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  1. A Geographic Profile ofSUB-SAHARAN AFRICAChapter 9
  2. Sub-Saharan Africa
  3. 9.1 Area and Population Second largest land area of all the major world regions  Covers 17.4 million square miles (2x size of U.S.) Population of 749 million (2007)  Overpopulated in areas, yet much of region is sparsely populated  Average population density is slightly more than that of the U.S.  Rate of population increase is 2.5% per year Preference for Large Families  Extra hands to perform work  Ability for parents to be looked after when old/sick  In the case of girls, to receive “bride wealth”  Large families convey status Birth rates have been dropping in every country in region over the past two decades
  4. Comparison in Area and Latitude Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  5. Population Distribution
  6. Population Cartogram
  7. Homes Elevated to Minimize Risk of Flooding
  8. 9.1.1 Africa’s Population Prospects Africa has the world’s youngest population  43% of the region’s people are under 15 years of age Malthusian Scenario  1 Percent Gap  Population has had growth rate of about 3% since 1960s  Food production has grown at only about 2% annually  This is the only world region where per capita food production is declining HIV/AIDS  Possibly a Malthusian “check” to population growth
  9. 9.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations The Landscapes of Africa Africa’s Biomes and Climates Living off the Land Africa’s Wildlife
  10. 9.2.1 The Landscapes of Africa Most of Africa is a vast plateau, or series of plateaus  Typical elevation of more than 1,000 feet, though in places elevation rises to 5,000 feet and higher The character of African rivers  Rapids and waterfalls block navigation a short distance inland  Great potential for hydroelectric energy  Africa’s discontinuous inland waterways are interconnected by railroads and highways
  11. Africa’s High Volcanic Mountains
  12. 9.2.2 Africa’s Biomes and Climates Equator bisects Africa, so about two-thirds of the region lies in the low latitudes, having tropical climates Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa  Tropical Rain Forest  Savanna  Steppe  Desert  Mediterranean  Humid Subtropical  Marine West Coast Precipitation in region is high, but unevenly distributed Drought is a persistent problem
  13. Climates of Sub-Saharan Africa
  14. Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
  15. 9.2.3 Living off the Land Most productive lands are on river plains, in volcanic regions, and in some grassland areas of tropical steppes To support growing populations, fallow periods have been shortened, and the lands pressed to yield more crops Sub-Saharan Africa’s soils favor subsistence agriculture and pastoralism  Half of the region’s population practices these livelihoods
  16. Land Use in Sub-Saharan Africa
  17. Mother and Child in Zimbabwe
  18. Zebu Cattle in Madagascar
  19. 9.2.4 Africa’s Wildlife Africa has the planet’s most spectacular and numerous populations of large mammals  Tropical grasslands and open forests  Habitats of large herbivorous animals  Elephant, Buffalo, Zebra, Giraffe, and many species of Antelope  Carnivorous and scavenging animals  Lion, Leopard, and Hyena  Tropical rain forests  Abundant species of insects, birds, and monkeys  Streams and rivers draining the forests and wetter savannas  Hippopotamus, crocodile, and a great variety of fish Home to some of the world’s most extraordinary and successfully managed national parks  International tourism to these parks is a major source of revenue
  20. Daggers as Dress Accessory in Yemen
  21. 9.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies African continent was the original home of humankind After 5000 B.C.E., indigenous people were responsible for agricultural innovation in four culture hearths:  Ethiopian Plateau  West African Savanna  West African Forest  Forest-Savanna Boundary of West Central Africa Domestication of important crops  Millet, sorghum, yams, cowpeas, okra, watermelons, coffee, and cotton
  22. 9.3.1 The Languages of Africa Peoples of this region speak more than 1,000 languages, which generally belong to one of four broad language groups:  Niger-Congo  Afro-Asiatic  Nilo-Saharan  Khoisan The African Union, the continent’s supranational organization, uses 6 official languages  English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, and Arabic
  23. Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
  24. 9.3.2 Africa’s Belief Systems Spiritualism is extremely strong, but spiritual affiliations and practices are more interwoven and flexible than in most other world regions  Not uncommon for family members to follow different faiths, or for an individual to change religious beliefs and practices in the course of a lifetime Dominant Religions of Africa  Islam  Christianity  Indigenous African Religions (Animism)
  25. Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
  26. 9.3.3 The Origins and Impacts of Slavery Over a period of 12 centuries, as many as 25 million people from sub-Saharan Africa were forced to become slaves, exported as merchandise from their homelands The trade began in the 7th century, with Arab merchants using trans-Saharan camel caravan routes to exchange goods Slave traffic  Provided motivation for European commerce along African coasts  Largest slave traffic was the European controlled slave trade  Transatlantic slave trade peaked between 1700 and 1870  80% of an estimated 10 million slaves made the crossing  More than 10 million others probably died Slavery has not yet died out in the region  Enslavement of children persists in West Africa
