A Geographic Profile ofLATIN AMERICAChapter 10
10.1 Area and Population   Extent of Latin America       From Mexico south to Argentina and Chile,        together with ...
Principal Features of Latin America
Comparison in Area and Latitude   Latin America vs. Conterminous U.S.
Population Distribution of Latin America
Population Cartogram of Latin America
10.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations   Climates and Vegetation   Elevation and Land Use   Natural Hazards in Lat...
10.2.1 Climates and Vegetation   Extraordinary climatic and biotic diversity, both    within the region and even within s...
Climates of Latin America
Biomes of Latin America
10.2.2 Elevation and Land Use   Altitudinal Zonation       Terra caliente     (Hot Country)       Tierra templada    (C...
Altitudinal Zonation
Land Use in Latin America
Coffee Crop in Tierra Templada of Mexico
Tierra Fria in Andean South America
Páramo at 12,000 Feet in Colombian Andes
10.2.3 Natural Hazards in Latin America   Adjoins a large section of the Pacific Ring of Fire           Violent history ...
Climatic Impacts    of El Niño
10.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies   Unfortunate that this region came to be known as    Latin America, as there were...
Native American Groups and Civilizations
10.3.1 Civilizations Predating European Arrival   Maya   Teotihuacános   Aztecs   Tarascan   Inca   Nazca   Chibcha
Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun
Inca’s Machu Picchu in Peru
10.3.2 Languages in Latin America   Indigenous Language Families    (Mexico and Central America)       Hokan-Siouan    ...
Languages of Latin America
10.3.3 The European Conquest   The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked the    beginning of profound changes in...
Corn in Oaxaca, Mexico
Zócalo (Plaza) of Mexico City
Cave Offering of Q’eqchi’ Maya in Guatemala
10.3.4       Ethnicity in Latin America   Majority of Latin Americans are of mixed heritage   In addition to the Native ...
Many Faces of Latin AmericaEuropean                                 BlackMestizo                                  Mulatto
10.4 Economic Geography   Latin America is generally a region of LDCs       People do not enjoy a high standard of livin...
Shantytown of Belen in Iquitos, Peru
10.4.1 Commercial Agriculture   In many countries, more than half of all export    revenue is still derived from farm pro...
10.4.2 Types of Farms   Farms are classified by size and system of production       Latifundia         Large estates wi...
Henequen Plants on Plantation in Yucatan
Corn Vendor in Oaxaca, Mexico
10.4.3 Minerals and Mining   Latin America is a large-scale producer of a small    number of key minerals       Few nati...
10.4.4 Free Trade Agreements   Many countries have formed or joined free-trade agreements,    trying to reduce their depe...
Economic Associations of Latin America
10.4.5 Sending Money Home   Immigrant Workers       Remittances         Earned savings sent home by people working abro...
10.4.6 Tourism in Latin America   Tourism has become a major regional economic asset,    generating critical foreign exch...
10.5 Geopolitical Issues   The U.S. has staked its geostrategic claim to the region     Monroe Doctrine (1823)     Roos...
10.5.1 The Panama Canal   Built between 1904 and 1914 by American contractors     Intended to serve U.S. commercial and ...
Panama Canal Saves Distance, Time & Money
10.6.1 Middle America: Mexico   Largest, most complex, and most influential country in Middle America   Most populated c...
10.6.2 Central America: Panama Canal   The narrow Isthmus of Panama separates Pacific    and Atlantic oceans by only 50 m...
10.6.3 South America: Venezuela   Venezuela’s Petroleum Politics       Blessed with large oil resources in the        co...
10.6.4 South America: Colombia   Colombia has had an outstanding    reversal of fortune in recent years   They have abun...
10.6.5 South America: Brazil   Brazil is the largest Latin American country both in terms of area    (3.3 million square ...
10.6.6 South America: The Amazon   The Amazon Basin       Amazon River handles more volume than any other river in world...
The Amazon Basin                                          A view from the MIDDLE of the Amazon                            ...
