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Ch 4

  1. 1. A Geographic Profile ofEuropeChapter 4
  2. 2. 4 Delineating Europe Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass  Actually an appendage or subcontinent of Eurasia Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is drawn from the Ural Mountains down to the Caucasus, which technically places the majority of the above- mentioned countries within Europe
  3. 3. Political & PhysicalGeographies of Europe
  4. 4. 4.1.1 Europe’s Subregions Subregions of Europe  European Core  UK, Ireland, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and the microstates of Andorra, Monaco, and Liechtenstein  Generally includes the countries with the largest populations and most important economic and political roles in Europe  Northern Europe  Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland  Southern Europe  Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Malta, and Cyprus  Eastern Europe  Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia
  5. 5. 4.1.2 Small but Powerful Europe Area of Europe is half that of the U.S. “Lower 48” Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population  Population of 532 million (2007)  1 out of every 13 people in the world is a European  Population density varies widely  1,038 persons per square mile in the Netherlands  Only 8 persons per square mile in Iceland Four countries, alone, comprise half of Europe’s population  Germany 82 million  France 63 million  United Kingdom 63 million  Italy 61 million
  6. 6. Population Distribution of Europe
  7. 7. Population Cartogram of Europe
  8. 8. 4.1.3 Belts of Energy, Industries, and Cities Greatest population densities found in 2 belts of industrialization and urbanization near historical sources of coal and hydroelectric power  North-South from the UK to Italy  East-West from UK to Poland These belts contain large cities and produce more goods and services than the rest of Europe combined Only three other areas on Earth resemble Europe’s urban-industrial belts  Eastern North America  Japan  China
  9. 9. 4.1.4 Why is Europe’s Population Declining? Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates Population of Europe peaked in 1997 “Birth Dearth”  Low Birth Rates  Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children  Fertility rate below population replacement level  No European country maintaining its population through births  Europe’s population aging faster than all other world regions Strategies  Cash incentives (“baby bounties”) to parents who have multiple children  Offering welfare benefits to immigrants
  10. 10. 4.1.5 Bring on the Immigrants? If birth rates remain at their current low level, the European Union will have a shortfall of 20 million workers by 2030  The EU would need 3 million migrants per year to prevent this Historically, governments were reluctant to impose harsh measures that would restrict migration, but this is changing, with immigrants increasingly viewed as:  A financial burden on society  Threatening to unravel the social safety net of the European welfare state  Living outside mainstream European society instead of becoming integrated within it Immigration Statistics  1.8 million people enter EU legally each year  500,000 more people enter the EU illegally each year
  11. 11. 4.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Physical Characteristics of Europe  Irregular shape  High latitude  Temperate climate  Jagged coastal outline Estuaries (tidal mouths of rivers) and harbors offer protection for shipping Much of Europe’s history has focused on seaborne trade, sea fisheries, and sea power Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous U.S., resulting in long summer days and short winter days
  12. 12. Comparison of Latitude and Area: Europe vs. North America
  13. 13. 4.2.1 Why Is Europe So Warm? Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude  Warm Ocean Currents  Gulf Stream  North Atlantic Drift  Westerly Winds  Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land  In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect  Winds also bring abundant moisture  Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches
  14. 14. 4.2.2 Human Settlement on Europe’s Landscapes Europe’s topographic features are very diverse, and have been enriched by human associations of an eventful history  North European Plain, which extends from French-Spanish border far into Russia, contains the greater part of Europe’s cultivated land  Underlain by deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals important in the region’s industrial development  Home to many of the largest European cities  South of the North European Plain, the region is hilly and mountainous, with notable peaks including Mount Blanc (French-Italian border) and the iconic Swiss Matterhorn Glaciation  Created favorable sites for hydroelectric installations  Glacial deposition left fertile deposits on most of the North European Plain that are productively farmed today
  15. 15. Matterhorn Above Zermatt Resort, Switzerland
  16. 16. Maximum Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
  17. 17. 4.2.3 Diversity of Climate & Vegetation Despite its relatively small size, Europe has remarkable climatic and biotic diversity  Marine West Coast  Humid Continental Short-Summer (Cold)  Humid Continental Long-Summer (Warm)  Mediterranean  Subarctic and Tundra  Undifferentiated Highland
  18. 18. Climate Types of Europe
  19. 19. Biomes of Europe
