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  • 1. A Geographic Profile ofEuropeChapter 4
  • 2. 4 Delineating Europe Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass  Actually an appendage or subcontinent of Eurasia Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is drawn from the Ural Mountains down to the Caucasus, which technically places the majority of the above- mentioned countries within Europe
  • 3. Political & PhysicalGeographies of Europe
  • 4. 4.1.1 Europe’s Subregions Subregions of Europe  European Core  UK, Ireland, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and the microstates of Andorra, Monaco, and Liechtenstein  Generally includes the countries with the largest populations and most important economic and political roles in Europe  Northern Europe  Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland  Southern Europe  Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Malta, and Cyprus  Eastern Europe  Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia
  • 5. 4.1.2 Small but Powerful Europe Area of Europe is half that of the U.S. “Lower 48” Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population  Population of 532 million (2007)  1 out of every 13 people in the world is a European  Population density varies widely  1,038 persons per square mile in the Netherlands  Only 8 persons per square mile in Iceland Four countries, alone, comprise half of Europe’s population  Germany 82 million  France 63 million  United Kingdom 63 million  Italy 61 million
  • 6. Population Distribution of Europe
  • 7. Population Cartogram of Europe
  • 8. 4.1.3 Belts of Energy, Industries, and Cities Greatest population densities found in 2 belts of industrialization and urbanization near historical sources of coal and hydroelectric power  North-South from the UK to Italy  East-West from UK to Poland These belts contain large cities and produce more goods and services than the rest of Europe combined Only three other areas on Earth resemble Europe’s urban-industrial belts  Eastern North America  Japan  China
  • 9. 4.1.4 Why is Europe’s Population Declining? Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates Population of Europe peaked in 1997 “Birth Dearth”  Low Birth Rates  Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children  Fertility rate below population replacement level  No European country maintaining its population through births  Europe’s population aging faster than all other world regions Strategies  Cash incentives (“baby bounties”) to parents who have multiple children  Offering welfare benefits to immigrants
  • 10. 4.1.5 Bring on the Immigrants? If birth rates remain at their current low level, the European Union will have a shortfall of 20 million workers by 2030  The EU would need 3 million migrants per year to prevent this Historically, governments were reluctant to impose harsh measures that would restrict migration, but this is changing, with immigrants increasingly viewed as:  A financial burden on society  Threatening to unravel the social safety net of the European welfare state  Living outside mainstream European society instead of becoming integrated within it Immigration Statistics  1.8 million people enter EU legally each year  500,000 more people enter the EU illegally each year
  • 11. 4.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Physical Characteristics of Europe  Irregular shape  High latitude  Temperate climate  Jagged coastal outline Estuaries (tidal mouths of rivers) and harbors offer protection for shipping Much of Europe’s history has focused on seaborne trade, sea fisheries, and sea power Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous U.S., resulting in long summer days and short winter days
  • 12. Comparison of Latitude and Area: Europe vs. North America
  • 13. 4.2.1 Why Is Europe So Warm? Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude  Warm Ocean Currents  Gulf Stream  North Atlantic Drift  Westerly Winds  Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land  In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect  Winds also bring abundant moisture  Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches
  • 14. 4.2.2 Human Settlement on Europe’s Landscapes Europe’s topographic features are very diverse, and have been enriched by human associations of an eventful history  North European Plain, which extends from French-Spanish border far into Russia, contains the greater part of Europe’s cultivated land  Underlain by deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals important in the region’s industrial development  Home to many of the largest European cities  South of the North European Plain, the region is hilly and mountainous, with notable peaks including Mount Blanc (French-Italian border) and the iconic Swiss Matterhorn Glaciation  Created favorable sites for hydroelectric installations  Glacial deposition left fertile deposits on most of the North European Plain that are productively farmed today
  • 15. Matterhorn Above Zermatt Resort, Switzerland
  • 16. Maximum Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
  • 17. 4.2.3 Diversity of Climate & Vegetation Despite its relatively small size, Europe has remarkable climatic and biotic diversity  Marine West Coast  Humid Continental Short-Summer (Cold)  Humid Continental Long-Summer (Warm)  Mediterranean  Subarctic and Tundra  Undifferentiated Highland
  • 18. Climate Types of Europe
  • 19. Biomes of Europe
