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Ch 7

Ch 7






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    Ch 7 Ch 7 Presentation Transcript

    • A Geographic Profile ofSOUTH & EAST ASIAChapter 7
    • 7 South and East Asia At A Glance Regional Profile  One-quarter of the earth’s landmass  Half the world’s population  3.6 billion people Subregions  East Asia  South Asia  Southeast Asia
    • South and East Asia
    • Comparison in Area and Latitude South and East Asia vs. Conterminous U.S.
    • 7.1.1 Demographic Heavyweights Region is home to 54% of world’s population  China and India together have 2.4 billion people, or 37% of the world’s total Places with high urban densities  Hong Kong  Macao  Singapore
    • Population Distribution of South & East Asia
    • Population Cartogram of South & East Asia
    • 7.1.2 Population Growth Patterns Not possible to generalize about population growth in Monsoon Asia  Wide Range from 0% (Japan) to 3.3% (Timor-Leste)  Primarily LDCs in the region  Postindustrial Japan worries about its declining population  China’s “one-child policy”  India should overtake China as world’s most populous country in 2040  Wildcard is HIV/AIDS
    • 7.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Inner Arc  World’s highest mountain ranges, plateaus, and basins Middle Arc  Lower mountains, hill lands, river plains, and basins Outer Eastern Arc  Islands and seas  Archipelagoes (clusters of islands)  East Indies  Philippines  Japan
    • 7.2.1 Climate and Vegetation Monsoon Asia is characterized generally by a warm, well-watered climate Climate Types in Region  Tropical Rain Forest  Tropical Savanna  Humid Subtropical  Warm Humid Continental  Cold Humid Continental  Desert  Steppe  Subarctic  Undifferentiated Highland
    • Climate Types of South & East Asia
    • Biome Types of South & East Asia
    • 7.2.2 The Monsoons Monsoons are the prevailing sea-to-land and land- to-sea winds  Wet Summer Monsoon  High humidity, moist air, predictable rains  Even more precipitation where there is elevation  Dry Winter Monsoon  Land loses relative warmth while the sea and coastal waters stay warm longer  Wind shifts and air masses flow from inland areas to sea  Long dry season, except for Japan
    • South Asia Monsoons
    • Torrential Monsoon Rains in Sri Lanka
    • Land Use in Monsoon Asia
    • 7.2.3 Agricultural Adaptations Many soils are infertile  High temperatures and heavy rains  Rapid leaching of mineral nutrients  Decomposition of organic matter  Many soils will not support more than one or two poor harvests
    • 7.2.4 The Importance of Rice Intensive Subsistence Agriculture  Built around growing of cereals, especially rice Shifting Cultivation  Capable of sustaining only small populations for brief periods of time Wet Rice Cultivation  Capable of producing 2-3 crops per year  Can sustain large populations over long periods of time  Lowland Floodplains and Upland Terraces
    • Rice Fields in Vietnam
    • 7.2.5 Agriculture and Culture Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation  People overpopulation in Nepal  No room left in the Terai, so people clear and cultivate steep lands on which it is impossible to build terraces  Heavy monsoon rains cause relentless erosion  Eroded plots cannot be cultivated again  Landslides occur downslope, causing loss of life  Increased sediment load causes rivers to swell out of banks  Flooding downstream in Bangladesh
    • 7.2.6 Where Asians Live 38% of region’s population is urban  Tokyo is the world’s largest city (37 million) 62% of region’s population is rural  Main unit of Asian settlement is the village  Lowland villages tend to be situated on natural levees, dikes, or raised mounds Pronounced Rural-to-Urban Migration
    • Satellite Dish on Traditional Dwelling
    • 7.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Cultural Developments from Monsoon Asia  First movable printing type (Korea)  Gunpowder, paper, silk, and porcelain (China)  Faiths of Hinduism and Buddhism (India)  Domesticated plants and animals  Rice  Cabbage  Chickens  Water Buffalo  Zebu Cattle  Pigs
