Uploaded on

 

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
924
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Ordered Universe Chapter 2 Great Idea: Newton’s laws of motion and gravity predict the behavior of objects on Earth and in space
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • The Night Sky
    • The Birth of Modern Astronomy
    • The Birth of Mechanics
    • Isaac Newton and the Universal Laws of Motion
    • Momentum
    • The Universal Force of Gravity
  • 3. The Night Sky
  • 4. The Night Sky
    • Movement of stars, planets, sun
      • Key for survival of ancestors
    • Astronomy
      • First science
    • Ancient observers:
      • Physical events are quantifiable and therefore predictable
  • 5. Stonehenge
    • Started in 2800 B.C.
      • Built over long time
      • Built by different peoples
    • Marks passage of time
      • Specifically the seasons
    • Still functions today
  • 6. Stonehenge
  • 7. Science in the Making
    • The Discovery of the Spread of Disease
  • 8. Science by the Numbers
    • Ancient Astronauts
  • 9. The Birth of Modern Astronomy
  • 10. The Historical Background: Ptolemy
    • Ptolemy
      • 2nd century A.D.
      • First planetary model
      • Earth at center, stationary
      • Stars and planets revolved around earth
  • 11. The Historical Background: Ptolemy
  • 12. The Historical Background: Copernicus
    • Copernicus
      • 1543: On the Revolutions of the Spheres
      • Sun at center
  • 13. The Historical Background: Copernicus
  • 14. Observations: Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
    • Tycho
      • Observed new star
        • Showed heavens can change
      • Designed and used new instruments
        • Collected data on planetary movement
    • Kepler (Tycho’s colleague)
      • First Law:
        • Planets have elliptical orbits
  • 15. Kepler’s First Law
  • 16. The Birth of Mechanics
  • 17. Galileo Galilei
    • Mechanics: motions of material objects
    • Galileo (1564–1642)
      • Mathematics professor
      • Inventor
      • First to record observations with telescope
        • Supported Copernicus’ view
  • 18. Telescopes Used by Galileo Galilei
  • 19. Science in the Making
    • The Heresy Trial of Galileo
  • 20. Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration
    • Speed=distance traveled over time
    • Velocity=speed with direction
    • Equation for speed:
    • Acceleration=rate of change of velocity
    • Equation for velocity:
  • 21. The Founder of Experimental Science
    • Galileo
      • Relationship among distance, time, velocity and acceleration
      • Found objects accelerate while falling
  • 22. Galileo’s Falling-Ball Apparatus
  • 23. Galileo cont.
    • Constant acceleration
      • Balls on a plane: v=at
    • Freefall
      • Constant acceleration at g
      • g = 9.8 m/s 2 =32 feet/s 2
      • Distance traveled ( d )=½ at 2
  • 24. Accelerated Motion of a Falling Apple
  • 25. Equations Relating d,v,a , and t
  • 26. The Science of Life
    • Experiencing Extreme Acceleration
  • 27. Isaac Newton and the Universal Laws of Motion
  • 28. The First Law
    • An object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
    • Uniform motion vs. acceleration
    • Force
    • Inertia
  • 29. Hammer Thrower
  • 30. The Second Law
    • The acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
    • Equation: F=ma
  • 31. The Third Law
    • Interacting object exert equal but opposite forces upon each other
    • The reactions may not be equal and opposite
  • 32. Newton’s Laws of Motion at Work
  • 33. Newton’s Laws of Motion at Work
  • 34. Newton’s Laws at Work
  • 35. Momentum
  • 36. Momentum
    • Motion depends on mass and speed
    • Linear momentum:
      • p=mv
    • Law of conservation of linear momentum
    • Angular momentum
  • 37. The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum
  • 38. The Conservation of Angular Momentum
  • 39. The Universal Force of Gravity
  • 40. The Universal Force of Gravity
    • Gravity
    • Newton’s law of universal gravitation
      • F = Gm 1 m 2 / d 2
  • 41. The Influence of the Force of Gravity
  • 42. The Gravitational Constant, G
    • G-constant of direct proportionality
      • Universal
    • Henry Cavendish
      • G = 6.67 x 10 –11 m 3 /s 2 -kg or
      • 6.67 x 10 –11 N-m 2 /kg 2
  • 43. The Cavendish Balance
  • 44. Weight and Gravity
    • Weight
      • Gravity acting on an object’s mass
    • Weight depends on gravity
      • Different on earth vs. moon
    • Mass is constant
  • 45. Big G and Little g
    • Closely related:
      • Force = ( G x mass x M E )/ R E 2
      • Force = mass x g
    • Setting equations equal:
      • Mass x g = ( G x mass x M E )/ R E 2
        • Divide by mass
      • g = ( G x M E )/ R E 2
        • Plug in values
      • 9.8 N-kg = 9.8m/s 2
  • 46. Halley’s Comet in 1985