Ch 6


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Ch 6

  1. 1. A Geographic Profile ofTHE MIDDLE EAST ANDNORTH AFRICAChapter 6
  2. 2. 6.1 Area and Population Middle East and North Africa  “Middle East” is Eurocentric  21 Countries, Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the disputed Western Sahara  Area of 5.6 million square miles  Population of 503 million people (2011)  Turkey, Iran & Egypt each have more than 70 million people  People locate where water is abundant in this arid region  Region on the whole is 62% urban  High rate of population growth across region  Many oil-rich countries of the Gulf region have more foreigners than citizens living in them
  3. 3. Middle East and North Africa
  4. 4. Comparison in Area and LatitudeMiddle East & North Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  5. 5. Population Distribution
  6. 6. Population Cartogram
  7. 7. 6.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Margins of region are oceans, seas, high mountains, and deserts  Atlantic Ocean to the west  Sahara to the south  Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the north  Hindu Kush and Baluchistan Desert to the east Land composed of arid plains and plateaus  Large areas of rugged mountains  Isolated “seas” of sand
  8. 8. 6.2.1 Region of Stark Geographic Contrasts Climate  Aridity  75 percent of region receives < 10” of annual precipitation  Higher precipitation around Mediterranean or up at elevation  Strategies of drought avoidance and drought endurance  Temperature  Large daily and seasonal ranges  Very hot days and surprisingly cool nights  Summer relocation of government in Saudi Arabia Tectonic Processes  Collision zones have resulted in mountain building  Frequent earthquakes for places like Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan
  9. 9. Climate Types
  10. 10. Biome Types
  11. 11. Great Sand Sea in Egypt
  12. 12. Land Use
  13. 13. The Treasury at Petra, Jordan
  14. 14. Pontic Mountains in Turkey
  15. 15. Jordan Rift Valley From Space
  16. 16. Taurus Mountains of Turkey
  17. 17. Solar Boat of King Cheops
  18. 18. 6.2.2 Villager, Pastoral Nomad, Urbanite Middle Eastern Ecological Trilogy  Villagers  Subsistence farmers of rural areas where dry farming or irrigation is possible  Pastoral Nomads  Desert peoples who migrate through arid lands with livestock, following rainfall and vegetation patterns  Urbanites  Inhabitants of large towns and cities, generally located near bountiful water sources
  19. 19. The Ecological Trilogy
  20. 20. 6.2.3 The Village Way of Life Historically, agricultural villagers represented the majority populations in the region  Villages located near reliable water sources with cultivable lands nearby  Production and consumption focus on a staple grain  Reliance on nomads for pastoral produce Effects of exposure to outside influence  Introduction of cash crops  Improved and expanded irrigation  Modern technology  Rural-to-Urban Migration
  21. 21. 6.2.4 The Pastoral Nomadic Way of Life Pastoral Nomadism  Emerged as offshoot of village agricultural way of life  Vertical Migration in mountainous areas  Horizontal Migration in flatter expanses  Sedentarization (settling down) is a recent trend  Nomads in region number estimated 5 to 13 million  Identified by their tribe, not be their nationality
  22. 22. 6.2.5 The Urban Way of Life  The city was the final component to emerge in the ecological trilogy  Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.E.  Egypt, 3000 B.C.E.  Medina (classic Islamic city)  High defensive wall  Congregational mosque  Administrative and educational complex  Bazaar or Suq (Commercial Zone)  Residential areas based on ethnicity, not income  Rural-to-Urban Migration  New modern urban development in oil-rich countries
  23. 23. Model of the Medina
  24. 24. Bazaar in Cairo, Egypt
  25. 25. Artificial Islands in Dubai, UAE
  26. 26. 6.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Egypt and Mesopotamia are among the world’s great culture hearths Language Families  Afro-Asiatic Family  Examples: Semitic (Arabic & Hebrew), Berber, and Bedawi  Altaic Family (Turkic)  Caucasian Family  Indo-European Family (Farsi and Kurdish)  Nilo-Saharan Family Religious Hearth  Monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity & Islam
  27. 27. Languages of the Middle East & North Africa
  28. 28. Religions of the Middle East & North Africa