    • 7.3.1 Ethnic and Linguistic Patterns Ethnic and linguistic composition is rich and complex Language Families  Indo-European  Sino-Tibetan  Altaic  Austric  Dravidian  Papuan
    • Languages of South & East Asia
    • 7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements Two Great Hearths of Religion  Middle East  Monsoon Asia Belief systems practiced by 25 percent of the world’s population originated in this region  Hinduism  Buddhism  Confucianism  Daoism Other Practices  Shintoism  Ancestor Veneration  Animism
    • Religions of Monsoon Asia
    • Ancestor Veneration
    • 7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements Hinduism  Lacks a definite creed or theology  Social hierarchy of the caste system  Practice rituals to honor deities  Brahman the Creator  Vishnu the Preserver  Shiva the Destroyer  Believe in reincarnation and transmigration of souls  Ganges is a sacred river  Belief that it springs from the matted hair of the god Shiva  Many elderly go to die in this city and be cremated where ashes can be strewn in holy waters
    • Hinduism: Vishnu and Lakshmi
    • 7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements Buddhism  Based on life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama  Buddha was born a prince in 563 B.C.E. in northern India  Rejected precepts of Hinduism, including caste system  Four Noble Truths  Life is suffering  All suffering is caused by ignorance of the nature of reality  End suffering by overcoming ignorance and attachment  Suppression of suffering through the Noble Eightfold Path  Karma (person’s acts and consequences)  Goal is to attain nirvana  Transcendent state in which one is able to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and all the suffering it brings  Theravada and Mahayana Branches
    • Buddhist Temple in Thailand
    • 7.3.3 Effects of European Colonization Portugal and Spain were first to extend economic and political control over South and Southeast Asia Colonies  British India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, Borneo  Dutch East Indies  French Indochina  Portuguese Goa and Diu in India, Macau & Timor Western domination of Asia ended in 20th Century  After WWII, colonial possessions gained independence  Hong Kong returned by Britain to China in 1997  Macau returned by Portugal to China in 1999
    • Colonial South & East Asia – Early 20th Century
    • 7.4 Economic Geography World’s Fastest-Growing Economies  China is ranked #2  Japan is ranked #4 Many hundreds of millions of people remain poor Growing gap between rich and poor Asian Tigers  Strong, industrialized export-oriented economies  South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore  New Asian Tigers in Southeast Asia Japan leads Asia in value-added manufacturing
    • 7.4.1 China’s Surging Economy 4th-largest economy in terms of GDP 2nd-largest economy in terms of GDP PPP Average annual growth rate of 10% since 1990 China is making a little bit of everything  Three-quarters of all toys sold in U.S.  3rd largest manufacturer of personal computers Joined the World Trade Organization in 2001
    • Silk Production in China
    • 7.4.2 China’s Economic Impact Surging investment in China is linked to disinvestment elsewhere, especially in SE Asia China has eclipsed the United States as Asia’s most essential trading partner China is the epicenter of prolific Asian trade in pirated products
    • 7.4.3 The Green Revolution Use science to increase food yields  Stave off hunger  Generate export income Biotechnology  Malaysia’s Biovalley  Indonesia’s Bioisland Problems  Financial obstacles  Economic dislocations  Large infusions of agricultural chemicals  Reduction of genetic variability of crops
    • 7.5 Geopolitical Issues Principal Geopolitical Concerns  Nuclear Weapons  Islamist Terrorism  Security of Shipping Lanes  Asia is emerging as center of gravity  Challenge century-long primacy of the U.S. in world affairs