  27. Slave Export Trade Routes
  28. 9.3.4 The Impact of Colonialism European colonialism began to overshadow and inhibit the growth of indigenous African civilizations in 16th C. Portugal was earliest colonial power to build an African empire Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885  European powers carved up Africa  Modern national boundaries do not correspond with ethnic boundaries  Nigeria as the “Mistake of 1914” European colonization had both positive and negative impacts on the region Most countries still have important links with their former colonial powers
  29. Colonial Rule in 1914
  30. 9.4 Economic Geography Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by great poverty  25 of the world’s 30 poorest countries are located there  All economies except South Africa’s are underindustrialized Africa’s place in the commercial world is mainly that of a producer of primary products  Cash Crops  Raw Materials Social and structural problems contribute to the region’s underdevelopment  Most African societies lack a substantial middle class and the prospect of upward economic mobility
  31. Coffee as Kenya’s Cash Crop
  32. 9.4.1 Agriculture Per capita food output in most of Sub-Saharan Africa has declined or remained flat since independence  Malnutrition afflicts almost half the region’s children  Rapid population growth and drought are responsible  Many regimes have invested more in their militaries than in getting food to their citizens  Governmental preference for cash crops over subsistence food crops Export Crops  Grown on small farms rather than on plantations / estates  Most valuable export crops are:  Coffee, Cacao, Cotton, Peanuts & Oil Palm Products  Secondary Cash Crops  Sisal, Pyrethrum, Tea, Tobacco, Rubber, Pineapples, Bananas, Cloves, Vanilla, Cane Sugar & Cashews
  33. 9.4.2 Mineral Resources Notable Mineral Exports  Precious metals and precious stones  Iron alloys  Copper  Phosphate  Uranium  Petroleum  High-grade iron ore Destined principally for Europe, the U.S., and China Mining has attracted far more investment capital to Africa than any other economic activity
  34. Minerals, Oil Pipelines and Transportation Links
  35. 9.4.3 Africa’s Fragile Infrastructure Poor Transportation Hindering Development  Few countries can afford to build extensive new road or rail networks, and much of colonial infrastructure has deteriorated  Contributes to famine, with the inability to transport crop surpluses to parts with chronic food shortages  Contributes to high costs of agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizers) Bridging the Digital Divide  Critical shortage of telephone, fax, e-mail, and other communication technologies  Internet Cafés  Mobile Phones
  36. Ferries for River Crossings Without Bridges
  37. 9.4.4 Africa in World Markets & Economics Commodities boom brought annual economic growth rates of about 5% to 16 Sub-Saharan African countries Many countries outside the region have effectively closed their doors to African imports  Subsidies, high tariffs, and/or low quotas imposed on agricultural products or manufactured goods Africa’s Debt  Forgiveness of $40 billion of debt by G-8  China’s engagement with the region  Pledge of $20 billion in infrastructure and trade financing
  38. 9.4.5 A Legacy of Failed States Failed-State Syndrome  Pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away at some African countries  Some countries are little more than “shell states”  9 of world’s 15 most corrupt countries are in this region  Donor Democracy  Leaders make just enough concessions to win outside aid without instituting real reform
  39. 9.5 Geopolitical Issues Sub-Saharan Africa is often judged as marginal in world affairs, but the region deserves and is receiving increased international attention  Humanitarian problems  Global implications of its public health and environmental situations  Problems in the management of Africa’s natural resource wealth, its oil reserves, and concerns over terrorism  Terrorism Hot Spots  Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Niger, Chad, and Mali  HIV/AIDS  Link between U.S. and Africa via air traffic routes  Potential AIDS-related political instability or civil wars
  40. 9.6.1 The Sahel The Sahel  Extends eastward from the Cape Verde Islands to the Atlantic shore nations of Mauritania, Senegal, and the Gambia, and inland to Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, and South Sudan  Ecosystems of Sahel have high resilience to cope with droughts  Desertification is the destruction of that resilience  It is an unnatural, human-induced condition  It has afflicted the Sahel greatly since the late 1960s  Successful changes have been made to reverse desertification (1977 United Nations plan)
