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  • 1. A Geographic Profile ofTHE MIDDLE EAST ANDNORTH AFRICAChapter 6
  • 2. 6.1 Area and Population Middle East and North Africa  “Middle East” is Eurocentric  21 Countries, Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the disputed Western Sahara  Area of 5.6 million square miles  Population of 503 million people (2011)  Turkey, Iran & Egypt each have more than 70 million people  People locate where water is abundant in this arid region  Region on the whole is 62% urban  High rate of population growth across region  Many oil-rich countries of the Gulf region have more foreigners than citizens living in them
  • 3. Middle East and North Africa
  • 4. Comparison in Area and LatitudeMiddle East & North Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  • 5. Population Distribution
  • 6. Population Cartogram
  • 7. 6.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Margins of region are oceans, seas, high mountains, and deserts  Atlantic Ocean to the west  Sahara to the south  Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the north  Hindu Kush and Baluchistan Desert to the east Land composed of arid plains and plateaus  Large areas of rugged mountains  Isolated “seas” of sand
  • 8. 6.2.1 Region of Stark Geographic Contrasts Climate  Aridity  75 percent of region receives < 10” of annual precipitation  Higher precipitation around Mediterranean or up at elevation  Strategies of drought avoidance and drought endurance  Temperature  Large daily and seasonal ranges  Very hot days and surprisingly cool nights  Summer relocation of government in Saudi Arabia Tectonic Processes  Collision zones have resulted in mountain building  Frequent earthquakes for places like Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan
  • 9. Climate Types
  • 10. Biome Types
  • 11. Great Sand Sea in Egypt
  • 12. Land Use
  • 13. The Treasury at Petra, Jordan
  • 14. Pontic Mountains in Turkey
  • 15. Jordan Rift Valley From Space
  • 16. Taurus Mountains of Turkey
  • 17. Solar Boat of King Cheops
  • 18. 6.2.2 Villager, Pastoral Nomad, Urbanite Middle Eastern Ecological Trilogy  Villagers  Subsistence farmers of rural areas where dry farming or irrigation is possible  Pastoral Nomads  Desert peoples who migrate through arid lands with livestock, following rainfall and vegetation patterns  Urbanites  Inhabitants of large towns and cities, generally located near bountiful water sources
  • 19. The Ecological Trilogy
  • 20. 6.2.3 The Village Way of Life Historically, agricultural villagers represented the majority populations in the region  Villages located near reliable water sources with cultivable lands nearby  Production and consumption focus on a staple grain  Reliance on nomads for pastoral produce Effects of exposure to outside influence  Introduction of cash crops  Improved and expanded irrigation  Modern technology  Rural-to-Urban Migration
  • 21. 6.2.4 The Pastoral Nomadic Way of Life Pastoral Nomadism  Emerged as offshoot of village agricultural way of life  Vertical Migration in mountainous areas  Horizontal Migration in flatter expanses  Sedentarization (settling down) is a recent trend  Nomads in region number estimated 5 to 13 million  Identified by their tribe, not be their nationality
  • 22. 6.2.5 The Urban Way of Life  The city was the final component to emerge in the ecological trilogy  Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.E.  Egypt, 3000 B.C.E.  Medina (classic Islamic city)  High defensive wall  Congregational mosque  Administrative and educational complex  Bazaar or Suq (Commercial Zone)  Residential areas based on ethnicity, not income  Rural-to-Urban Migration  New modern urban development in oil-rich countries
  • 23. Model of the Medina
  • 24. Bazaar in Cairo, Egypt
  • 25. Artificial Islands in Dubai, UAE
  • 26. 6.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Egypt and Mesopotamia are among the world’s great culture hearths Language Families  Afro-Asiatic Family  Examples: Semitic (Arabic & Hebrew), Berber, and Bedawi  Altaic Family (Turkic)  Caucasian Family  Indo-European Family (Farsi and Kurdish)  Nilo-Saharan Family Religious Hearth  Monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity & Islam
  • 27. Languages of the Middle East & North Africa
  • 28. Religions of the Middle East & North Africa
