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  1. 1. REGIONS AND THEMES (Chapter 1)
  2. 2. Canada and the United States <ul><li>Location and size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million square kilometers (7.5 million square miles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic to tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles in world affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among world’s wealthiest countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military dominance, especially United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural mix and complexity </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Canada and United States Compared <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9,984,670 km 2 (3,855,085 mi 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32,900,000 population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 persons/km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$34,610 gross national product per person, purchasing power parity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9,826,630 km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3,794,066 mi 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>302,200,000 population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 persons/km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$44,260 gross national product per person, purchasing power parity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. “ Landscape” to a Geographer <ul><li>More than… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting trees and flowers (landscaping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenery, as in a painting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everything we see outdoors, result of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features added by people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing change through history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages and meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition and contention among groups </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Regions <ul><li>Any portion of the Earth’s surface with a rationale </li></ul><ul><li>A mental construct , a system of categorization </li></ul><ul><li>Change with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective of the person defining regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A region is what we say it is! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Formal (Uniform or Homogeneous) Regions <ul><li>Based on some characteristic that is present throughout the region , whether physical, economic, cultural, political </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing else in the region is necessarily the same throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Defining characteristic may vary in intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core : beginning of the region, most intense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain : surrounding core, still majority feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere : gradual tapering toward regional boundary </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Nodal (Functional) Regions <ul><li>Based on some function , usually political or economic </li></ul><ul><li>Involve movement to and from a node or center, connections between places </li></ul><ul><li>Outer edges, in case of an economic function, may be vague, involving gaps or overlaps with adjoining regions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Perceived (Vernacular)Regions <ul><li>Based on people’s perception of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Vague boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>May overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Vary with individual, especially in different places </li></ul>(page 4)
  9. 9. Complex Regions <ul><li>Combinations of uniform regions, each defined by a different feature, and nodal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Elements produce distinctive landscapes, therefore regional landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Variation within regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core : Features most obvious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Margins : Blending with adjacent regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boundaries fuzzy, transitional zones </li></ul>
  10. 10. (page 7) Regions in This Book
  11. 11. Urbanization <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of growth of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportion of a population living in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal of idyllic rural life versus… </li></ul><ul><li>Reality of urban dominance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>79 % of U.S. population is urban, < 1% on farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>79% of Canadians live in cities </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. City Location <ul><li>Site factors (location of the city itself) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break-in-bulk , where goods are transferred between different modes of transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation factors (relations with other places) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to surrounding hinterland </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Bases of Cities: City Functions <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Retail and wholesale trade </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Education, culture </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple functions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cities Earning a Living <ul><li>Basic activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings money into the city from outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary to city survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often, but not always, involve manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-basic activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation of money within the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction of residents’ needs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Consequences of City Growth <ul><li>Separation of land-use types and population groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce (downtown, or CBD; suburban centers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential, segregated by demographic characteristics (race, life-style, life cycle, income) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spreading of cities and sprawl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of planning coordination in services </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Industrialization <ul><li>Major stimulator of city growth </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of economic activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary : Product directly from the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary : Processing raw materials into something useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary : Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary : Information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quinary : High-level headquarters, government </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reasons for Industrial Location <ul><li>Raw materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight-reducing industry (e.g., metal ore processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perishable raw material (e.g., food processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials with limited locations (e.g., minerals) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight-gaining industries (e.g., soft drinks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perishable goods (e.g., newspapers, bakeries, dairies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill levels </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Reasons for Industrial Location (continued) <ul><li>Investment capital </li></ul><ul><li>Energy resources </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Inertia </li></ul><ul><li>Agglomeration (clustering of like or linked industries) </li></ul><ul><li>Footloose industries: Drawn by amenities </li></ul>
  19. 19. High Mobility <ul><li>Reasons for migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impelled (refugees) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pull factors, especially economic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance and legal considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International migration (between countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic migration (within one country) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. U.S. Relative Population Change, 1990-2000 (page 12)
  21. 21. Resources <ul><li>Agricultural productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arable land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul>Elizabeth J. Leppman
  22. 22. High Income, High Consumption <ul><li>Annual per capita incomes among the world’s highest </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable incomes generate demand, ensure massive consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Retail establishments ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Canada (5% of the world’s population) consume 28% of the world’s oil </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of high consumption in a finite environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of poverty </li></ul>
  23. 23. U.S. Poverty Rates, 2000 (page 14)
  24. 24. Political Complexity <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation of 10 provinces, 3 territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of State : Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary government with a Prime Minister (head of party with most seats in House of Commons ); also Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation of 50 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of state : elected President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress consisting of House of Representatives and Senate </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Variety of Cultural Origins <ul><li>Native Americans in both countries </li></ul><ul><li>United States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European, especially British and French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian, other recent immigrants </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Environmental Impact <ul><li>Impact on environment of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High incomes and consumer lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues of resource use, conservation, development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global climate change </li></ul></ul>