Ch 10
Ch 10
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ch 10

335

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
335
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch 10

  1. 1. A Geographic Profile ofLATIN AMERICAChapter 10
  2. 2. 10.1 Area and Population Extent of Latin America  From Mexico south to Argentina and Chile, together with the islands of the Caribbean Sea  Comprised of 38 countries  Spans more than 85° of latitude and 82° of longitude Subregions  Middle America  South America Population of 596 million people (2011)  Distributed mainly across “rimland” and “highland”  Region is 76% urban
  3. 3. Principal Features of Latin America
  4. 4. Comparison in Area and Latitude Latin America vs. Conterminous U.S.
  5. 5. Population Distribution of Latin America
  6. 6. Population Cartogram of Latin America
  7. 7. 10.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Climates and Vegetation Elevation and Land Use Natural Hazards in Latin America
  8. 8. 10.2.1 Climates and Vegetation Extraordinary climatic and biotic diversity, both within the region and even within some countries  Tropical Rain Forest  Tropical Savanna  Humid Subtropical  Prairie  Mediterranean  Desert  Steppe
  9. 9. Climates of Latin America
  10. 10. Biomes of Latin America
  11. 11. 10.2.2 Elevation and Land Use Altitudinal Zonation  Terra caliente (Hot Country)  Tierra templada (Cool Country)  Tierra fría (Cold Country)  Tierra helada (Frost Country) Zonation results from the fact that air temperature decreases with elevation at a normal rate of approximately 3.6°F per 1,000 feet
  12. 12. Altitudinal Zonation
  13. 13. Land Use in Latin America
  14. 14. Coffee Crop in Tierra Templada of Mexico
  15. 15. Tierra Fria in Andean South America
  16. 16. Páramo at 12,000 Feet in Colombian Andes
  17. 17. 10.2.3 Natural Hazards in Latin America Adjoins a large section of the Pacific Ring of Fire  Violent history of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions  Largest earthquake ever recorded on earth was the 9.5 quake in 1960 off the coast of Southern Chile  It fronts two seasonal hurricane regions  Atlantic Ocean  Pacific Ocean This region is the source of the El Nino climatic pattern  Winds off the Pacific coast of Peru switch direction and blow from west to east, suppressing the upwelling of water and raising the surface temperature of the water  Responsible for global climate disruptions resulting in unusually high/low precipitation/temperatures for various places
  18. 18. Climatic Impacts of El Niño
  19. 19. 10.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Unfortunate that this region came to be known as Latin America, as there were no “Latins” among its inhabitants before the end of the 15th century When the first Europeans arrived in 1492, the region was home to an estimated 50-100 million Native Americans Emergence of Early Culture Hearths  Andes region of South America  Southern Mexico and adjacent Central America
  20. 20. Native American Groups and Civilizations
  21. 21. 10.3.1 Civilizations Predating European Arrival Maya Teotihuacános Aztecs Tarascan Inca Nazca Chibcha
  22. 22. Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun
  23. 23. Inca’s Machu Picchu in Peru
  24. 24. 10.3.2 Languages in Latin America Indigenous Language Families (Mexico and Central America)  Hokan-Siouan  Aztec-Tanoan  Oto-Manguean  Totonac  Penutian  Mayan (South America)  Quechu-Aymaran European Languages  Spanish is most prevalent European language in region  Portuguese in Brazil  Some French, Dutch, and English in Caribbean
  25. 25. Languages of Latin America
  26. 26. 10.3.3 The European Conquest The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked the beginning of profound changes in almost every aspect of life in what would become Latin America, including:  Death (Both deliberate and unintended)  European settlement patterns and development of ports  Development of agricultural districts  Increased volume of trade products shipped overseas  European-introduced horses, cattle, sheep, donkeys, wheat, sugarcane, coffee, and bananas  Labor provided by the arrival of slave ships  Discovery of gold and silver by Europeans led to opening or reopening of mines  Introduction of Catholicism
  27. 27. Corn in Oaxaca, Mexico
  28. 28. Zócalo (Plaza) of Mexico City
  29. 29. Cave Offering of Q’eqchi’ Maya in Guatemala
  30. 30. 10.3.4 Ethnicity in Latin America Majority of Latin Americans are of mixed heritage In addition to the Native Americans, there are four leading racial types:  Europeans  Blacks  Mestizos (Mixture of Spanish & Native American)  Mulattoes (Mixed African & European ancestry) Only Argentina, Uruguay & Costa Rica have significant white European ethnic groups
