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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 8 (p. 199).
  • Insert Figure 8.1a
  • Insert Figure 8.1
  • Insert Figure 8.2
  • Insert Table 8.1
  • Insert Figure 8.3
  • Insert Figure 8.4 and 8.5
  • Insert Figure 8.6 (p. 206)
  • Insert Figure 8.6 (p. 207)
  • Insert Figure 8.7 and 8.8
  • Insert Figure 8.9 and 8.10
  • Insert Figure 8.11
  • Insert Figure 8.12 and 8.13
  • Insert Figure 8.14 and 8.15
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  • Insert Figure 8.20 and 8.21
  • Insert Figure 8.22 and 8.23
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  • Insert Figure 5.25
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 8: Global Climates and Climate Change Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    • 2. Climate What is the difference between weather and climate? Arctic Sea ice changes: 1977 (top) to 2007 (bottom)
    • 3. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Early Greeks (Aristotle): Torrid, Temperate, and frigid
      • Two weather variables most often used today:
        • Temperature (minimum of 30 years of data)
        • Precipitation (minimum of 30 years of data)
      • Classify Climate
        • Atmospheric elements (statistics and math) = empirical
        • Based on the cause = genetic
    • 4. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Thornthwaite System
        • Classifying based on moisture
        • Used often by soil and water resource scientists
        • Potential evapotranspiration
        • Actual evapotranspiration
    • 5. 8.1 Classifying Climates What can you suggest are the causes for the major climate changes as you follow the 40 o latitude line from west to east?
    • 6. 8.1 Classifying Climates What is the Thornthwaite climate type for coastal California?
    • 7. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Köppen System
        • Most widely used
        • Based on regional temperature and precipitation
        • Advantages:
          • Easy to measure
          • Measured most often
          • Most important
        • Disadvantages:
          • Only average monthly temp and precip.
          • Ignored winds, clouds, intensity of precip.
    • 8. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Simplified Köppen System
        • Divided into six major climate zones
          • A = Humid Tropical
          • C = humid mesothermal (mild winter)
          • D = humid microthermal (severe winter)
          • E = polar
          • BW and BS = arid and semiarid
          • H = Highland
    • 9. 8.1 Classifying Climates Simplified Köppen System
    • 10. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Tropical (A) Climate
        • High temp year round
        • Near equator
        • No winter season (average temp of coldest month above 18 o C (64.4 o F)
        • ITCZ
        • Af (tropical rainforest)
    • 11. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Tropical (A) Climate
        • Aw (dry winter tropical savanna)
        • Am (along coast with tropical monsoon)
    • 12. 8.1 Classifying Climates World Map of modified Köppen Classification System
    • 13. 8.1 Classifying Climates World Map of modified Köppen Classification System
    • 14. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Polar (E) Climate
        • No month has an average temp grater than 10 o C (50 o F)
        • EF (ice sheet): no month > 0 o C
        • ET (tundra): at least 1 month averages > 0 o C
    • 15. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Mesothermal (C) Climate
        • 1 month below average temp grater than 18 o C (64.4 o F) and 1 month below 10 o C (50 o F)
        • Csa and Csb (Mediterranean)
          • Dry summer
          • Along west coasts between 30 o and 40 o latitude
        • Cfa (humid subtropical)
          • Wet year round
          • Southeast U.S.
    • 16. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Mesothermal (C) Climate
        • Cfb and Cfc (marine west coast)
        • Wet year round
        • Summer’s cooler than Cfa
        • Along west coasts often extending up to 40 o latitude
    • 17. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Microthermal (D) Climates
        • Usually year round precip.
        • Shorter summers and colder winters than “C”
        • Found only in N. hem.
        • Dfa and Dwa (humid continental, hot summer)
        • Dfb and Dwb (humid continental, mild summer)
        • Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, and Dwd (subarctic)
    • 18. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Arid (B) Climates
        • Year round moisture deficiency
        • Precip received < potential ET
        • 15 o to 30 o latitude
        • BW (desert, annual precip. is less than half of annual potential ET)
        • BS (steppe; annual precip. is less than potential ET, but more than half)
    • 19. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Highland (H) Climates
        • Mountain barriers can increase and decrease precipitation, cloud cover, and temperature.
        • Windward – wetter
        • Temperature decreases as you increase in elevation.
