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Ch 9 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A Geographic Profile ofSUB-SAHARAN AFRICAChapter 9
  • 2. Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 3. 9.1 Area and Population Second largest land area of all the major world regions  Covers 17.4 million square miles (2x size of U.S.) Population of 749 million (2007)  Overpopulated in areas, yet much of region is sparsely populated  Average population density is slightly more than that of the U.S.  Rate of population increase is 2.5% per year Preference for Large Families  Extra hands to perform work  Ability for parents to be looked after when old/sick  In the case of girls, to receive “bride wealth”  Large families convey status Birth rates have been dropping in every country in region over the past two decades
  • 4. Comparison in Area and Latitude Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  • 5. Population Distribution
  • 6. Population Cartogram
  • 7. Homes Elevated to Minimize Risk of Flooding
  • 8. 9.1.1 Africa’s Population Prospects Africa has the world’s youngest population  43% of the region’s people are under 15 years of age Malthusian Scenario  1 Percent Gap  Population has had growth rate of about 3% since 1960s  Food production has grown at only about 2% annually  This is the only world region where per capita food production is declining HIV/AIDS  Possibly a Malthusian “check” to population growth
  • 9. 9.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations The Landscapes of Africa Africa’s Biomes and Climates Living off the Land Africa’s Wildlife
  • 10. 9.2.1 The Landscapes of Africa Most of Africa is a vast plateau, or series of plateaus  Typical elevation of more than 1,000 feet, though in places elevation rises to 5,000 feet and higher The character of African rivers  Rapids and waterfalls block navigation a short distance inland  Great potential for hydroelectric energy  Africa’s discontinuous inland waterways are interconnected by railroads and highways
  • 11. Africa’s High Volcanic Mountains
  • 12. 9.2.2 Africa’s Biomes and Climates Equator bisects Africa, so about two-thirds of the region lies in the low latitudes, having tropical climates Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa  Tropical Rain Forest  Savanna  Steppe  Desert  Mediterranean  Humid Subtropical  Marine West Coast Precipitation in region is high, but unevenly distributed Drought is a persistent problem
  • 13. Climates of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 14. Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 15. 9.2.3 Living off the Land Most productive lands are on river plains, in volcanic regions, and in some grassland areas of tropical steppes To support growing populations, fallow periods have been shortened, and the lands pressed to yield more crops Sub-Saharan Africa’s soils favor subsistence agriculture and pastoralism  Half of the region’s population practices these livelihoods
  • 16. Land Use in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 17. Mother and Child in Zimbabwe
  • 18. Zebu Cattle in Madagascar
  • 19. 9.2.4 Africa’s Wildlife Africa has the planet’s most spectacular and numerous populations of large mammals  Tropical grasslands and open forests  Habitats of large herbivorous animals  Elephant, Buffalo, Zebra, Giraffe, and many species of Antelope  Carnivorous and scavenging animals  Lion, Leopard, and Hyena  Tropical rain forests  Abundant species of insects, birds, and monkeys  Streams and rivers draining the forests and wetter savannas  Hippopotamus, crocodile, and a great variety of fish Home to some of the world’s most extraordinary and successfully managed national parks  International tourism to these parks is a major source of revenue
  • 20. Daggers as Dress Accessory in Yemen
  • 21. 9.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies African continent was the original home of humankind After 5000 B.C.E., indigenous people were responsible for agricultural innovation in four culture hearths:  Ethiopian Plateau  West African Savanna  West African Forest  Forest-Savanna Boundary of West Central Africa Domestication of important crops  Millet, sorghum, yams, cowpeas, okra, watermelons, coffee, and cotton
  • 22. 9.3.1 The Languages of Africa Peoples of this region speak more than 1,000 languages, which generally belong to one of four broad language groups:  Niger-Congo  Afro-Asiatic  Nilo-Saharan  Khoisan The African Union, the continent’s supranational organization, uses 6 official languages  English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, and Arabic
  • 23. Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 24. 9.3.2 Africa’s Belief Systems Spiritualism is extremely strong, but spiritual affiliations and practices are more interwoven and flexible than in most other world regions  Not uncommon for family members to follow different faiths, or for an individual to change religious beliefs and practices in the course of a lifetime Dominant Religions of Africa  Islam  Christianity  Indigenous African Religions (Animism)