    • 7.5.1 Nationalism & Nuclear Weapons Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  Prohibition of all nuclear testing  Signed by 149 nations and went into effect in 1996  India and Pakistan did not sign the treaty India and Pakistan  In 1998, India conducted 3 underground nuclear tests in the Thar Desert  Pakistan followed with six nuclear tests  Fear of Mutually Assured Destruction  Pivotal Countries  Collapse would cause international migration, war, pollution, disease epidemics, or other problems
    • 7.5.2 U.S.-Pakistan Relations Since 9/11 Pakistani president dropped support for Taliban and allowed the U.S. to use the country to prepare for the assault on the Taliban and al-Qa’ida in Afghanistan The United States forgave much of Pakistan’s debt and lifted its sanctions against Pakistan  U.S. also lifted its post-nuclear test sanctions against India Semiautonomous federally administered tribal areas  Pashtun are sympathetic to the causes of their Taliban ethnic kin and their al-Qa’ida spiritual kin  Opposition to American interests
    • Pashtun Man of Western Pakistan
    • 7.5.3 What Does North Korea Want? A Reunited Korea?  Would remove other countries’ justifications for building up their defenses  Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)  Antimissile defensive shield over the United States North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program  North Korea included in George W. Bush’s “Axis of Evil”  The only leverage North Korea has had to coax desperately needed supplies from abroad
    • No-Man’s-Land Separating North & South Korea
    • 7.5.4 Islands, Sea Lanes, and Islamists Indonesia as potential new hearth for al-Qa’ida  Predominantly Muslim population, including extremists  Islamist organizations like Laskar Jihad and Jemaah Islamiah  Largely poor  Remote locales suitable for making weapons  Regions the government is unwilling or unable to control American interests in Indonesia  Oil and Natural Gas  Copper Resources  International Shipping Lanes
    • 7.6.1 South Asia: Afghanistan Sometimes placed in Central Asia, sometimes the Middle East Land of limited resources, poor internal transportation, and little foreign trade Opium poppy is most successful crop, accounting for >90% of world’s opium The Soviet War in Afghanistan  The U.S. and moderate Arab states such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia lent support to Afghanistan against the USSR  After their victory against the Soviets, the most militant Islamists turned their attention to the U.S. and its Middle Eastern allies  Osama bin Laden developed “the base” (al-Qa’ida in Arabic), which trained an estimated 10,000 fighters, and was responsible for many spectacular acts of terrorism, including 9/11 The Taliban  After overthrowing Communist government in 1992, the formerly united Afghan rebels engaged in civil warfare. By 1996, a rebel faction known as the Taliban gained control of most of the country  Imposed a strict code of Islamic law in the region  After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. engaged in a “war against terrorism,” targeting both the Taliban and al-Qa’ida for elimination
    • 7.6.2 South Asia: Faith, Sectarianism, and Strife India and Pakistan  The Indian subcontinent features great religious differences between the two largest religious groups (Hindus and Muslims)  In 1947, religious discord led to creation of 2 countries (India and Pakistan) Kashmir  Disputed province straddling border of India, Pakistan, and China  Contains the upper portion of the Indus River and many of its tributaries Sri Lanka  Two major ethnic groups:  Sinhalese, Buddhist, about 75 percent of population  Tamils, Hindu, about 10 percent of population  Discontent with economic and political conditions, especially minority Tamils  Between 1983 and 2009, more than 70,000 deaths have resulted from the Tamils’ fight for autonomy or independence from Sinhalese government  Tamil Tigers: Tamil fighters wishing to help establish their own homeland