    • 20. 8.1 Classifying Climates
      • Climate Regions
        • Region: similar internal characteristics distinct from other areas.
        • Transition
      • Scale of Climate
        • Microclimate
        • Topoclimates
        • Lake effect snow
        • Urban heat-island effect
    • 21. 8.2 Climates of the Past
      • Ice Ages
        • Glaciation (cold period)
        • Interglacial (warmer period)
        • Pleistocene
        • Q: Why does the ice move in various directions in difference regions of the continent?
    • 22. 8.2 Climates of the Past
      • Modern Research
        • Radiometric techniques
        • Ocean sediment
          • Calcium carbonate and shells
          • Oxygen-isotope record
        • Holocene
    • 23. 8.2 Climates of the Past
        • Q: Has the general trend of temperature on Earth been warmer or colder during the Holocene?
    • 24. 8.2 Climates of the Past
      • Methods for Revealing Climates of the Past
        • Paleoclimates
        • Oxygen-Isotope Ratio of Calcium carbonate and shells
        • Ice cores
        • Dendrochronology
        • Palynology
    • 25. 8.2 Climates of the Past
      • Methods for Revealing Climates of the Past (con’t)
        • Palynology:
          • pollen-analysis
          • A core is drilled and removed to show the layers of the sediment.
          • Organic material can be radiocarbon dated.
      • Paleoclimatologists reconstruct the climate
    • 26. 8.3 Rates of Climate Change
      • Altithermal
        • 7000 ya (years ago)
        • Warmer than today
      • What was the evidence?
        • Ice record from Antarctica and Greenland (oxygen-isotope.
        • Rapid change (few years or a decade)
        • Positive feedback system
    • 27. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Orbital Variations (Milankovitch Cycles)
        • Eccentricity:
          • 100,000 years
          • Shape of Earth’s orbit
        • Obliquity
          • 41,000 years
          • Tilt of Earth’s axis 24.5 o - 22 o
        • Precession
          • 21,000 years
          • Distance to the sun
    • 28. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Changes in Earth’s Atmosphere
        • Volcanic Activity
          • Tambora (1815, 1816)
          • Krakatoa (1883)
          • Mount Pinatubo (1991)
        • Greenhouse Gases
    • 29. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Greenhouse Gases
        • Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )
          • Blocks outgoing longwave radiation
          • CO 2 and ice sheets
          • Increasing trend (~ 380 ppm as of 2007).
        • Methane (CH 4 )
          • Very effective, however, currently very low.
        • CFC’s
        • Nitrous Oxides (N 2 O)
    • 30. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Which greenhouse gas has the longest residence time?
    • 31. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Changes in the Ocean
        • ENSO
        • Thermohaline Circulation
      • Changes in Landmasses
        • Shifting land masses (e.g. Continent over the poles)
        • New land blocking oceanic or atmospheric circulation
        • Change in albedo
    • 32. 8.4 Causes of Climate Change
      • Impact Events
        • Asteroids
        • Comets
        • Tunguska Event
        • 65 mya
        • Near Earth Objects (NEO)
    • 33. 8.5 Predicting Future Climates
      • Little Ice Age (1560-1850)
      • General Circulation Models (GCM’s)
      • Milankovitch Cycles
      • Greenhouse Gases
      • Global warming: most scientists believe that global warming is occurring.
    • 34. 8.5 Predicting Future Climates
      • Global warming
        • most scientists believe that global warming is occurring.
        • Most mountain glaciers are retreating
    • 35. 8.6 The Issue of Global Warming
      • The climate changes naturally
      • However, the vast majority of scientists content that humans are affecting our atmosphere.
      • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
        • “ very likely that emissions of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic activities have caused” … most of the observed increase in globally-averaged temperature since the mid-20 th century.
    • 36. 8.6 The Issue of Global Warming
      • On what continent has the observed temperature fluctuated the most during this time period, and which one the least?
    • 37. 8.6 The Issue of Global Warming
      • Recommendations for the Future
        • Global Scale
        • Simple things we can do that will help reduce our negative impact on Earth’s fragile environment:
          • Use car pools and mass transit
          • Drive smaller cars
          • Use more energy-efficient lighting and appliances
          • Recycle
    • 38. Physical Geography End of Chapter 8: Global Climates and Climate Change

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