  • 25. Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 26. 9.3.3 The Origins and Impacts of Slavery Over a period of 12 centuries, as many as 25 million people from sub-Saharan Africa were forced to become slaves, exported as merchandise from their homelands The trade began in the 7th century, with Arab merchants using trans-Saharan camel caravan routes to exchange goods Slave traffic  Provided motivation for European commerce along African coasts  Largest slave traffic was the European controlled slave trade  Transatlantic slave trade peaked between 1700 and 1870  80% of an estimated 10 million slaves made the crossing  More than 10 million others probably died Slavery has not yet died out in the region  Enslavement of children persists in West Africa
  • 27. Slave Export Trade Routes
  • 28. 9.3.4 The Impact of Colonialism European colonialism began to overshadow and inhibit the growth of indigenous African civilizations in 16th C. Portugal was earliest colonial power to build an African empire Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885  European powers carved up Africa  Modern national boundaries do not correspond with ethnic boundaries  Nigeria as the “Mistake of 1914” European colonization had both positive and negative impacts on the region Most countries still have important links with their former colonial powers
  • 29. Colonial Rule in 1914
  • 30. 9.4 Economic Geography Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by great poverty  25 of the world’s 30 poorest countries are located there  All economies except South Africa’s are underindustrialized Africa’s place in the commercial world is mainly that of a producer of primary products  Cash Crops  Raw Materials Social and structural problems contribute to the region’s underdevelopment  Most African societies lack a substantial middle class and the prospect of upward economic mobility
  • 31. Coffee as Kenya’s Cash Crop
  • 32. 9.4.1 Agriculture Per capita food output in most of Sub-Saharan Africa has declined or remained flat since independence  Malnutrition afflicts almost half the region’s children  Rapid population growth and drought are responsible  Many regimes have invested more in their militaries than in getting food to their citizens  Governmental preference for cash crops over subsistence food crops Export Crops  Grown on small farms rather than on plantations / estates  Most valuable export crops are:  Coffee, Cacao, Cotton, Peanuts & Oil Palm Products  Secondary Cash Crops  Sisal, Pyrethrum, Tea, Tobacco, Rubber, Pineapples, Bananas, Cloves, Vanilla, Cane Sugar & Cashews
  • 33. 9.4.2 Mineral Resources Notable Mineral Exports  Precious metals and precious stones  Iron alloys  Copper  Phosphate  Uranium  Petroleum  High-grade iron ore Destined principally for Europe, the U.S., and China Mining has attracted far more investment capital to Africa than any other economic activity
  • 34. Minerals, Oil Pipelines and Transportation Links
  • 35. 9.4.3 Africa’s Fragile Infrastructure Poor Transportation Hindering Development  Few countries can afford to build extensive new road or rail networks, and much of colonial infrastructure has deteriorated  Contributes to famine, with the inability to transport crop surpluses to parts with chronic food shortages  Contributes to high costs of agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizers) Bridging the Digital Divide  Critical shortage of telephone, fax, e-mail, and other communication technologies  Internet Cafés  Mobile Phones
  • 36. Ferries for River Crossings Without Bridges
  • 37. 9.4.4 Africa in World Markets & Economics Commodities boom brought annual economic growth rates of about 5% to 16 Sub-Saharan African countries Many countries outside the region have effectively closed their doors to African imports  Subsidies, high tariffs, and/or low quotas imposed on agricultural products or manufactured goods Africa’s Debt  Forgiveness of $40 billion of debt by G-8  China’s engagement with the region  Pledge of $20 billion in infrastructure and trade financing
  • 38. 9.4.5 A Legacy of Failed States Failed-State Syndrome  Pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away at some African countries  Some countries are little more than “shell states”  9 of world’s 15 most corrupt countries are in this region  Donor Democracy  Leaders make just enough concessions to win outside aid without instituting real reform
  • 39. 9.5 Geopolitical Issues Sub-Saharan Africa is often judged as marginal in world affairs, but the region deserves and is receiving increased international attention  Humanitarian problems  Global implications of its public health and environmental situations  Problems in the management of Africa’s natural resource wealth, its oil reserves, and concerns over terrorism  Terrorism Hot Spots  Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Niger, Chad, and Mali  HIV/AIDS  Link between U.S. and Africa via air traffic routes  Potential AIDS-related political instability or civil wars
  • 40. 9.6.1 The Sahel The Sahel  Extends eastward from the Cape Verde Islands to the Atlantic shore nations of Mauritania, Senegal, and the Gambia, and inland to Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, and South Sudan  Ecosystems of Sahel have high resilience to cope with droughts  Desertification is the destruction of that resilience  It is an unnatural, human-induced condition  It has afflicted the Sahel greatly since the late 1960s  Successful changes have been made to reverse desertification (1977 United Nations plan)