  41. 9.6.2 West Africa West Africa  Extends from Guinea-Bissau to Nigeria, comprised of nine countries making up about 800,000 square miles  Nigeria is the spatial, demographic, political, and economic giant  Africa’s largest oil producer, ranks 10 th in world’s proven reserves Most oil production is concentrated in the Niger River Delta  Home to 12 million mostly Christian people of many ethnic groups  They have derived few benefits, and have suffered greatly from oil development in their homeland  Oil spills have tainted croplands and water, and flaring off natural gas has polluted their air and caused acid  Very little of the oil revenue returns to the area  Living conditions, educational opportunities, and medical care are poor  Natives becoming more militant in defending their rights to oil revenue  This militancy has sent shockwaves through the world economy  Cuts down on oil production, resulting in shortages on world markets
  42. 9.6.3 East Africa East Africa is made up of 5 countries:  Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi  Subregion is roughly the size of Texas  Population (143 million) nearly half of the U.S. Rwanda and Burundi have had tragic disputes between their majority and minority populations  Hutu (Bahutu) make up about 85% of the population in Burundi and 90% in Rwanda  This majority was poorer and often treated unfairly by wealthier minority  Tutsi (Watusi) make up most of the remainder of the two populations  This is the wealthier minority  The Hutu and Tutsi speak the same language and share a common culture; their only difference is their level of wealth  Violent clashes between these two groups have resulted in genocide unchecked by outside influences Rwanda now has a national unity plan aimed at reconciling Hutus and Tutsis Burundi now rotates its presidency between Hutus and Tutsis for power sharing
  43. 9.6.4 West Central Africa West Central Africa is comprised of seven countries:  Cameroon  Gabon  Central African Republic  Congo Republic  Democratic Republic of Congo  São Tomé and Príncipe  Equatorial Guinea
  44. 9.6.5 Colonialism & Modern Struggles in the Congo Basin The Congo Basin was a virtual possession of Belgium during last quarter of the 19th century  Exploited by King Leopold II (rubber, ivory, tropical products)  Formally annexed by Belgium in 1908  Took the name Zaire (meaning “river”) in 1971  Following the overthrow of the government in 1997, the country was renamed Democratic Republic of Congo Trouble in region has had ties to events in neighboring East Africa  Unrest in the region led to “Africa’s First World War”  This dispute involved 9 countries and 20 rebel movements  It resulted in more than 5 million deaths  Most of these deaths were a result of starvation, disease, or widespread massacres of ethnic groups  Since 1998, most fighting has been over control of areas rich in minerals  Peace has been negotiated, but war could easily break out again
  45. 9.6.6 The Horn of Africa  Comprised of a great volcanic plateau that rises steeply from the desert and protects the African continent from the Indian Ocean  Extreme NE section of Sub-Saharan Africa includes 4 countries:  Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti  Ethiopia is the country with the most ethnic / cultural diversity  Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity  Cultural / historical links with Egypt, Fertile Crescent & Arabia  Before Marxist coup in 1970s, Ethiopian rulers were always Christian  “The Galápagos Islands of Religion” because it has long served as an isolated refuge for unique religious groups, including Falashas (Ethiopian Jews) and Rastafarians
  46. 9.6.7 Southern Africa (former colonial statuses in parentheses)  Zambezi River Basin  Angola (Portuguese Colony)  Mozambique (Portuguese)  Zimbabwe (British Colony)  Zambia (British Colony)  Malawi (British Colony)  Still further south are the following five countries:  South Africa  Botswana (British Colony)  Swaziland (British Colony)  Lesotho (British Colony)  Namibia (German Colony)
  47. 9.6.8 South Africa Has a very Europeanized cultural landscape, but this does not reflect the racial background of the majority of the population  Blacks (79%), Whites (10%), Mixed Origin (9%), Asians (2%)  Economic gulf separates impoverished black Africans from wealthy whites  Racial segregation characterized South Africa from 1652 onward Apartheid (Afrikaners put into place in 1948)  A law that imposed racially based restrictions and prohibitions on everyone, but weighed heaviest on black Africans and denied them political power  Many blacks transferred to “homelands  Black unrest became so widespread and violent that government declared a state of emergency  Most of fighting took place between rival factions:  African National Congress (ANC) led by Nelson Mandel  Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) led by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi  During Nelson Mandela’s presidency (1994-1999), South African apartheid laws became null and void
  48. 9.6.9 The Indian Ocean Islands Indian Ocean Islands  Madagascar, The Comoro Islands, Reunion, Mauritius & The Seychelles  African, Asian, Arab, European & Polynesian ethnic and cultural influences  Home to many endemic species of plants and animals  Theory of Island Biogeography  The number of species found on an individual island correlates with the island’s area, with a 10-fold increase in area normally resulting in a doubling of the number of species Madagascar  4th largest island in the world  1,000 miles long / 350 miles wide  21 million inhabitants  Distinctive flora and fauna  Deforestation has reached 90%  Theory of island biogeography suggests that half of the island’s species have become extinct

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