  • 20. Land Use in Europe
  • 21. Mediterranean Landscape in Greece
  • 22. 4.2.4 Rivers and Waterways Uses of River Systems  Transport  Water Supply  Electricity Generation  Recreation Romans used rivers for transport and today, rivers still make it possible to move cargo at low cost Dutch developed the pound lock for canals The Rhine and Danube traverse many countries and are important arteries for the flow of goods Important Seaports  London on the Thames  Antwerp on the Scheldt  Rotterdam in the delta of the Rhine  Hamburg on the Elbe
  • 23. 4.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Europe is a region marked by extraordinary cultural diversity  Many countries crowded into a relatively small land area  This richness can be experienced through a brief train ride through Europe
  • 24. 4.3.1 Linguistic & Ethnic Groups of Europe Europe emerged from prehistory as the homeland of many different peoples  Great expansion of the Greek and Celtic peoples in the first millennium B.C.E.  Europe’s Greek and Celtic languages expanded at roughly the same time, but are represented today only by remnants Major Language Families  Romance (Evolved from Latin)  Examples: Italian, French, Spanish & Portuguese  Germanic  Examples: German, English, Dutch, Danish & Swedish  Slavic  Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak & Serbian
  • 25. Languages of Europe
  • 26. 4.3.2 Europeans’ Religious Roots Dominance of Christianity  Embraced by Emperor Constantine in the 4th Century  Roman Catholic Church  Europe’s largest religious group (280 million followers)  Eastern Orthodox Church  Developed in Constantinople during Middle Ages as rival to Rome  Sects Emerging from Protestant Reformation (16th Century)  Church of England  Calvinism  Lutheran Protestantism Europe has become increasingly secularized Islam is fastest growing religion in Europe Only one million Jews in Europe today
  • 27. Religions of Europe
  • 28. 4.3.3 European Colonialism & Consequences The Silk Road was an important global trade route, connecting China and Venice The balance of world affairs started shifting to Europe with the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century The process of exploration and discovery began with Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa Explorers were the vanguards of a global European invasion that would bring the missionaries, soldiers, traders, settlers, and administrators The Columbian Exchange  Important in reshaping the world’s biogeography  The transfer of plants and animals from one place to another following Europe’s conquest of the Americas
  • 29. 4.4 Economic Geography: Awash in Cash and Talent Europe had significant material and cultural riches, which the colonial system built on to make it the world’s wealthiest region for centuries Achievements in shipbuilding, navigation, and the manufacture and handling of weapons gave Europe decided advantages Foundations of modern science primarily came out of Europe First world region to evolve from an agricultural to an industrial society
  • 30. 4.4.1 Europe Displaced By 1900, European cities created about 90% of world’s manufacturing output In 20th century, Europe’s preeminence in world trade and industry diminished to about 25% of the world’s manufacturing output. This happened for several reasons:  Warfare  Rising nationalism  Rising economic and political stature of U.S. and U.S.S.R.  A major shift in global manufacturing patterns  Dependence on outside sources of energy
  • 31. Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 1945
  • 32. 4.4.2 An Imbalance of Wealth Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe  Trend dates to at least the 1870s, when per capita incomes in the west were twice those in the east  After World War II, eastern European countries were in effect colonized by the Soviet Union  Served as vassal states that gave up human and material resources to service the motherland  Hope for Eastern Europe  Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991  Admission of eastern European countries to the EU
  • 33. 4.4.3 Living off the Land and Sea Agriculture was the original foundation of Europe’s economy and is still very important Agricultural advances after about 1500:  Introduction of new crops, such as the potato  New systems of crop rotation  Scientific advancements  Industrial cities provided growing markets for farmers  Farmers protected through tariffs or direct subsidies Fishing an important part of the European food economy  Control of fishing grounds as commercial / political objective  Overfishing of cod
  • 34. 4.4.4 Postindustrialization Europe’s Postindustrial Economy  Shift from energy-hungry, labor-costly, and polluting industries toward an economy based on services and production of high-tech goods  These industries do not employ as many people as the old manufacturing sector, so there are unemployment problems Many European nations fit model of welfare state  Use resources collected through high taxation rates to provide generous social services to citizens
  • 35. 4.4.5 The European Union Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium Most important of Europe’s supranational organizations Began as the European Economic Community, 1957 (also known as the Common Market)  France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Initially designed to secure the benefits of large-scale production by pooling resources & markets of its members  Tariffs eliminated on goods moving between member states  Restrictions on the movement of labor and capital between member states were eased  Monopolies that restricted competition were discouraged  Common set of external tariffs established to regulate imports Acquired the European Union name in 1993  By 1996, nine additional members had joined the EU