  20. 20. Land Use in Europe
  21. 21. Mediterranean Landscape in Greece
  22. 22. 4.2.4 Rivers and Waterways Uses of River Systems  Transport  Water Supply  Electricity Generation  Recreation Romans used rivers for transport and today, rivers still make it possible to move cargo at low cost Dutch developed the pound lock for canals The Rhine and Danube traverse many countries and are important arteries for the flow of goods Important Seaports  London on the Thames  Antwerp on the Scheldt  Rotterdam in the delta of the Rhine  Hamburg on the Elbe
  23. 23. 4.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Europe is a region marked by extraordinary cultural diversity  Many countries crowded into a relatively small land area  This richness can be experienced through a brief train ride through Europe
  24. 24. 4.3.1 Linguistic & Ethnic Groups of Europe Europe emerged from prehistory as the homeland of many different peoples  Great expansion of the Greek and Celtic peoples in the first millennium B.C.E.  Europe’s Greek and Celtic languages expanded at roughly the same time, but are represented today only by remnants Major Language Families  Romance (Evolved from Latin)  Examples: Italian, French, Spanish & Portuguese  Germanic  Examples: German, English, Dutch, Danish & Swedish  Slavic  Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak & Serbian
  25. 25. Languages of Europe
  26. 26. 4.3.2 Europeans’ Religious Roots Dominance of Christianity  Embraced by Emperor Constantine in the 4th Century  Roman Catholic Church  Europe’s largest religious group (280 million followers)  Eastern Orthodox Church  Developed in Constantinople during Middle Ages as rival to Rome  Sects Emerging from Protestant Reformation (16th Century)  Church of England  Calvinism  Lutheran Protestantism Europe has become increasingly secularized Islam is fastest growing religion in Europe Only one million Jews in Europe today
  27. 27. Religions of Europe
  28. 28. 4.3.3 European Colonialism & Consequences The Silk Road was an important global trade route, connecting China and Venice The balance of world affairs started shifting to Europe with the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century The process of exploration and discovery began with Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa Explorers were the vanguards of a global European invasion that would bring the missionaries, soldiers, traders, settlers, and administrators The Columbian Exchange  Important in reshaping the world’s biogeography  The transfer of plants and animals from one place to another following Europe’s conquest of the Americas
  29. 29. 4.4 Economic Geography: Awash in Cash and Talent Europe had significant material and cultural riches, which the colonial system built on to make it the world’s wealthiest region for centuries Achievements in shipbuilding, navigation, and the manufacture and handling of weapons gave Europe decided advantages Foundations of modern science primarily came out of Europe First world region to evolve from an agricultural to an industrial society
  30. 30. 4.4.1 Europe Displaced By 1900, European cities created about 90% of world’s manufacturing output In 20th century, Europe’s preeminence in world trade and industry diminished to about 25% of the world’s manufacturing output. This happened for several reasons:  Warfare  Rising nationalism  Rising economic and political stature of U.S. and U.S.S.R.  A major shift in global manufacturing patterns  Dependence on outside sources of energy
  31. 31. Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 1945
  32. 32. 4.4.2 An Imbalance of Wealth Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe  Trend dates to at least the 1870s, when per capita incomes in the west were twice those in the east  After World War II, eastern European countries were in effect colonized by the Soviet Union  Served as vassal states that gave up human and material resources to service the motherland  Hope for Eastern Europe  Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991  Admission of eastern European countries to the EU
  33. 33. 4.4.3 Living off the Land and Sea Agriculture was the original foundation of Europe’s economy and is still very important Agricultural advances after about 1500:  Introduction of new crops, such as the potato  New systems of crop rotation  Scientific advancements  Industrial cities provided growing markets for farmers  Farmers protected through tariffs or direct subsidies Fishing an important part of the European food economy  Control of fishing grounds as commercial / political objective  Overfishing of cod
  34. 34. 4.4.4 Postindustrialization Europe’s Postindustrial Economy  Shift from energy-hungry, labor-costly, and polluting industries toward an economy based on services and production of high-tech goods  These industries do not employ as many people as the old manufacturing sector, so there are unemployment problems Many European nations fit model of welfare state  Use resources collected through high taxation rates to provide generous social services to citizens
  35. 35. 4.4.5 The European Union Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium Most important of Europe’s supranational organizations Began as the European Economic Community, 1957 (also known as the Common Market)  France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Initially designed to secure the benefits of large-scale production by pooling resources & markets of its members  Tariffs eliminated on goods moving between member states  Restrictions on the movement of labor and capital between member states were eased  Monopolies that restricted competition were discouraged  Common set of external tariffs established to regulate imports Acquired the European Union name in 1993  By 1996, nine additional members had joined the EU