  29. 29. 6.3.1 The Promised Land of the Jews Judaism  First significant monotheistic faith  Practiced today by 14 million worldwide  Torah is the Jewish holy scripture  Unlike Christianity, Jesus not seen as a savior  Ethnic, not proselytizing religion  Western Wall (“Wailing Wall” to Jews) in Jerusalem  The most sacred site in the world accessible to Jews
  30. 30. Holy Places in Jerusalem
  31. 31. 6.3.2 Christianity: Death & Resurrection in Jerusalem Christianity  Offshoot of Judaism that emerged in Palestine  Jesus Christ  Born in Bethlehem around 4 B.C.E.  His teachings denied validity of many Jewish doctrines and protesters called for his death  Jesus was put on trial, was found guilty of being a claimant to Jewish kingship, and was crucified  Christians believe Christ was resurrected from the dead two days later and ascended into heaven  Seldom has Christianity been majority religion in the land where it was born  Crusades (11th – 14th centuries)
  32. 32. Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  33. 33. 6.3.3 The Message of Islam Islam  Monotheistic faith  Dominant religion by far in Middle East & North Africa  Prophet was Muhammad, who was from Mecca  Qur’an is the holy book of Islam Five Pillars of Islam  Profession of the faith  Prayer five times daily toward Mecca  Almsgiving  Fasting during Ramadan  Hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islam’s holiest city)
  34. 34. Great Mosque in Mecca
  35. 35. 6.4 Economic Geography Oil dominates the region’s economic geography  Large reserves  Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  Aim of taking joint action to demand higher profits Other resources include:  Remittances  Earned income sent home by guest workers  Revenues from ship traffic through Suez Canal  Exports of cotton, rice, and other commercial crops
  36. 36. 6.5 Geopolitical Issues Historically, region has been a geographic crossroads Geopolitical Interests  Narrow Waterways  Access to Oil  Access to Freshwater  Terrorism
  37. 37. 6.5.1 Chokepoints Chokepoints  Strategic narrow passageways on land or sea that may be easily closed off by force or even the threat of force  Examples Links:  Suez Canal Mediterranean & Red Seas  Strait of Tiran Gulf of Aqaba & Red Sea  Strait of Hormuz Persian Gulf & Arabian Sea  Bab el-Mandeb Red Sea & Indian Ocean  Bosporus Mediterranean & Black Seas  Dardanelles Mediterranean & Black Seas  Strait of Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic Ocean
  38. 38. Chokepoints
  39. 39. History of War in the Suez Canal Zone
  40. 40. 6.5.2 Access to Oil Region’s oil is marketed primarily in western Europe and Japan American Interest in Oil  Support for Israel while courting Israel’s oil-rich enemies  Carter Doctrine  U.S. would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests (i.e., Maintaining a secure supply of Gulf oil)  Gulf War  U.S. led coalition of Western and Arab allies against Iraq  U.S. Invasion of Iraq in 2003  About weapons of mass destruction or control of oil?
  41. 41. 6.5.3 Access to Freshwater Hydropolitics  90 percent of usable freshwater in the region crosses one or more international borders  Role of water in Palestinian-Israeli conflict  Water is a critical issue blocking a peace treaty between Israel and Syria  Nile Water Agreement  Signed by 10 countries in 1926  Guaranteed Egyptian access to water  Many countries have defied the treaty in recent years  Upstream country is usually able to maximize its water use at expense of a downstream country
  42. 42. Water Developments in the Nile Basin
  43. 43. Waterfall on Tigris River in Turkey
  44. 44. 6.5.4 Terrorism Terrorists pursued by U.S. are Islamist militants Islamist Groups  Hizbullah  Hamas  Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)  Al-Qa’ida  1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania  2000 bombing of American destroyer U.S.S. Cole in Yemen  September 11, 2001 - World Trade Center attacks Tiny minority of Muslims have carried out terrorist actions that the great majority of Muslims condemned
  45. 45. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine Israel and Palestine (Arab-Israeli Conflict)  One of the world’s most intractable disputes  Primarily a conflict over ownership of land, but has far- reaching repercussions throughout the rest of the world  According to the UN, this conflict is the largest force behind global tensions  Resolution of this conflict would probably result in a more peaceful world
  46. 46. The Middle East and North Africa in 1920The victorious allies of World War I carved up the Middle East among themselves. Growing difficulties of administration would drive them from the region within a few decades.