  • 36. Members of the European Union
  • 37. 4.4.6 Bring on the Euro A single European Union currency (the euro) was launched in 1999 as the centerpiece of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)  European Central Bank decides interest rates and other critical decisions Believed advantages of a common currency  Lower transaction costs  More certainty for investors  Enhanced competition  More consistent pricing  Restrain public spending, reduce debt, and tame inflation Currently 17 countries using the euro as its currency
  • 38. Eurozone: Countries that use the Euro
  • 39. 4.4.7 Europe’s “Big Bang” Ten Eastern European nations joined the EU in 2004  Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Malta, and Cyprus  Created a Mega-Europe of 450 million people and an economy valued at nearly $10 trillion Embracing the less wealthy  The most outstanding differences between the old and new EU members is in their economies, with the old EU countries having 95% of the continent’s wealth  When the big bang countries joined in 2004, the EU’s average wealth per person fell by 13 percent
  • 40. 4.5 Geopolitical Issues Europe’s geopolitical situation has changed more profoundly and violently in the past 100 years than any other world region Europe experienced two world wars that wrought unprecedented devastation  World War I (1914-1918)  World War II (1939-1945)
  • 41. 4.5.1 Postwar Europe European Union  Federation of nations similar to the United States  Largest post-war European supranational organization  Member countries united beyond the authority of any single national government and planned/controlled by a group of nations The Cold War and Its Aftermath  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  Military alliance founded in 1949 between the U.S., Canada, most European countries west of the Iron Curtain & Turkey  NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites  Cold War ended with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991  Warsaw Pact was dissolved  Nuclear arsenals of the respective alliances were reduced  Plans made to turn the path of the Iron Curtain into the European Greenbelt, a mosaic of national parks and other protected areas  NATO remains today with a membership of 28 countries
  • 42. European Membership of NATO
  • 43. 4.5.2 Welcome to Schengenland? The EU would like to move toward a situation in which there were no passport, visa, or other control issues at any internal land, sea, and airport frontiers of its member countries Schengen Agreement seeks this integration  Allows for the free circulation of people between nations that signed the agreement  Member states exercise common visa, asylum, and other policies at their external borders Truly open borders are probably still far in the future  Anti-immigrant fears  Cheap eastern labor  Terrorists
  • 44. 4.5.3 Differences Between Europeans & Americans Concept of Social Justice Provision of and Spending on Public Education Taxes on Gasoline Views on U.S. “Cultural Industries” (e.g., Hollywood films) Allowance of questions of spirituality into political debates Acceptance of Death Penalty (outlawed in EU countries) Differences on the Geopolitical Front
  • 45. 4.6 Regional Issues and Landscapes European Core  Great Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, smaller nations in British Isles, and west central portions of European mainland European Periphery  Northern Europe  Southern Europe  Eastern Europe
  • 46. 4.6.1 The European Core Properties of the European Core  Densest, most urbanized population  Most prosperous economy  Lowest unemployment  Most productive agriculture  Most conservative politics  Greatest concentration of highways and railroads  Highest levels of crowding, congestion, and pollution 1 of only 4 world regions classified as a major cluster of continuous settlement
  • 47. The British Isles
  • 48. 4.6.2 Great Britain Political Units of the United Kingdom  England  Scotland  Wales  Northern Ireland World’s Strongest Country  From defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815 to start of WWI in 1914  British Empire once covered one quarter of the Earth  Commonwealth of Nations  Voluntary association of 54 countries that nominally recognize the British monarch as its head Legacy  Much world culture has British roots  Importance of English language around the world  London as an example of a World City
  • 49. 4.6.3 Ireland Troubles and Resilience on the Emerald Isle  Irish Economy as “Celtic Tiger”  Traditionally low-ranking economy doubled in size in 1990s  Economy boosted by emergence of high-tech industries  The strong economic growth (about 7% annually) enjoyed between 1999-2007 was followed by a recession  Potato Famine of 1845-1851  10 percent of population died of starvation or disease  A greater number emigrated to North America, Australia & UK  Conflict in Northern Ireland  Officially part of the United Kingdom  British direct rule vs. Irish Republican Army (IRA)  Catholic Republicans and Protestant Unionists