  36. 36. Members of the European Union
  37. 37. 4.4.6 Bring on the Euro A single European Union currency (the euro) was launched in 1999 as the centerpiece of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)  European Central Bank decides interest rates and other critical decisions Believed advantages of a common currency  Lower transaction costs  More certainty for investors  Enhanced competition  More consistent pricing  Restrain public spending, reduce debt, and tame inflation Currently 17 countries using the euro as its currency
  38. 38. Eurozone: Countries that use the Euro
  39. 39. 4.4.7 Europe’s “Big Bang” Ten Eastern European nations joined the EU in 2004  Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Malta, and Cyprus  Created a Mega-Europe of 450 million people and an economy valued at nearly $10 trillion Embracing the less wealthy  The most outstanding differences between the old and new EU members is in their economies, with the old EU countries having 95% of the continent’s wealth  When the big bang countries joined in 2004, the EU’s average wealth per person fell by 13 percent
  40. 40. 4.5 Geopolitical Issues Europe’s geopolitical situation has changed more profoundly and violently in the past 100 years than any other world region Europe experienced two world wars that wrought unprecedented devastation  World War I (1914-1918)  World War II (1939-1945)
  41. 41. 4.5.1 Postwar Europe European Union  Federation of nations similar to the United States  Largest post-war European supranational organization  Member countries united beyond the authority of any single national government and planned/controlled by a group of nations The Cold War and Its Aftermath  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  Military alliance founded in 1949 between the U.S., Canada, most European countries west of the Iron Curtain & Turkey  NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites  Cold War ended with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991  Warsaw Pact was dissolved  Nuclear arsenals of the respective alliances were reduced  Plans made to turn the path of the Iron Curtain into the European Greenbelt, a mosaic of national parks and other protected areas  NATO remains today with a membership of 28 countries
  42. 42. European Membership of NATO
  43. 43. 4.5.2 Welcome to Schengenland? The EU would like to move toward a situation in which there were no passport, visa, or other control issues at any internal land, sea, and airport frontiers of its member countries Schengen Agreement seeks this integration  Allows for the free circulation of people between nations that signed the agreement  Member states exercise common visa, asylum, and other policies at their external borders Truly open borders are probably still far in the future  Anti-immigrant fears  Cheap eastern labor  Terrorists
  44. 44. 4.5.3 Differences Between Europeans & Americans Concept of Social Justice Provision of and Spending on Public Education Taxes on Gasoline Views on U.S. “Cultural Industries” (e.g., Hollywood films) Allowance of questions of spirituality into political debates Acceptance of Death Penalty (outlawed in EU countries) Differences on the Geopolitical Front
  45. 45. 4.6 Regional Issues and Landscapes European Core  Great Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, smaller nations in British Isles, and west central portions of European mainland European Periphery  Northern Europe  Southern Europe  Eastern Europe
  46. 46. 4.6.1 The European Core Properties of the European Core  Densest, most urbanized population  Most prosperous economy  Lowest unemployment  Most productive agriculture  Most conservative politics  Greatest concentration of highways and railroads  Highest levels of crowding, congestion, and pollution 1 of only 4 world regions classified as a major cluster of continuous settlement
  47. 47. The British Isles
  48. 48. 4.6.2 Great Britain Political Units of the United Kingdom  England  Scotland  Wales  Northern Ireland World’s Strongest Country  From defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815 to start of WWI in 1914  British Empire once covered one quarter of the Earth  Commonwealth of Nations  Voluntary association of 54 countries that nominally recognize the British monarch as its head Legacy  Much world culture has British roots  Importance of English language around the world  London as an example of a World City
  49. 49. 4.6.3 Ireland Troubles and Resilience on the Emerald Isle  Irish Economy as “Celtic Tiger”  Traditionally low-ranking economy doubled in size in 1990s  Economy boosted by emergence of high-tech industries  The strong economic growth (about 7% annually) enjoyed between 1999-2007 was followed by a recession  Potato Famine of 1845-1851  10 percent of population died of starvation or disease  A greater number emigrated to North America, Australia & UK  Conflict in Northern Ireland  Officially part of the United Kingdom  British direct rule vs. Irish Republican Army (IRA)  Catholic Republicans and Protestant Unionists