    • Political Dispute over Kashmir
    • 7.6.3 South Asia: The Caste System Hindus believe every individual is born into a caste, or social subgroup that determines rank and role in society  The lowest group in the caste system are the Dalits, once known as untouchables, accounting for about 20 percent of all Hindus  In 1950, India’s constitution outlawed the caste system
    • 7.6.4 South Asia: India India’s Population Surge Since Independence  Predicted to overtake China as world’s most populous country by 2040  Half of its population is younger than 25  40% of its population is “abjectly poor” Agricultural output has increased in South Asia since independence  “Ration shops” sell subsidized food staples to country’s poorest  Agricultural success due mainly to:  Increased use of artificial fertilizers  Introduction of new high-yield varieties of wheat and rice  More labor from growing rural population  Spread of education  Development of government extension institutions  60% of India’s farmland still rain-fed, and when monsoons fail to deliver necessary water, farmers can be driven to drastic measure, including the sale of wives and daughters, or suicide There is a need to improve the status of women in India  Practice of dowries and ramifications of this tradition
    • 7.6.5 South Asia: Bangladesh and Maldives Bangladesh  Formerly known as East Pakistan  Small but heavily populated nation  Subject to catastrophic flooding  Frequent Hurricanes  Increased runoff from the Himalayas due to deforestation Aerial view of Male, the capital  Concerns about climate change of the Maldives, revealing just and rising sea levels how vulnerable the site is to The Maldives storms and sea level rise.  Tropical paradise made up of roughly 1,100 islands  More than 60% foreign-currency earnings from tourism  80% of its limited land area is less than 3 feet above sea level  Could become completely submerged as a result of climate change
    • 7.6.6 Southeast Asia Southeast Asia  Myanmar (formerly Burma)  Thailand  Laos  Cambodia  Vietnam  Malaysia  Singapore  Indonesia  Timor-Leste (formerly East Timor)  Brunei  The Philippines
    • 7.6.7 Issues Facing SE Asia’s Physical Geography Deforestation  Aggressive export of region’s tropical hardwoods  Clearing of land for use as palm oil plantations  Many forests and peat bogs are cleared by burning, emitting CO 2  Indonesia now world’s 5th largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions  Many plants and animals in these forests are endemic species The Great Tsunami of 2004  On December 26, 2004, a huge 9.3 magnitude earthquake off the northwestern coast of Sumatra, resulted in some of the deadliest tsunamis in recorded history  Total dead exceeded 200,000  Greatest number of deaths (over 130,000) occurred in Indonesia  As many as 2 million people made homeless by this disaster  Installation of an early warning system in the Indian Ocean region became a priority, and was completed in 2006
    • The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and TsunamiBanda Aceh, Indonesia before (left) and after (right) the tsunami
    • 7.6.8 Southeast Asia: Myanmar Myanmar (formerly Burma)  Constant civil war since independence from British Commonwealth in 1948  Since 1999, the government has been reaching cease-fire agreements with most of the country’s ethnic groups  One of the world’s most repressive places to live  Access to Internet prohibited until 1999, and still strictly regulated  Foreign journalists banned  Citizens may not allow foreigners into their homes  Illegal to gather outside in groups of more than five  Struck by a category 4 hurricane on May 2, 2008  More than 135,000 deaths, 2.5 million homes lost; Foreign aid banned, journalists barred entry, so real impacts of tragedy may never be known  U.S. economic sanctions against Myanmar  Response to Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi being placed under house arrest by the government  Many American corporations have withdrawn  Have sanctions pushed Myanmar toward China and North Korea?