  • 29. 6.3.1 The Promised Land of the Jews Judaism  First significant monotheistic faith  Practiced today by 14 million worldwide  Torah is the Jewish holy scripture  Unlike Christianity, Jesus not seen as a savior  Ethnic, not proselytizing religion  Western Wall (“Wailing Wall” to Jews) in Jerusalem  The most sacred site in the world accessible to Jews
  • 30. Holy Places in Jerusalem
  • 31. 6.3.2 Christianity: Death & Resurrection in Jerusalem Christianity  Offshoot of Judaism that emerged in Palestine  Jesus Christ  Born in Bethlehem around 4 B.C.E.  His teachings denied validity of many Jewish doctrines and protesters called for his death  Jesus was put on trial, was found guilty of being a claimant to Jewish kingship, and was crucified  Christians believe Christ was resurrected from the dead two days later and ascended into heaven  Seldom has Christianity been majority religion in the land where it was born  Crusades (11th – 14th centuries)
  • 32. Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  • 33. 6.3.3 The Message of Islam Islam  Monotheistic faith  Dominant religion by far in Middle East & North Africa  Prophet was Muhammad, who was from Mecca  Qur’an is the holy book of Islam Five Pillars of Islam  Profession of the faith  Prayer five times daily toward Mecca  Almsgiving  Fasting during Ramadan  Hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islam’s holiest city)
  • 34. Great Mosque in Mecca
  • 35. 6.4 Economic Geography Oil dominates the region’s economic geography  Large reserves  Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  Aim of taking joint action to demand higher profits Other resources include:  Remittances  Earned income sent home by guest workers  Revenues from ship traffic through Suez Canal  Exports of cotton, rice, and other commercial crops
  • 36. 6.5 Geopolitical Issues Historically, region has been a geographic crossroads Geopolitical Interests  Narrow Waterways  Access to Oil  Access to Freshwater  Terrorism
  • 37. 6.5.1 Chokepoints Chokepoints  Strategic narrow passageways on land or sea that may be easily closed off by force or even the threat of force  Examples Links:  Suez Canal Mediterranean & Red Seas  Strait of Tiran Gulf of Aqaba & Red Sea  Strait of Hormuz Persian Gulf & Arabian Sea  Bab el-Mandeb Red Sea & Indian Ocean  Bosporus Mediterranean & Black Seas  Dardanelles Mediterranean & Black Seas  Strait of Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic Ocean
  • 38. Chokepoints
  • 39. History of War in the Suez Canal Zone
  • 40. 6.5.2 Access to Oil Region’s oil is marketed primarily in western Europe and Japan American Interest in Oil  Support for Israel while courting Israel’s oil-rich enemies  Carter Doctrine  U.S. would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests (i.e., Maintaining a secure supply of Gulf oil)  Gulf War  U.S. led coalition of Western and Arab allies against Iraq  U.S. Invasion of Iraq in 2003  About weapons of mass destruction or control of oil?
  • 41. 6.5.3 Access to Freshwater Hydropolitics  90 percent of usable freshwater in the region crosses one or more international borders  Role of water in Palestinian-Israeli conflict  Water is a critical issue blocking a peace treaty between Israel and Syria  Nile Water Agreement  Signed by 10 countries in 1926  Guaranteed Egyptian access to water  Many countries have defied the treaty in recent years  Upstream country is usually able to maximize its water use at expense of a downstream country
  • 42. Water Developments in the Nile Basin
  • 43. Waterfall on Tigris River in Turkey
  • 44. 6.5.4 Terrorism Terrorists pursued by U.S. are Islamist militants Islamist Groups  Hizbullah  Hamas  Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)  Al-Qa’ida  1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania  2000 bombing of American destroyer U.S.S. Cole in Yemen  September 11, 2001 - World Trade Center attacks Tiny minority of Muslims have carried out terrorist actions that the great majority of Muslims condemned
  • 45. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine Israel and Palestine (Arab-Israeli Conflict)  One of the world’s most intractable disputes  Primarily a conflict over ownership of land, but has far- reaching repercussions throughout the rest of the world  According to the UN, this conflict is the largest force behind global tensions  Resolution of this conflict would probably result in a more peaceful world
  • 46. The Middle East and North Africa in 1920The victorious allies of World War I carved up the Middle East among themselves. Growing difficulties of administration would drive them from the region within a few decades.