  50. 50. 4.6.4 France: All Roads Lead to Paris Paris as a Primate City  10.4 million in metropolitan area  Greater population than those of the next two largest cities combined (Lille – 1 million and Lyon 1.5 million)  Primate cities are rarely seen in developed countries  Can be detrimental to national development by diverting a disproportionately high share of the country’s goods, services, resources, and minds to the city and away from outlying areas  Important geographic situation on the Seine River  Largest city of mainland Europe  Leading urban tourist destination
  51. 51. 4.6.5 Germany Reunification of Germany in 1990 was one of the most important geopolitical events of late twentieth century  Inequity between western and eastern Germany Europe’s Dominant Country  82 million population greater than any other country  Along with France, seen as political cornerstone of EU  Fourth-largest economy in the world  One of top three countries globally in exports of goods Concerns about Germany’s commitments  To the European community  To Atlantic alliances, such as NATO
  52. 52. 4.6.6 Europe Paves the Way on Alternative Energy European Union seeks to achieve the following by 2020:  Reduce greenhouse gases to 20% below 1990 levels  Get 20% of its energy from renewable sources To achieve this, EU members will:  Promote fuel efficiency in automobiles  Encourage the use of public transportation  Use alternative energies  Wind power  Hydroelectric power  Solar power  Tidal power  Wave power  Geothermal power  Trash power
  53. 53. 4.6.7 The European Periphery Properties of the European Periphery  “Rimland” of countries whose interests are tied closely to and strongly influenced by those of the core  Have less political and economic clout than core countries  Dependent on the core countries Subregions  Northern Europe  Southern Europe  Eastern Europe
  54. 54. 4.6.8 Northern Europe  Norway and Iceland’s refusal to join the European Union  Fear EU fishing policies will diminish profits vital to their economies  Both countries, along with Japan, engage in whaling  Whale meat is a prized food  Claim that populations of whale species have rebounded to levels that should allow regular, limited harvesting for human consumption  Argue that growing whale populations will feed on huge amounts of commercially-important fish stocks
  55. 55. 4.6.9 Southern Europe: Basque Country The Basques  Have a unique ethnicity and culture unrelated to those of their host country majorities  2.3 million Basques of Spain  300,000 Basques of France  Have often been targets of discrimination and violence  In the 1960s, Basque desire for independence led to militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Liberty)  ETA is seen as a terrorist organization by the EU and U.S.  In 2011, the ETA vowed to cease violence
  56. 56. 4.6.10 Southern Europe: North vs. South in Italy Within Italy, there is a longstanding vernacular distinction between the north and south:  Northerners, in Padania, see themselves as sophisticated and cosmopolitan  Northern Italy has labor shortages  Industries are more productive and income levels are higher  Southerners, in Mezzogiorno, acknowledge agrarian roots as the source of their kinship values and enjoyment of life  Southern Italy has more unemployment
  57. 57. 4.6.11 Southern Europe: North vs. South in Cyprus Mediterranean island gained independence as the Republic of Cyprus in 1960, but is divided:  Greek Cypriots  Greek Orthodox Christians  Make up about 75% of estimated population of 1 million  Turkish Cypriots  Muslims  Make up about 25% of population Buffer Zone (“Green Line”)  Sealed off the Turkish north and Greek south  Capital city of Nicosia is divided by this line  Depressed north is tied to Turkey, but the Greek sector enjoys flourishing tourism and aid from Greece, Britain, the U.S. and the United Nations
  58. 58. 4.6.12 Eastern Europe Unifying features prior to end of Cold War:  Majority Slavic ethnicity  Former Communist statue  Subjugation to Soviet interests The true complexity of this region is now more apparent Eastern Europe as a Shatter Belt  A large, strategically located region composed of conflicting states caught between the conflicting interests of great powers Countries as Soviet Satellites  Local communist governments effectively controlled from Moscow
  59. 59. Eastern European Shatter Belt
  60. 60. 4.6.13 Principal Traits of Communism One-party dictatorial governments National economies planned and directed by organs of the state Abolition of private ownership (with some exceptions) in the fields of manufacturing, mining, transportation, commerce, and services Abolition of independent trade unions Varying degrees of socialization (state ownership) of agriculture
  61. 61. 4.6.14 Balkanization Political-geographic term for fragmentation into ethnically based, contentious units that took its name from the characteristic disharmony of the Balkan region As the Iron Curtain dissolved, Yugoslavia began to fracture along ancient ethnic fault lines  Yugoslav state dissolved in 1991 Ethnic Cleansing  Forced emigration or murder of one ethnic group by another within a certain territory
  62. 62. 4.6.15 The Roma The Roma (aka “Gypsies”)  At 12 million, one of Europe’s largest ethnic minorities  Romania has the highest number, about 2.5 million Originally from what is now India  Romany language similar to those spoken on Indian subcontinent An itinerant people that still often moves in caravans Poorer than the majority populations, and have higher unemployment rates Subjected to a great deal of prejudice and discrimination