  • 50. 4.6.4 France: All Roads Lead to Paris Paris as a Primate City  10.4 million in metropolitan area  Greater population than those of the next two largest cities combined (Lille – 1 million and Lyon 1.5 million)  Primate cities are rarely seen in developed countries  Can be detrimental to national development by diverting a disproportionately high share of the country’s goods, services, resources, and minds to the city and away from outlying areas  Important geographic situation on the Seine River  Largest city of mainland Europe  Leading urban tourist destination
  • 51. 4.6.5 Germany Reunification of Germany in 1990 was one of the most important geopolitical events of late twentieth century  Inequity between western and eastern Germany Europe’s Dominant Country  82 million population greater than any other country  Along with France, seen as political cornerstone of EU  Fourth-largest economy in the world  One of top three countries globally in exports of goods Concerns about Germany’s commitments  To the European community  To Atlantic alliances, such as NATO
  • 52. 4.6.6 Europe Paves the Way on Alternative Energy European Union seeks to achieve the following by 2020:  Reduce greenhouse gases to 20% below 1990 levels  Get 20% of its energy from renewable sources To achieve this, EU members will:  Promote fuel efficiency in automobiles  Encourage the use of public transportation  Use alternative energies  Wind power  Hydroelectric power  Solar power  Tidal power  Wave power  Geothermal power  Trash power
  • 53. 4.6.7 The European Periphery Properties of the European Periphery  “Rimland” of countries whose interests are tied closely to and strongly influenced by those of the core  Have less political and economic clout than core countries  Dependent on the core countries Subregions  Northern Europe  Southern Europe  Eastern Europe
  • 54. 4.6.8 Northern Europe  Norway and Iceland’s refusal to join the European Union  Fear EU fishing policies will diminish profits vital to their economies  Both countries, along with Japan, engage in whaling  Whale meat is a prized food  Claim that populations of whale species have rebounded to levels that should allow regular, limited harvesting for human consumption  Argue that growing whale populations will feed on huge amounts of commercially-important fish stocks
  • 55. 4.6.9 Southern Europe: Basque Country The Basques  Have a unique ethnicity and culture unrelated to those of their host country majorities  2.3 million Basques of Spain  300,000 Basques of France  Have often been targets of discrimination and violence  In the 1960s, Basque desire for independence led to militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Liberty)  ETA is seen as a terrorist organization by the EU and U.S.  In 2011, the ETA vowed to cease violence
  • 56. 4.6.10 Southern Europe: North vs. South in Italy Within Italy, there is a longstanding vernacular distinction between the north and south:  Northerners, in Padania, see themselves as sophisticated and cosmopolitan  Northern Italy has labor shortages  Industries are more productive and income levels are higher  Southerners, in Mezzogiorno, acknowledge agrarian roots as the source of their kinship values and enjoyment of life  Southern Italy has more unemployment
  • 57. 4.6.11 Southern Europe: North vs. South in Cyprus Mediterranean island gained independence as the Republic of Cyprus in 1960, but is divided:  Greek Cypriots  Greek Orthodox Christians  Make up about 75% of estimated population of 1 million  Turkish Cypriots  Muslims  Make up about 25% of population Buffer Zone (“Green Line”)  Sealed off the Turkish north and Greek south  Capital city of Nicosia is divided by this line  Depressed north is tied to Turkey, but the Greek sector enjoys flourishing tourism and aid from Greece, Britain, the U.S. and the United Nations
  • 58. 4.6.12 Eastern Europe Unifying features prior to end of Cold War:  Majority Slavic ethnicity  Former Communist statue  Subjugation to Soviet interests The true complexity of this region is now more apparent Eastern Europe as a Shatter Belt  A large, strategically located region composed of conflicting states caught between the conflicting interests of great powers Countries as Soviet Satellites  Local communist governments effectively controlled from Moscow
  • 59. Eastern European Shatter Belt
  • 60. 4.6.13 Principal Traits of Communism One-party dictatorial governments National economies planned and directed by organs of the state Abolition of private ownership (with some exceptions) in the fields of manufacturing, mining, transportation, commerce, and services Abolition of independent trade unions Varying degrees of socialization (state ownership) of agriculture
  • 61. 4.6.14 Balkanization Political-geographic term for fragmentation into ethnically based, contentious units that took its name from the characteristic disharmony of the Balkan region As the Iron Curtain dissolved, Yugoslavia began to fracture along ancient ethnic fault lines  Yugoslav state dissolved in 1991 Ethnic Cleansing  Forced emigration or murder of one ethnic group by another within a certain territory
  • 62. 4.6.15 The Roma The Roma (aka “Gypsies”)  At 12 million, one of Europe’s largest ethnic minorities  Romania has the highest number, about 2.5 million Originally from what is now India  Romany language similar to those spoken on Indian subcontinent An itinerant people that still often moves in caravans Poorer than the majority populations, and have higher unemployment rates Subjected to a great deal of prejudice and discrimination