    • 7.6.9 Sex, Drugs, and Health in SE Asia One of world’s main source areas for opium & heroin Golden Triangle  Vernacular region comprised of borderlands where Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar historically exercised little control over their territories  Absence of strong government presence and ideal growing conditions led to explosive growth in drug production Primary delivery of heroin is via shared needles, which has contributed to an AIDS epidemic  Epidemic has spread even more quickly through the sex industry  An estimated 26% of prostitutes are HIV infected, more than three times the rate in Thailand  Thailand has run an increasingly successful anti-AIDS public awareness campaign, and made condoms available to the population, helping slow the spread of the infection
    • 7.6.10 Vietnam France conquered Indochina (1858-1907) and turned Mekong River into an area of commercial rice production Japanese forces overran French Indochina in 1941, which led to five decades of warfare in the area During WWII, a Communist movement led by Ho Chi Minh led to a French withdrawal from Indochina, creating: Laos, Cambodia, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam Vietnam War  North Vietnam allied first with Communist China, then Soviet Union  Viet Cong, a Communist force supported by North Vietnam, was increasingly successful in its bid to reunify the country  U.S. intervened, sending 500,000 troops to South Vietnam by 1965  More than 3 million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians, and about 58,000 U.S. soldiers and staff perished in the Vietnam War; there are still 1,948 Americans listed as MIA  In 1973, most American forces were withdrawn  North Vietnam completed conquest of South Vietnam in 1975  Repression of those who assisted Americans led to mass outpouring of refugees  Vietnam has restored parts of its war-torn landscape, now attracts eco-tourism
    • 7.6.11 Indonesia Indonesia’s credo is “One country. One people. One language.” Constitution officially recognizes four faiths  Islam  Christianity  Hinduism  Buddhism Presence of some 300 different ethnic groups has made it difficult to attain peace, order, and unity  Malay is official language, but 200+ languages/dialects in use  Largest ethnic group is Javanese, making up 41% of the population  Various groups in outer islands have resented Javanese dominance  After promises of liberal autonomy, Indonesian government shifted to using an iron fist against any province aspiring to follow East Timor  The independent country of Timor-Leste (East Timor) was a Portuguese possession occupied by Indonesia  Indonesian government had long struggled with East Timor’s Catholics, but East Timor did gain independence
    • 7.6.11 Indonesia (continued) Province of Aceh  Located at northernmost tip of Sumatra  Predominantly Muslim people of Malayan ethnicity, began seeking independence from Indonesia in 1976  Indonesian government had made them a promise of autonomy in 1949 but failed to keep it  After years of violent clashes, devastation wrought by the 2004 tsunami caused international sympathy for Aceh  While they have not achieved independence from Indonesia, Aceh was allowed to adopt Islamic sharia law, and granted other freedoms Progress in Aceh leads to hopes for a similar future in Papua  Home to 3 million people of 200 different tribes speaking 100 different languages  They have little in common with Javanese Muslims who control them from 2,500 miles away
    • 7.6.12 Han Colonization of China’s Wild West China’s growth as a land empire has involved  Subjugation of people who are not ethnic Han  Colonization of those ethnic areas by ethnic Han  Are at least 56 non-Han ethnic groups in China Like the Soviets did, China’s Communist government granted token recognition of five large minorities by creating autonomous regions:  Guangxi  Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia)  Ningxia  Xizang (Tibet)  Xinjiang Western Big Development Project  Objective is to improve locals’ livelihoods enough to diminish their desire for ethnic and political separatism Tibet has long struggled for independence  The Dalai Lama:  Is the spiritual and political leader of Lamaism, or Tibetan Buddhism  Was forced to flee to India after a revolt in 1959  Continues to make peaceful, non-violent appeals for Tibetan freedom
    • 7.6.13 The Three Gorges Dam The Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) has been central to China’s identity and welfare for thousands of years  Delivers water and fertile soils, which has enabled intensive rice and wheat farming  Flooding in August 1998 affected 300 million people  Sun Yat-Sen proposed a giant dam on the river back in 1919  Advantages: Flood control, drought relief, hydroelectricity production The Three Gorges (Sanzxia) Dam was begun in 1994 and completed in 2009  The largest dam ever built  Allows for greatly improved shipping of goods  Includes the world’s largest hydropower plant  Negative consequences:  The reservoir formed behind the dam has inundated 4,000 villages, 140 towns, 13 cities, numerous archeological sites, and nearly 160 sq miles of farmland  Erased a beautiful wild river, which had been an important tourist attraction  Shifting of weight of great quantities of water may have seismic consequences  Growing scientific evidence that devastating magnitude 8.0 earthquake of May 12, 2008 may have been triggered by the weight of the reservoir
