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    Ch04 Ch04 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4: Insolation andTemperatureMcKnight’s Physical Geography:A Landscape Appreciation,Tenth Edition, Hess
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Insolation and Temperature• The Impact of Temperature on theLandscape• Energy, Heat, and Temperature• Basic Heating and Cooling Processes inthe Atmosphere• The Heating of the Atmosphere• Variations in Heating by Latitude andSeason• Land and Water Contrasts2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Insolation and Temperature• Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Vertical Temperature Patterns• Global Temperature Patterns• Global Warming and the GreenhouseEffect3
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Impact of Temperatureon the Landscape• All living things influencedby temperature• Adaptation to temperatureextremes• Affects soil and bedrockexposure4Figure 4-1bFigure 4-1a
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Energy, Heat, and Temperature• Definition of energy• Forms of energy– Chemical– Kinetic– Potential– Nuclear– Others• Kinetic energy—energy of movement5
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Energy, Heat, and Temperature• Definition of temperature• Measuring temperature• Temperature scales– Celsius– Fahrenheit– Kelvin– Conversions between scales6Figure 4-2
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Energy, Heat, and Temperature• The Sun• Primary source of energyfor Earth’s atmosphere• Properties of Sun– Average size star– Nuclear fusion– Magnitude of Sun’senergy• Energy spreads as itleaves the Sun7Figure 4-3
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Energy, Heat, and Temperature• Electromagnetic energy• Electromagneticspectrum• Wavelengths• Three important areason the spectrum– Visible radiation– Ultraviolet radiation– Infrared radiation• Shortwave solarradiation, insolation 8Figure 4-5
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Radiation– Definition– Warmer objects radiate more effectively– Warmer objects emit at shorter wavelengths– Sun ultimate “hot” body in Solar System– Blackbody radiators9
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Radiative processes• Absorption– Body absorbsradiation– Good radiator, goodabsorber• Reflection– Objects repelelectromagneticwaves– Opposite ofabsorption 10Figure 4-7
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Scattering– Deflection of lightwaves by moleculesand particles• Transmission– Electromagneticwaves passcompletely through amedium– Sunsets11Figure 4-9
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Greenhouse effect• Some atmosphericgases transmitshortwave radiation,but not Earth’slongwave radiation• Earth radiation held inby atmosphere• Atmospheric blanket12Figure 4-12
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Other heating types• Conduction– Transfer of heatenergy across amedium– Results frommolecular collision– Air is a poorconductor13Figure 4-13
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Convection– Heat transfer byvertical circulation– Molecules move intandem– Convection cell• Advection– Horizontal transfer ofheat in a moving fluid14Figure 4-14
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Adiabatic cooling– Air rises and expands,molecular collisionsdecrease, sotemperaturedecreases• Adiabatic warming– Air sinks andcompresses,collisions increase sotemperatures increase15Figure 4-15
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Basic Heating and CoolingProcesses in the Atmosphere• Latent heat– Heat released or absorbed during a phase change– “Latent” since heat is not felt– Most common phase changes:• Evaporation• Condensation16
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Heating of the Atmosphere• Balance betweenshortwave incoming solarradiation and outgoinglongwave solar radiation• Some shortwaveradiation reflected byatmosphere or surface• Albedo17Figure 4-16
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Heating of the Atmosphere• Global energy budget18Figure 4-17
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Variations in Heating by Latitudeand Season• Angle of incidence• Atmosphericobstructions• Day length• Latitudinal radiationbalance19Figure 4-18
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Variations in Heating by Latitudeand Season• World distribution ofinsolation20Figure 4-21
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Land and Water Contrasts• Land heats and coolsmore rapidly than waterdue to:– Specific heat– Transmission– Mobility– Evaporative cooling21Figure 4-23
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Land and Water Contrasts• Implications22Figure 4-24
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Need heat transfer toprevent constantwarming at tropics andcooling at poles• Circulation patterns inatmosphere and oceanstransfer heat23
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Atmospheric circulation– General circulationCh. 5• Oceanic circulation– Respond to averagewind conditions overlong time scales– Subtropical gyres24Figure 4-25
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Northern and southern variations– Near Northern Hemisphere pole, landmasses lie soclose that little flow can enter the Arctic Ocean– Effect more pronounced in northern Pacific thannorthern Atlantic– In Southern Hemisphere, little land mass allows forconstant westward belt of ocean circulation, theWest Wind Drift25
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Temperature patterns– Low-latitude currents are warm– Poleward currents transfer warm water poleward– High-latitude currents transfer warm water to the east inNorthern Hemisphere; cool water east in SouthernHemisphere– Equatorial currents transfer cool water equatorward• Westward intensification26
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Mechanisms of Heat Transfer• Rounding out the pattern– Northwestern portions ofNorthern Hemispherereceive cool water fromArctic Ocean– Water pulled away fromwestern coasts ofcontinents results inupwelling– Deep ocean circulation27Figure 4-26
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Vertical Temperature Patterns• Definition of lapse rate• Environmental lapse rate• Average lapse rate (about6.5°C/km)• Temperature inversions– Surface inversions– Upper air inversions28Figure 4-27
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Global Temperature Patterns• Primary controls on globaltemperature– Altitude– Latitude– Land–Water contrasts– Ocean currents29Figure 4-29 – average January temperatureFigure 4-30 – average July temperature
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Global Temperature Patterns• Seasonal patterns– Latitudinal shift inisotherms from one seasonto another– More pronounced overcontinents than water andover high latitudes than lowlatitudes30Figure 4-31
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Global Temperature Patterns• Annual temperature range– Difference in average temperature of warmest andcoldest months31Figure 4-32
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Global Warming and theGreenhouse Effect• Climate of Earth is becoming warmer, known as globalwarming• Human-enhanced greenhouse effect• Carbon dioxide main culprit• Also methane, nitrous oxide• Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change32Figure 4-33
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Global Warming and theGreenhouse Effect• Relationship between carbon dioxide and temperature33Figure 4-35
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Summary• Temperature affects both living and nonliving aspects ofEarth’s landscape• Energy exists in many different forms, but cannot becreated or destroyed• Temperature is a measure of the amount of kineticenergy in the molecules of a substance• Temperature is measured on three primary scales• The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’satmosphere• Electromagnetic radiation is classified by wavelength34
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Summary• The Sun emits three important types of electromagneticradiation: visible, infrared, and ultraviolet• Insolation refers to incoming solar radiation• Radiation is the process by which electromagneticradiation is emitted by an object• Radiation can undergo several processes, includingabsorption, reflection, transmission, and scattering• The greenhouse effect makes Earth able to support life35
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Summary• Conduction is the transfer of heat through molecularcollision• Convection is a vertical transport of heat in a fluid• Advection is the horizontal transport of heat• Adiabatic cooling and warming processes do not releaseor absorb heat• The global radiation budget describes the latitudinaldistribution of temperature• Land surfaces heat and cool faster than water surfaces36
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Summary• Heat is transferred globally through atmospheric andoceanic circulations• The vertical temperature patterns in the atmospherehelp describe vertical circulations• Global warming is the observed warming of theatmosphere• Temperature and carbon dioxide show a closerelationship37