  47. 47. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) The Arab-Israeli Conflict and Political Geography  Modern state of Israel carved from lands that have been undetermined since the end of WWI  Area was divided between British and French after defeat of Ottoman Turks in WWI  British withdrew in 1947, leaving the UN to determine the region’s future  UN responded with a 2-state solution  Arab State (Palestine)  Jewish State (Israel)  Plan was flawed, leaving each side feeling vulnerable
  48. 48. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) Israel  Declared itself into existence in May 1948  Surrounding areas mobilized vs. Israel, but were defeated  Through the defeat, Israel acquired its pre-1967 borders  Boundary separating Israel from the West Bank later became known as the ”Green Line”  Important wars between Israel and Palestine:  1948-1949 Arab-Israeli War  The Six-Day War of 1967  The 1973 Arab-Israeli War  Camp David Accords returned Sinai to Egypt  United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338:  Called on Israel to withdraw from the Occupied Territories
  49. 49. Palestinian Refugee Movements in 1948 and 1967
  50. 50. Zones of Control
  51. 51. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) On the Brink of Peace  In 2000, President Clinton attempted to broker a historic peace, to include:  The creation of an independent Palestinian country  A “land swap”  Peace talks broke down over the following issues:  The status of Palestinian refugees abroad  Control of historic city of Jerusalem, holy sites held by each side  Within weeks of the breakdown of these peace talks, the sides were again engaged in a state of war
  52. 52. 6.6.2 The Arab Spring: Beginnings The Beginning of the Arab Spring  In a city in Tunisia on December 17, 2010, a vegetable vendor named Muhammad Bouazizi was shaken down after refusing to pay a bribe to a city inspector  He was denied entry to the local governor’s office when he went to lodge a complaint  Later that day he returned to the governor’s office and set himself on fire in the street  News of his death spread quickly, and touched a nerve with Tunisia’s largely young and disaffected population  Jasmine Revolution  Tunisian President Ben Ali’s own generals turned against him, and his family was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia
  53. 53. 6.6.3 The Arab Spring: Egypt Contributing factors to revolution in Egypt:  “People overpopulation”  Youth Bulge: 60 percent of population under 25  Unemployment and Underemployment  Government repression  The wide gap between the rich and the poor Inspired by the events of the Jasmine Revolution, the people of Egypt rioted in Spring 2011  Egyptian President Mubarak fled from Cairo, but was soon imprisoned and put on trial
  54. 54. 6.6.4 The Arab Spring: Libya Libya  Had been led by Muammar Qaddafi  He favored tribes on the central coast and in the center and west  Showed no favor to tribes in the eastern region  Treated ethnic Berber tribes as second-class citizens  Inspired by the Arab Spring, the Berbers and eastern tribes rose up against him  Qaddafi was captured and executed in October 2011
  55. 55. 6.6.5 The Arab Spring: Syria Syria  A minority Shiite group (7% of population) ruled the Sunni majority (74%)  In 1982, an army assault against an uprising resulted in tens of thousands of deaths  After the January 2011 uprising began, the leaders again opted for violence  At least 7000 people have died
  56. 56. 6.6.6 The Arab Spring: Bahrain Bahrain  Small oil-rich Gulf island linked to eastern Saudi Arabia  Inspired by the Jasmine Revolution, the repressed Shiite majority expressed a desire for democracy, public participation, and justice to Sunni monarch  King Khalifa ordered government forces to crush rebellion, resulting in many casualties