  • 47. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) The Arab-Israeli Conflict and Political Geography  Modern state of Israel carved from lands that have been undetermined since the end of WWI  Area was divided between British and French after defeat of Ottoman Turks in WWI  British withdrew in 1947, leaving the UN to determine the region’s future  UN responded with a 2-state solution  Arab State (Palestine)  Jewish State (Israel)  Plan was flawed, leaving each side feeling vulnerable
  • 48. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) Israel  Declared itself into existence in May 1948  Surrounding areas mobilized vs. Israel, but were defeated  Through the defeat, Israel acquired its pre-1967 borders  Boundary separating Israel from the West Bank later became known as the ”Green Line”  Important wars between Israel and Palestine:  1948-1949 Arab-Israeli War  The Six-Day War of 1967  The 1973 Arab-Israeli War  Camp David Accords returned Sinai to Egypt  United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338:  Called on Israel to withdraw from the Occupied Territories
  • 49. Palestinian Refugee Movements in 1948 and 1967
  • 50. Zones of Control
  • 51. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) On the Brink of Peace  In 2000, President Clinton attempted to broker a historic peace, to include:  The creation of an independent Palestinian country  A “land swap”  Peace talks broke down over the following issues:  The status of Palestinian refugees abroad  Control of historic city of Jerusalem, holy sites held by each side  Within weeks of the breakdown of these peace talks, the sides were again engaged in a state of war
  • 52. 6.6.2 The Arab Spring: Beginnings The Beginning of the Arab Spring  In a city in Tunisia on December 17, 2010, a vegetable vendor named Muhammad Bouazizi was shaken down after refusing to pay a bribe to a city inspector  He was denied entry to the local governor’s office when he went to lodge a complaint  Later that day he returned to the governor’s office and set himself on fire in the street  News of his death spread quickly, and touched a nerve with Tunisia’s largely young and disaffected population  Jasmine Revolution  Tunisian President Ben Ali’s own generals turned against him, and his family was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia
  • 53. 6.6.3 The Arab Spring: Egypt Contributing factors to revolution in Egypt:  “People overpopulation”  Youth Bulge: 60 percent of population under 25  Unemployment and Underemployment  Government repression  The wide gap between the rich and the poor Inspired by the events of the Jasmine Revolution, the people of Egypt rioted in Spring 2011  Egyptian President Mubarak fled from Cairo, but was soon imprisoned and put on trial
  • 54. 6.6.4 The Arab Spring: Libya Libya  Had been led by Muammar Qaddafi  He favored tribes on the central coast and in the center and west  Showed no favor to tribes in the eastern region  Treated ethnic Berber tribes as second-class citizens  Inspired by the Arab Spring, the Berbers and eastern tribes rose up against him  Qaddafi was captured and executed in October 2011
  • 55. 6.6.5 The Arab Spring: Syria Syria  A minority Shiite group (7% of population) ruled the Sunni majority (74%)  In 1982, an army assault against an uprising resulted in tens of thousands of deaths  After the January 2011 uprising began, the leaders again opted for violence  At least 7000 people have died
  • 56. 6.6.6 The Arab Spring: Bahrain Bahrain  Small oil-rich Gulf island linked to eastern Saudi Arabia  Inspired by the Jasmine Revolution, the repressed Shiite majority expressed a desire for democracy, public participation, and justice to Sunni monarch  King Khalifa ordered government forces to crush rebellion, resulting in many casualties