  31. 31. Many Faces of Latin AmericaEuropean BlackMestizo Mulatto
  32. 32. 10.4 Economic Geography Latin America is generally a region of LDCs  People do not enjoy a high standard of living  One-third of population lives in poverty Large gap between the “Haves” and “Have-Nots”  Glitter of Metropolises vs. Shantytowns (Favelas / Barrios) Benefited from global boom in commodities  Abundance of raw materials  Poverty and unemployment have diminished in recent years Heavy borrowing from international banking community Recent push to move away from commercial agriculture and raw materials toward manufactured exports
  33. 33. Shantytown of Belen in Iquitos, Peru
  34. 34. 10.4.1 Commercial Agriculture In many countries, more than half of all export revenue is still derived from farm products Overreliance on a narrow range of exports makes these countries economically vulnerable to changes in market conditions  “Banana Republics”
  35. 35. 10.4.2 Types of Farms Farms are classified by size and system of production  Latifundia  Large estates with strong commercial orientation  Also called haciendas and plantations  Minifundia  Smaller holdings with a strong subsistence component  Generally, people who lack the money to purchase large and fertile properties  Usually marginal plots, often on sharecropping basis
  36. 36. Henequen Plants on Plantation in Yucatan
  37. 37. Corn Vendor in Oaxaca, Mexico
  38. 38. 10.4.3 Minerals and Mining Latin America is a large-scale producer of a small number of key minerals  Few nations gain large revenues from exporting minerals  Chile (largest copper producer in the world)  Venezuela and Brazil (iron ore)  Venezuela was a founding member of OPEC in 1960  Some of profit from mineral production has funded significant infrastructure, including roads, power stations, water systems, schools, and hospitals
  39. 39. 10.4.4 Free Trade Agreements Many countries have formed or joined free-trade agreements, trying to reduce their dependence on raw materials and boost their exports of value-added manufactured products Free-Trade Agreements (FTAs)  NAFTA (Mexico, United States, and Canada)  Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market)  Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay  Andean Community  Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia  DR-CAFTA  Central American Common Market  CARICOM (Caribbean Community)  Plans for Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)  U.S. 1-on-1 trade agreements with Chile (2004) & Peru (2007)
  40. 40. Economic Associations of Latin America
  41. 41. 10.4.5 Sending Money Home Immigrant Workers  Remittances  Earned savings sent home by people working abroad, especially in the United States  In 2011, Latin Americans working in the U.S. sent home $61 billion  Mexico has $24 billion infused yearly from Mexican laborers in the United States  Multi-Latina Companies  Some experienced workers return to their home countries to establish companies that invest in the U.S.  Aiding the revival of certain down-trodden sectors of U.S. economy, including cement and steel mills
  42. 42. 10.4.6 Tourism in Latin America Tourism has become a major regional economic asset, generating critical foreign exchange  Only oil exports are more valuable Tourism revenues reflect distance-decay relationship  Highest tourism receipts flow to Mexico, the nearest neighbor to the wealthy countries  Tourism revenues fall off for more distant destinations
  43. 43. 10.5 Geopolitical Issues The U.S. has staked its geostrategic claim to the region  Monroe Doctrine (1823)  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)  Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)  Bay of Pigs Invasion  Trading with the Enemies Act  Plan Patriot  Washington Consensus Modern U.S. Interests in Latin America  Promoting trade  Fighting drug trafficking  Guaranteeing secure access to oil
  44. 44. 10.5.1 The Panama Canal Built between 1904 and 1914 by American contractors  Intended to serve U.S. commercial and strategic interests  For many decades, the canal zone was a U.S. territory  Authority of the canal was handed over to Panama in 1999 One of the world’s most critical chokepoints  50-mile shortcut between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans  Saves about 20 days and 7,800 miles on a voyage between New York City and San Francisco  14,000 ships per year traveling along 80 shipping routes  5% of the world’s cargo volume (16% of the U.S.’)
