effect <ul><li>Doppler effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave motion is independent of its source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If source moves, frequency appears to change </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Doppler Effect
  24. 24. Transmission, Absorption, and Scattering <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave passes through matte r </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave and energy are absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scattering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves absorbed and reemitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse scattering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Refraction
  26. 26. Absorption of Sunlight by Asphalt
  27. 27. Diffuse Scattering of Sunlight
  28. 28. Scattering of Light through Reflection
  29. 29. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  30. 30. The Electromagnetic Spectrum <ul><li>Maxwell’s equations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicted more waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hertz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  32. 32. Radio Waves and Microwaves <ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 1mm–1m </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Stealth Fighter
  34. 34. Technology <ul><li>AM and FM Transmission </li></ul>
  35. 35. Technology <ul><li>Microwave ovens </li></ul>
  36. 36. Infrared Radiation <ul><li>Infrared radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 1mm–1µ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All warm objects emit radiation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Heat Escaping from People
  38. 38. Visible Light <ul><li>Visible light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 700nm–400nm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slices of electromagnetic spectrum </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. A Glass Prism Separating White Light
  40. 40. Path of Light through the Human Eye
  41. 41. Ultraviolet Radiation <ul><li>Ultraviolet radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 400nm–100nm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter wavelength=more energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluorescence </li></ul>
  42. 42. Protect Skin with Sunblock
  43. 43. X-rays and Gamma Rays <ul><li>X-rays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 100nm–0.1nm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gamma Rays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 0.1nm (10 –10 m)–10 –12 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. X-rays

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