  • 57. 6.6.7 The Arab Spring: Yemen Yemen  A beautiful but poor country located on Arabian Peninsula  Loyalties are to clan and tribe, with no natural sense of cohesion as a nation state  Al-Qa’ida has a strong foothold  Widespread revolt against ruler President Saleh inspired by the Arab Spring  After surviving assassination attempt, President Saleh offered concessions to protestors and pleaded for them to stop protesting  The shabaab have ignored the president’s advice
  • 58. 6.6.8 The Arab Spring: Hallmarks of the Revolution Revolutions were much facilitated by social networking and other social media The traditional geography of revolt in public spaces played a prominent role Women had an unprecedented strong role in the Arab Spring Traditional Islamic classification of sacred time played an important part Religion and militant Islamism did not otherwise feature prominently in the Arab Spring
  • 59. 6.6.9 The Arab Spring: What Now? The “Arab Spring” has transitioned into an “autumn”, a period of danger and uncertainty  Concerns over what will replace the stability of the region’s repressive, autocratic regimes  Concerns over what will happen to countries yet to overthrow their governments  Divisiveness, polarization, and even violence based on major faith, minority sect, and tribal affiliations
  • 60. 6.6.10 The Arab Spring: Involvement of the United States How much instability in this oil-rich region will the U.S. tolerate without intervention?  The U.S. has provided economic aid to countries such as Egypt and Israel for some of the following reasons:  To help maintain strategic and political interests in the Middle East  To prevent the ascendance of militant Islamists
  • 61. 6.6.11 The Gulf Oil Region: Masdar Masdar (“The Source”)  Futuristic city being planned in Abu Dhabi  Goal of being “carbon-neutral”  Energy to be provided by renewable resources  Will be zero-waste, with everything recycled or reused  Water provided by desalinization  To be a “smart” city designed to attract scientists & visionaries  GIS has been a very important tool in planning this city  Global financial crisis has derailed construction schedule, but tentative plan is that city will be open for settlement in 2015
  • 62. 6.6.12 The Gulf Oil Region: Iraq and the US Iraq  Known since ancient times as Mesopotamia, “the land between the rivers”  Oil-rich country, but has little coastline and poor port facilities  One reason behind wars instigated by Iraq was a desire to increase Gulf access  Gulf War I  Gulf War II
  • 63. 6.6.13 The Gulf Oil Region: The Kurds The Kurds  A mostly Sunni Muslim people of Indo-European origin  World’s largest ethnic group without a country  Largest non-Arab minority in Iraq  Largest minority group in Turkey  Turkish officials have long treated the Kurds poorly  Kurdish Workers Party (PKK)  Largest Kurdish resistance to Turkish rule
  • 64. 6.6.14 The Gulf Oil Region: Iran  The area of the Middle East formerly known as Persia  Tension between Iran and U.S. escalated in 2005 when Ahmadinejad became president of Iran  Historically, Iranians (Persians) are also an enemy of Arabs  Great deal of dislike between Iran and neighbors Iraq and Saudi Arabia
  • 65. 6.6.15 Turkey Turkey  Founder Mustafa Atatürk determined to westernize Turkey, raising standard of living and making it a strong and respected national state  Only Muslim country in region to officially separate church and state  Southeast Anatolia Project  Agricultural effort to double the country’s irrigable farmland  European or Great Middle Eastern Power?  Is an “in-between” country, near line between MDCs and LDCs  Culturally between traditional Islamic and secular European ways of living, but aspires to become more European  So far, Turkey has been blocked from membership in the EU  Could seek alliances eastward in Russia, India, and China  During Arab Spring of 2011, Turkey appealed to the U.S. to recognize it, rather than Israel, as the best Middle Eastern ally

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