  45. 45. Panama Canal Saves Distance, Time & Money
  46. 46. 10.6.1 Middle America: Mexico Largest, most complex, and most influential country in Middle America Most populated country where Spanish is the main language Mexico City is world’s second largest city in population with 27 million One of most urbanized countries in Middle America (78%) Ranks as world’s third most important megadiversity country Trade with the United States  Mexico is 3rd largest provider of imports to U.S. (after China & Canada)  U.S. exports more goods to Mexico than any other country but Canada  Maquiladoras are factories built by American firms just inside of Mexico  Oil is Mexico’s most important export, and 90% of it goes to the U.S., making it the second largest oil supplier to the U.S. (after Canada)
  47. 47. 10.6.2 Central America: Panama Canal The narrow Isthmus of Panama separates Pacific and Atlantic oceans by only 50 miles  Best location for transcontinental shipment routes In 1855, the Panama Canal Railway became the 1st transcontinental railway and is still in use In 1878, a French firm was granted permission to build a canal near the railroad line  This venture went bankrupt in 1889 In 1903, Panama broke away from Colombia  The U.S. struck a deal with the new government to build the canal, and it was completed in 1914. It cost $380 million and many lives were lost to disease Profile and Plan of  Thanks to growing trade, expanding ports, the Panama Canal and residential / commercial development, Panama’s economy has boomed in recent years
  48. 48. 10.6.3 South America: Venezuela Venezuela’s Petroleum Politics  Blessed with large oil resources in the coastal area around Lake Maracaibo  Oil makes up about 95% of Venezuela’s exports by value  Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez spearheaded regional quest for liberation from Spain  He also rewrote Venezuelan constitution, put friends on the supreme court, controlled media, and jailed political foes  Called his political philosophy “21st-century socialism”  Chávez used Venezuela’s oil wealth to advance his political agenda across the Western Hemisphere  Built alliances with Latin America’s leftist leaders and courted center and right governments of the region to move his way  Goal to build a coalition to counter U.S.-led free-trade efforts
  49. 49. 10.6.4 South America: Colombia Colombia has had an outstanding reversal of fortune in recent years They have abundant resources, which are under less threat from opposition forces than they were a few years ago:  Large hydropower capacity  Coalfields in Andes, the Caribbean coast, and the interior lowlands  Oil in Magdalena Valley and interior  Natural gas near Lake Maracaibo  Iron ore and reserves of nickel However, illegal cocaine and marijuana may have been its largest exports In 2002, Alvaro Uribe was elected president  He has pleased both his citizens and the U.S. Congress by cracking down on rebellion and violence fueled by the drug trade
  50. 50. 10.6.5 South America: Brazil Brazil is the largest Latin American country both in terms of area (3.3 million square miles) and population (197 million as of 2011) An increasingly important role in hemispheric and world affairs  Candidate for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council  Explosive urbanism has made São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro two of the world’s largest cities  Rise of manufacturing and diversification of export agriculture  Economy is the 10th largest in the world, and is projected to become the 4th largest by 2050  Brazil is one of the world’s major bread baskets and is the world leader in ethanol production  Strong relationship with China, sharing many exports and imports  Large natural gas and oil reserves have been found offshore and in the remote central Amazon region  Could rival those in Saudi Arabia, but are far offshore and very deep, making drilling difficult / potentially damaging to environment Latin America’s most unequal distribution of national wealth
  51. 51. 10.6.6 South America: The Amazon The Amazon Basin  Amazon River handles more volume than any other river in world  Basin covers some 2.7 million square miles  Home to world’s largest remaining expanse of tropical rain forest and some of world’s most remote populations of indigenous peoples  Its rain forest contains many species of plants and animals  Helps mitigate global warming due to excess greenhouse gas emissions Trans-Amazon Highway:  Brazil began construction in 1970s on the main line of an interoceanic highway connecting Atlantic and Peruvian coasts  Regional Initiative for the Infrastructure Integration of South America  Ecological concerns about deforestation resulting from building this road  Hardwoods from forest are harvested and sold (40% shipped abroad)  Human interference has removed 20%, or 1.6 million square miles, of the tropical rain forest cover of the Amazon Basin since the 1960s  Continued development of the rain forest threatens not only the environment, but also indigenous tribes and their cultures
  52. 52. The Amazon Basin A view from the MIDDLE of the Amazon River, more than 2,000 miles upstream from its mouth, near Iquitos , Peru. Although so far upstream, this stretch of the river is navigable by oceangoing vessels.Deforestation and RoadDevelopment in theBrazilian Amazon
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×