    • China’s Recent Hydrologic Feats Changed landscape of the Three Gorges Dam (left) Map showing areas affected by theThree Gorges Dam andthe Chang Jiang WaterTransfer Project (right)
    • 7.6.14 Chang Jiang Water Transfer Project China has one of the world’s lowest per capita water supplies and most uneven distributions of water  More than 40% of the population is in the north, but less than 15% of the water is there Engineers see water transfer on a massive scale as the way to redress this imbalance  One project is the transfer of seawater through a pipeline to dried up salt lakes and desert basins of Xinjiang  The hope is that water evaporation will induce rainfall  Another project under consideration will move water from south to north, merging basins of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River  Chinese leaders view this project with trepidation  Relocation of large groups of people might create social unrest  Uncertainty over what negative impacts this project could have on the environment
    • 7.6.15 What’s Next for Industrial China? China’s economy has been booming, but it does have weaknesses:  There is little freedom of expression  Computer / Internet use is censored  Cell phone use is increasing, but is monitored  Fear of a collapse of the economic bubble, similar to what was seen in the U.S.  China’s air and waters are severely polluted, but they are planning to make strides in becoming greener  China is the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide  Economic growth not distributed evenly throughout population  Cities characterized by a two-tiered society of legal residents and nonresidents  Financially prohibitive for nonresidents to obtain resident status  Working conditions for nonresidents are often very poor
    • 7.6.16 Taiwan Island of 14,000 square miles and 23 million people, separated from South China by the 100-mile wide Taiwan Strait Long struggle between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan’s Republic of China as to who has sovereignty over the other  In 1949, Chinese National Government fled to Taiwan with remnants of its armed forces and many civilian followers. The government reestablished itself with a capital at Taipei  United inexpensive Taiwanese labor with foreign capital to build one of Asia’s first urban-industrial countries  Strong export-oriented economy driven by electronics and machinery  Avg Taiwanese citizen 4x wealthier than avg mainland Chinese citizen  Major hurdle for stronger growth is a lack of native energy resources  One China Policy  U.S. backed the Nationalist claim until 1970s, when it developed closer relations with the People’s republic.  U.S. supported the revocation of Taiwan’s UN seat in 1971  In 1979, the U.S. withdrew its official recognition of Taiwan, recognizing China’s claim of sovereignty.
    • 7.6.17 Japan The Japanese “Miracle”  Japan became an economic superpower after its defeat in World War II  Possible reasons for this include:  Japan was never colonized by Western powers  An intense spirit of achievement and enterprise among the Japanese  Japan’s geography as a resource-poor island nation fostered an attitude of working hard to overcome constraints placed on them by nature  Strong educational system emphasizes technical training  Benevolent management strategies include inclusion of employees in decision making and lifetime employment guarantees for some workers  A high level of investment in new and efficient industrial plants  Conservative political culture is strongly business-oriented  Despite all of these favorable factors, the Japanese miracle did not last  After peaking in the mid-1980s, Japan’s bubble economy burst Japan’s Population  Very homogeneous, with 99.5% ethnic Japanese  One of the world’s lowest birth rates, at 7 per 1,000 annually  Japan’s shrinking population will cause an increase in taxes and family obligations to meet the needs of older citizens
    • Japan’s Population Concerns
    • 7.6.18 North and South Korea Korean Peninsula is roughly the size of Minnesota  Unfortunate location in historic geopolitical terms:  Adjoins China, faces Japan across the Korea Strait, borders Russia for a short distance  China, Russia, and Japan have frequently been at odds with one another and the Koreans throughout history At end of WWII, the Soviet Union entered Pacific war as an ally of the U.S. against Japan  Both sides drew up plans to accept Japan’s surrender on the Korean peninsula  A line was arbitrarily drawn at the 38th parallel  Became unintended permanent boundary  On either side, Soviet Union and U.S. set up governments friendly to themselves  Korean War (1950-1953)  Armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, by the Chinese, the North Koreans, and the United Nations command (achieved cease fire)  Border between Koreas, called the demilitarized zone (DMZ), follows armistice line