Ch02
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Ch02 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Ordered Universe Chapter 2 Great Idea: Newton’s laws of motion and gravity predict the behavior of objects on Earth and in space
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • The Night Sky
    • The Birth of Modern Astronomy
    • The Birth of Mechanics
    • Isaac Newton and the Universal Laws of Motion
    • Momentum
    • The Universal Force of Gravity
  • 3. The Night Sky
  • 4. The Night Sky
    • Movement of stars, planets, sun
      • Key for survival of ancestors
    • Astronomy
      • First science
    • Ancient observers:
      • Physical events are quantifiable and therefore predictable
  • 5. Stonehenge
    • Started in 2800 B.C.
      • Built over long time
      • Built by different peoples
    • Marks passage of time
      • Specifically the seasons
    • Still functions today
  • 6. Stonehenge
  • 7. Science in the Making
    • The Discovery of the Spread of Disease
  • 8. Science by the Numbers
    • Ancient Astronauts
  • 9. The Birth of Modern Astronomy
  • 10. The Historical Background: Ptolemy
    • Ptolemy
      • 2nd century A.D.
      • First planetary model
      • Earth at center, stationary
      • Stars and planets revolved around earth
  • 11. The Historical Background: Ptolemy
  • 12. The Historical Background: Copernicus
    • Copernicus
      • 1543: On the Revolutions of the Spheres
      • Sun at center
  • 13. The Historical Background: Copernicus
  • 14. Observations: Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
    • Tycho
      • Observed new star
        • Showed heavens can change
      • Designed and used new instruments
        • Collected data on planetary movement
    • Kepler (Tycho’s colleague)
      • First Law:
        • Planets have elliptical orbits
  • 15. Kepler’s First Law
  • 16. The Birth of Mechanics
  • 17. Galileo Galilei
    • Mechanics: motions of material objects
    • Galileo (1564–1642)
      • Mathematics professor
      • Inventor
      • First to record observations with telescope
        • Supported Copernicus’ view
  • 18. Telescopes Used by Galileo Galilei
  • 19. Science in the Making
    • The Heresy Trial of Galileo
  • 20. Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration
    • Speed=distance traveled over time
    • Velocity=speed with direction
    • Equation for speed:
    • Acceleration=rate of change of velocity
    • Equation for velocity:
  • 21. The Founder of Experimental Science
    • Galileo
      • Relationship among distance, time, velocity and acceleration
      • Found objects accelerate while falling
  • 22. Galileo’s Falling-Ball Apparatus
  • 23. Galileo cont.
    • Constant acceleration
      • Balls on a plane: v=at
    • Freefall
      • Constant acceleration at g
      • g = 9.8 m/s 2 =32 feet/s 2
      • Distance traveled ( d )=½ at 2
  • 24. Accelerated Motion of a Falling Apple
  • 25. Equations Relating d,v,a , and t
  • 26. The Science of Life
    • Experiencing Extreme Acceleration
  • 27. Isaac Newton and the Universal Laws of Motion
  • 28. The First Law
    • An object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
    • Uniform motion vs. acceleration
    • Force
    • Inertia
  • 29. Hammer Thrower
  • 30. The Second Law
    • The acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
    • Equation: F=ma
  • 31. The Third Law
    • Interacting object exert equal but opposite forces upon each other
    • The reactions may not be equal and opposite
  • 32. Newton’s Laws of Motion at Work
  • 33. Newton’s Laws of Motion at Work
  • 34. Newton’s Laws at Work
  • 35. Momentum
  • 36. Momentum
    • Motion depends on mass and speed
    • Linear momentum:
      • p=mv
    • Law of conservation of linear momentum
    • Angular momentum
  • 37. The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum
  • 38. The Conservation of Angular Momentum
  • 39. The Universal Force of Gravity
  • 40. The Universal Force of Gravity
    • Gravity
    • Newton’s law of universal gravitation
      • F = Gm 1 m 2 / d 2
  • 41. The Influence of the Force of Gravity
  • 42. The Gravitational Constant, G
    • G-constant of direct proportionality
      • Universal
    • Henry Cavendish
      • G = 6.67 x 10 –11 m 3 /s 2 -kg or
      • 6.67 x 10 –11 N-m 2 /kg 2
  • 43. The Cavendish Balance
  • 44. Weight and Gravity
    • Weight
      • Gravity acting on an object’s mass
    • Weight depends on gravity
      • Different on earth vs. moon
    • Mass is constant
  • 45. Big G and Little g
    • Closely related:
      • Force = ( G x mass x M E )/ R E 2
      • Force = mass x g
    • Setting equations equal:
      • Mass x g = ( G x mass x M E )/ R E 2
        • Divide by mass
      • g = ( G x M E )/ R E 2
        • Plug in values
      • 9.8 N-kg = 9.8m/s 2
  • 46. Halley’s Comet in 1985