  57. 57. 6.6.7 The Arab Spring: Yemen Yemen  A beautiful but poor country located on Arabian Peninsula  Loyalties are to clan and tribe, with no natural sense of cohesion as a nation state  Al-Qa’ida has a strong foothold  Widespread revolt against ruler President Saleh inspired by the Arab Spring  After surviving assassination attempt, President Saleh offered concessions to protestors and pleaded for them to stop protesting  The shabaab have ignored the president’s advice
  58. 58. 6.6.8 The Arab Spring: Hallmarks of the Revolution Revolutions were much facilitated by social networking and other social media The traditional geography of revolt in public spaces played a prominent role Women had an unprecedented strong role in the Arab Spring Traditional Islamic classification of sacred time played an important part Religion and militant Islamism did not otherwise feature prominently in the Arab Spring
  59. 59. 6.6.9 The Arab Spring: What Now? The “Arab Spring” has transitioned into an “autumn”, a period of danger and uncertainty  Concerns over what will replace the stability of the region’s repressive, autocratic regimes  Concerns over what will happen to countries yet to overthrow their governments  Divisiveness, polarization, and even violence based on major faith, minority sect, and tribal affiliations
  60. 60. 6.6.10 The Arab Spring: Involvement of the United States How much instability in this oil-rich region will the U.S. tolerate without intervention?  The U.S. has provided economic aid to countries such as Egypt and Israel for some of the following reasons:  To help maintain strategic and political interests in the Middle East  To prevent the ascendance of militant Islamists
  61. 61. 6.6.11 The Gulf Oil Region: Masdar Masdar (“The Source”)  Futuristic city being planned in Abu Dhabi  Goal of being “carbon-neutral”  Energy to be provided by renewable resources  Will be zero-waste, with everything recycled or reused  Water provided by desalinization  To be a “smart” city designed to attract scientists & visionaries  GIS has been a very important tool in planning this city  Global financial crisis has derailed construction schedule, but tentative plan is that city will be open for settlement in 2015
  62. 62. 6.6.12 The Gulf Oil Region: Iraq and the US Iraq  Known since ancient times as Mesopotamia, “the land between the rivers”  Oil-rich country, but has little coastline and poor port facilities  One reason behind wars instigated by Iraq was a desire to increase Gulf access  Gulf War I  Gulf War II
  63. 63. 6.6.13 The Gulf Oil Region: The Kurds The Kurds  A mostly Sunni Muslim people of Indo-European origin  World’s largest ethnic group without a country  Largest non-Arab minority in Iraq  Largest minority group in Turkey  Turkish officials have long treated the Kurds poorly  Kurdish Workers Party (PKK)  Largest Kurdish resistance to Turkish rule
  64. 64. 6.6.14 The Gulf Oil Region: Iran  The area of the Middle East formerly known as Persia  Tension between Iran and U.S. escalated in 2005 when Ahmadinejad became president of Iran  Historically, Iranians (Persians) are also an enemy of Arabs  Great deal of dislike between Iran and neighbors Iraq and Saudi Arabia
  65. 65. 6.6.15 Turkey Turkey  Founder Mustafa Atatürk determined to westernize Turkey, raising standard of living and making it a strong and respected national state  Only Muslim country in region to officially separate church and state  Southeast Anatolia Project  Agricultural effort to double the country’s irrigable farmland  European or Great Middle Eastern Power?  Is an “in-between” country, near line between MDCs and LDCs  Culturally between traditional Islamic and secular European ways of living, but aspires to become more European  So far, Turkey has been blocked from membership in the EU  Could seek alliances eastward in Russia, India, and China  During Arab Spring of 2011, Turkey appealed to the U.S. to recognize it, rather than Israel, as the best Middle Eastern ally