  • 41. 9.6.2 West Africa West Africa  Extends from Guinea-Bissau to Nigeria, comprised of nine countries making up about 800,000 square miles  Nigeria is the spatial, demographic, political, and economic giant  Africa’s largest oil producer, ranks 10 th in world’s proven reserves Most oil production is concentrated in the Niger River Delta  Home to 12 million mostly Christian people of many ethnic groups  They have derived few benefits, and have suffered greatly from oil development in their homeland  Oil spills have tainted croplands and water, and flaring off natural gas has polluted their air and caused acid  Very little of the oil revenue returns to the area  Living conditions, educational opportunities, and medical care are poor  Natives becoming more militant in defending their rights to oil revenue  This militancy has sent shockwaves through the world economy  Cuts down on oil production, resulting in shortages on world markets
  • 42. 9.6.3 East Africa East Africa is made up of 5 countries:  Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi  Subregion is roughly the size of Texas  Population (143 million) nearly half of the U.S. Rwanda and Burundi have had tragic disputes between their majority and minority populations  Hutu (Bahutu) make up about 85% of the population in Burundi and 90% in Rwanda  This majority was poorer and often treated unfairly by wealthier minority  Tutsi (Watusi) make up most of the remainder of the two populations  This is the wealthier minority  The Hutu and Tutsi speak the same language and share a common culture; their only difference is their level of wealth  Violent clashes between these two groups have resulted in genocide unchecked by outside influences Rwanda now has a national unity plan aimed at reconciling Hutus and Tutsis Burundi now rotates its presidency between Hutus and Tutsis for power sharing
  • 43. 9.6.4 West Central Africa West Central Africa is comprised of seven countries:  Cameroon  Gabon  Central African Republic  Congo Republic  Democratic Republic of Congo  São Tomé and Príncipe  Equatorial Guinea
  • 44. 9.6.5 Colonialism & Modern Struggles in the Congo Basin The Congo Basin was a virtual possession of Belgium during last quarter of the 19th century  Exploited by King Leopold II (rubber, ivory, tropical products)  Formally annexed by Belgium in 1908  Took the name Zaire (meaning “river”) in 1971  Following the overthrow of the government in 1997, the country was renamed Democratic Republic of Congo Trouble in region has had ties to events in neighboring East Africa  Unrest in the region led to “Africa’s First World War”  This dispute involved 9 countries and 20 rebel movements  It resulted in more than 5 million deaths  Most of these deaths were a result of starvation, disease, or widespread massacres of ethnic groups  Since 1998, most fighting has been over control of areas rich in minerals  Peace has been negotiated, but war could easily break out again
  • 45. 9.6.6 The Horn of Africa  Comprised of a great volcanic plateau that rises steeply from the desert and protects the African continent from the Indian Ocean  Extreme NE section of Sub-Saharan Africa includes 4 countries:  Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti  Ethiopia is the country with the most ethnic / cultural diversity  Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity  Cultural / historical links with Egypt, Fertile Crescent & Arabia  Before Marxist coup in 1970s, Ethiopian rulers were always Christian  “The Galápagos Islands of Religion” because it has long served as an isolated refuge for unique religious groups, including Falashas (Ethiopian Jews) and Rastafarians
  • 46. 9.6.7 Southern Africa (former colonial statuses in parentheses)  Zambezi River Basin  Angola (Portuguese Colony)  Mozambique (Portuguese)  Zimbabwe (British Colony)  Zambia (British Colony)  Malawi (British Colony)  Still further south are the following five countries:  South Africa  Botswana (British Colony)  Swaziland (British Colony)  Lesotho (British Colony)  Namibia (German Colony)
  • 47. 9.6.8 South Africa Has a very Europeanized cultural landscape, but this does not reflect the racial background of the majority of the population  Blacks (79%), Whites (10%), Mixed Origin (9%), Asians (2%)  Economic gulf separates impoverished black Africans from wealthy whites  Racial segregation characterized South Africa from 1652 onward Apartheid (Afrikaners put into place in 1948)  A law that imposed racially based restrictions and prohibitions on everyone, but weighed heaviest on black Africans and denied them political power  Many blacks transferred to “homelands  Black unrest became so widespread and violent that government declared a state of emergency  Most of fighting took place between rival factions:  African National Congress (ANC) led by Nelson Mandel  Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) led by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi  During Nelson Mandela’s presidency (1994-1999), South African apartheid laws became null and void
  • 48. 9.6.9 The Indian Ocean Islands Indian Ocean Islands  Madagascar, The Comoro Islands, Reunion, Mauritius & The Seychelles  African, Asian, Arab, European & Polynesian ethnic and cultural influences  Home to many endemic species of plants and animals  Theory of Island Biogeography  The number of species found on an individual island correlates with the island’s area, with a 10-fold increase in area normally resulting in a doubling of the number of species Madagascar  4th largest island in the world  1,000 miles long / 350 miles wide  21 million inhabitants  Distinctive flora and fauna  Deforestation has reached 90%  Theory of island biogeography suggests that half of the island’s species have become extinct